rendering of the seven stages in precession which have yet to be explained.
The traditions show that one type of the under-world was the heptanomis, which had been mundane in Egypt and was made celestial in the astronomical mythology. This was likewise reproduced in the making of Amenta. Ptah is said to have designed the Nomes (Text of Shabaka, line 6). The Nomes were seven in number. The Knemmu who assisted Ptah were seven. The creations that culminated in man the speaker were seven. Also in one of the Rabbinical traditions concerning the lower and upper, or the earthly and heavenly, paradise, it is said that before his fall Adam was the heavenly dweller in a habitation which contained seven palaces or mansions. These, according to the Sohar, were afterwards rearranged to become the abodes of the blessed. This contains a fragment of the genuine legend when rightly interpreted. Adam is here considered to have been a dweller in the paradise of the celestial heptanomis. This was repeated in Amenta when the lower paradise of the solar mythos was mapped out in seven domains for Atum=Adam, as the land of promise destined for the glorified elect. It is related by Rabbi Manasseh Ben-Israel that the souls of men were created during the six days of the beginning, independently of bodies, like the first company of the Kamite gods. These were the spirits derived from the external elements that preceded the embodiment of a special soul in human form. (Nat. Genesis, vol. II, p. 282.) “True Israelites believe,” says the Rabbi, “that all the souls which have existed from the first time, and which shall be to the end of the world, were generated in six days of creation.” These are the six souls of the fish, the fowl, the beast, the reptile, and other forms of life which preceded the seventh soul of the speaker, man, or Atum=Adam. The seventh of the elemental powers, in the human shape, is described in the gnostic systems of the Ophites and Sethians when they teach that Ialdabaoth called upon the rest of the Elohim, saying, “Come, let us make man after our own image.” They also relate that Ialdabaoth in the character of elder brother as the would-be father created six sons, he himself being the first person in the group. They further declare that these are the seven mundane demons who always oppose and resist the human race, because it was on their account that their father (Ialdabaoth) was cast down to this lower world. (Irenaeus, Bk. I, ch. 30, 8.)
It is also represented in the Rabbinical writings that the souls of the Israelites had a higher origin than the souls of the Gentiles. The souls of the Goim, they say, have their origin from the external powers, the power of klippoth or the demons, whereas the souls of the Israelites are derived from the Holy Spirit. The first originated from the elemental powers that were imaged by the zootypes, and were denounced as evil spirits by the later theology. As for Atum-Ra, the father of Iu, he was the Kamite holy spirit. The souls of the idolaters were not called men, because they were born in the totemic stage of sociology and were derived from the spirits of the elements which had been imaged by the zootypes. More simply stated, they were not men only because the mode of representation was pre-anthropomorphic, and the soul of blood was not yet traced
to the maternal source, or the spirit of man to the father. In the Babylonian legends the totemic zootypes, which preceded the man derived from the soul of blood, have been confused with the beings born of the abyss as the creatures of darkness. “Then Belos the sun-god came, and the animals died, as they were not able to bear the light. Belos seeing a vast space unoccupied, though by nature fruitful, commanded one of the gods to cut off his head and to mix the blood with the earth, and from thence to form other men and animals which should be capable of bearing the light.” (Eusebius, Chron., I, 4) This in its way is a mythical creation of the man who was made from the soul of blood. In another legend a great destruction follows a rebellion called “the revolt in heaven,” which is only mentioned here for the sake of citing the statement that when the rebels were destroyed or driven out by the supreme god, “in their room he created mankind.” As we understand the gnosis, a group of six totemic powers was extant before the seventh, the soul of man, was specialized as a human soul that was incarnated in the blood of the motherhood, the first soul, so to say, that could talk. This group of six zootypes with no human figure included is widely extended over the world. As the Arunta tell us, in the Alcheringa, or Auld Lang Syne, there were no men or women, only pre-human creatures designated the Inapertwa. In the Egyptian mythos the six zootypes of Sut, Horus, Shu, Hapi, Tuamutef, and Kabhsenuf are followed and completed by the human figure in Amsta the man or Horus the child. The Arunta version comes fresh from an almost unknown world. It may have been carried there from Africa, but it is certain that the Egyptians did not derive their mysteries, mythical legends, and sign-language from the natives of Central Australia. The tradition of the Inapertwa only applied to certain totems, six in number (this will bear repeating). The preliminary pre-human creatures who were made into men and women by the Ungambikula belonged to the six following totems: Akakia, or plum tree; Inguitchika, or grass-seed; Echunpa, or large lizard; Erliwatchera, or little lizard; Atninpirichina, or Alexandra parakeet; and the Untaina, or small rat. Here are six totemic types of creatures that preceded the human voice and image. There were six groupings of elemental spirits based upon six elemental powers that were imaged by means of zootypes before ever an elemental power was imaged in the human likeness, or, as it was rendered at a later time, before the creation of man, who was seventh in a series of seven, or as the earliest human soul. Miss Kingsley gives it as the opinion of Dr. Nassau of Gaboon that the nature-spirits commonly affecting human affairs, which are believed in by the natives on the West Coast, can be classified “fairly completely” in six orders (Kingsley, M. H., Travels in West Africa). The Damaras derive from six pre-human powers by means of six descents or eundas. Six descents from superhuman powers would naturally follow for those who derived their descent from the powers, gods, or spirits that might be represented by six totemic zootypes such as the serpent, crocodile, hippopotamus, lion, hawk, and other figures of the elemental forces that preceded the human image as a primitive type of power. Afterwards the six powers would
account for six different classes of spirits recognized in the animistic interpretation of external nature according to religion in the fetishtic phase. In India there was a first form of the Aditya, six in number, who preceded the groups of seven and eight. There was also an Egyptian “mystery of the six” which has not been unveiled. The seventh of the series is the soul that was first considered to be human because it was the soul of man, the speaker, which in this phase was discreted from the totemic souls by means of language. No distinction could have been more natural.
As we have previously seen in Book IV, the Osiris deceased is reconstituted for the life hereafter by the blending of his seven souls, which correspond to the seven souls of Ra. And when he has become a spirit by the seven being put together at last in the likeness of the ka, it is said to him, “Thy perfect soul, O Nefer-Uben-f, triumphant, hath the power of speech” (Rit., ch. 149, 15). Speech was the property of the perfect soul–that is, the highest of the seven souls–which was consequently human. The Chinese also have the very ancient “six honoured ones,” or six Tsung. The Zuni Indians adored the six powers that preceded the seventh in the likeness of man. In “The Wisdom of Jesus” or the book of Ecclesiasticus there is a description of the creation of man. It is said that men “received the use of the five operations of the Lord, and in the sixth place he imparted to them understanding, and in the seventh speech” (Eccles. XVII. 5). This contains a fragment of the Egyptian wisdom. The creation of man from seven souls takes place in Amenta for the next life, with speech as the seventh constituent. In the mythological text from Memphis there is an account of Ptah’s creation, in which it is said that all the limbs moved (i.e., as parts of the pauti or company of the gods) when he uttered the word of wisdom which came forth from the tongue and worked a blessing upon all things. Speech caused (or literally became) the making of men and the creation of the gods for Ptah (Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch., vol. XXIII, pts. 4 and 5, pp. 173-4). Thus the making of man qua man is attributed to speech in this Kamite creation of man as the speaker, the same as in “The Wisdom of Jesus.” This may account for the custom, or religious rite, performed by the Hindu father, who puts his lips to the right ear of the new-born babe and mutters three times, “Speech! Speech! Speech!” This gives it a name. The previous souls were only known by totemic types and semi-human souls, not by proper names. (Kelly, Indo-European Folk-Lore, pp. 145-6.)
Hindu sages tell us that six of the seven primordial souls were born twins; the seventh alone came into existence as a single soul. This too can be read by means of the gnosis. The six souls were pre-human. That is, they were totemic souls. Now, the totemic zootype was the representative of both sexes; the male stood for the men, the female for the women. “Of those that are born together, sages have called the seventh single-born, for six are twins” (Rig-Veda, Wilson, II, 131, 132). Totemic man was born twin as represented by the zootype of both sexes. Six of these preceded the human figure, which as homo or man was born single and had to be divided into man and woman according to the mythical representation of the cutting out in the second creation by Iahu-Elohim.
(Gen. II). The twin-soul was what the Egyptian Ritual describes as the one soul in two bodies (ch. 17). One of these was male as Shu, the other female as Tefnut. This was the man or Adam of the first creation in Genesis, who was figured as both male and female (Gen. I. 27). Shu and Tefnut were born twins, he as brother, she as sister, and both under one type, that of the lion. In the same way the crocodile was female as Apt and male as Sebek. Thus a single totemic type denoted a soul that was born twin when souls were pre-human. It is the same doctrine when the Kabalists assert that in the beginning of the world souls were created by God in pairs consisting of a male and female. The twin-soul here is a product of the primary creation; the single soul belongs to the second creation. The doctrine is apparent in the first chapter of Genesis, when Adam was created in the likeness of the Elohim, and was both male and female. Whereas in the second creation (ch. II) man, or Adam, is not a twin soul; he is fashioned singly, and the woman is taken from the body of the man to form a consort for him. When the supreme power of seven was imaged in the human likeness this constituted a mythical man as the seventh in a series of seven prototypes. Thus Enoch, the seventh from Adam, is pre-eminently the man. Also, when the group of manes travel round the zodiac, in the Hindu astronomy, the seventh is a divine man or a Buddha. The seventh Buddha is always the man who is held to be divine. The seven Buddhas are often portrayed in the temples and monasteries of Tibet, where they are better known as the seven Sang-gye, meaning increase of purity, who are named: (1) He who saw through and through, (2) he who had a crest of fire, (3) the preserver of all, (4) the dissolver of the round of life, (5) golden might, (6) the guardian of light, (7) the mighty Shakya. The seventh is that pre-eminent personage known as Sakya-Muni or Gautama, whose life and history were evolved from the pre-extant mythos, like those of the Christ in the gospels—the true Buddha, who could no more become historical than the Christ of the gnosis. If Buddhism could but explicate its own origins it would become apparent that it is both natural and scientific. But the blind attempt to make the Buddha historical in one personality will place it ultimately on the same level with historical Christianity at the bottom of the ditch. The seventh Buddha that comes once in a phœnix-cycle of 500 years is the divine man, who can only be repeated as an astronomical figure—a measurer for the eternal in the cycles of time. But the manifestation of the seventh, the man of the group, has been made exoteric as an incarnation of the seventh Buddha in the human form on earth. The divine man as the seventh of a series is yet extant and operative in British folk-lore when the seventh son of a seventh son is always the great healer. The totemic soul was twin. The human soul was singly born as the soul of the man or woman. It was not as the Hebrew Adam that man was made, but as the Egyptian Atum, earlier Tum; and Tum in Egyptian means “created man.” Adam is a later rendering of the name. And this “created man” was made as Atum son of Ptah with the aid of his Ali or co-creators. It was they who created the senses of man, the breathing of the nostrils, the sight of the eyes, the hearing of the ears, the thought of the heart, and utterance by the tongue.
Man was made according to the outline of Child-Horus sketched by Ptah; the anthrotype that was to supersede the zootype. Man that is composed of seven souls, according to the doctrine, was the product of seven elements. These were recognized at first as nature-powers that were ultimately divinized as makers or creators. They had been divinized as the first company of the associate-gods before the time of Ptah, and when Kheper-Ptah, Neb-er-ter, became supreme, the seven Ali were associated with him in the work of creation, the evolution of man, and the making of the garden in Amenta. Thus man in the Egyptian mythos was a late creation, which is in agreement with the legends of the aborigines. Man was also made twice over, once as mortal on the earth, and once as the spirit-man or manes in Amenta. Hence the first and second Adam or Atum, the man of earth and the man from heaven. These will also explain the two forms of Adam in the book of Genesis (I. 27 and II. 7). The seventh of the elemental powers was the soul of blood. This was represented in the elder Horus as the soul of matter by a child that was unseeing, inarticulate, and altogether imperfect. The soul of blood as paternal source was added to the rest when Atum cut himself to produce his offspring Hu and Sau (Rit., ch. 17). In the Assyrian legend, when the head of Belos is taken off the blood that gushes out is mingled with the soil of earth or matter. “Thence men were formed. On this account it is that men are rational, and partake of divine knowledge.” That is as human beings born of the soul of blood, which in this later creation was added to the six pre-human souls of Mother-earth, when the human origin was recognized as higher than the earlier and pre-human source of soul, such as air, water, and earth. The blood now mixed with the soil of earth is the soul of blood united with the earth or matter in the märchen. The highest of the seven was but a soul descended from the mother-blood, with no immortal spark of spirit that was afterwards derived from God the Father who is Atum-Ra; but it was reckoned the superior of any soul that was previously derived from the external elements. The seventh alone was consequently given the human likeness in Child-Horus, or in Atum.
Man is created twice over in the book of Genesis. The first Adam is formed in the image of the Elohim or elemental powers. The Elohim said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness” (I. 26). In the second creation man is formed by Iahu-Elohim, who “breathed the breath of life into his nostrils and man became a living soul” (II. 7). These are the first and second Adams of Paul’s doctrine. “The first man Adam became a living soul, the last Adam a life-giving spirit. The first man is of the earth, earthy; the second man is of heaven” (I Cor. XV. 45-8). These two as Egyptian are Atum-Horus and Atum-Ra, who are identical in nature with the first and second Horus—the soul in matter and in spirit. The first man was a failure. In a gnostic version man was formed, but could not stand erect, because the seven workmen, the Ali or Elohim, were unable to inspire him with an enduring soul. He writhed and wriggled like a worm upon the ground. Then the “power above” took pity on him, seeing the creature had been fashioned in his likeness, and shot forth a spark of life which enabled him to rise erect and live. (Nat. Genesis, vol. II, p. 39.)
The seventh power in the human image can be traced in
legendary lore. For example, Apollodorus the Athenian grammarian relates that there was at one time a tradition current in heaven that the giants or Titans could only be conquered by the aid of a man; and as he wrote his work on mythology before the era called Christian, this has been taken as pointing to the incarnation of a Jewish Jesus. It was a floating fragment of old Egypt’s wisdom. In the battle with the Sebau or the rebels, and the Sut-Typhonians, the powers of evil are conquered by Horus, who was incarnated in the human form on earth as son of the woman, and who is victor in Amenta over death and darkness and typical rebels, in the person of Amsu-Horus the man in spirit—son of the god in human form. Thus the Titans or rebels, called the children of defeat, had already been conquered by the god, who became incarnate not as a man but in the form of man, from the time when Atum-Horus first assumed the human type as vehicle of the divine.
In the Egyptian mythology the great change in the mode of becoming and of representing was effected in the cult of Ptah—the change, that is, in the genesis of souls from the incorporation of totemic souls by the elemental powers to the creation of souls in the human image by the one god, Neb-er-ter. This change, which runs through all later mythology, is traceable in Egypt. Ptah is the link betwixt the elemental powers and the spirit-ancestors; the link by means of which the zootype passed into the anthrotype; the gods as Elohim into the one god, Atum, called the son of Ptah, or Iahu-Elohim in the book of Genesis. Ptah is the first one god of the Egyptian religion whose totality was compounded from the pre-existent powers. The Ali or associate-gods were now combined in him who was the one god and who comprised the group in one. The group were now the nine or the Put, and Ptah, as the all-one that was named from the Put. The Put-cycle of gods, which was summed up in Ptah the one god, as father, will explain why and how the Elohim are plural as a company called the Ali, and single as the one in whom the powers were unified called Ptah, who was the biune parent of Atum-Horus in Amenta, and the maker of man, or Atum, with the aid of the seven powers that were previously extant. The Elohim, then, we take to be a form of the Put-cycle of Ptah the opener of Amenta. As a company of associate-gods they originated in the primordial powers, which were seven in number; seven with the Great Mother; seven with Anup; seven with Taht; seven with Horus; seven with Ptah. When grouped in the Put-cycle, with Ptah and Atum-Horus added as father and son, the associate-gods are nine in number; sometimes called the ennead of Memphis, or of Annu. Thus Ptah and his Ali answer to the Phœnician Elohim, who were one as the highest El (in the singular) and plural in the group of the Elohim. Ptah was now portrayed as the author of becoming in the human form, and thence the mythical maker of man. He had been represented by the beetle and the frog as the transformer in matter. Afterwards he is imaged as the human embryo in utero, when he had become the creator of a human soul distinguished from the totemic or elemental soul, which had been common to man and beast.
Ptah is portrayed in the monuments as the creator of the seventh, or human soul. Wilkinson met with a very rare picture of the god
who is alone, and who was engaged in sketching with a pen the figure of Child-Horus. In other words, he is outlining an image of the human soul that was incarnated in the mother-blood and personalized in Horus as the child of Isis, one form of whom was Tum or Atum-Horus.
Ptah is also portrayed in the image of a male-mother. He is the earliest type of the god with a womb in whom the male and female nature were united in a biune parent who was divinized as the all-one. We learn from Joseph Thomson’s travels that when the Masai of Central Africa get married it is a native custom for the bridegroom to dress himself in women’s clothes and wear them for a month after the marriage. He is assuming the phase of parentage in the guise of the mother, and literally following suit to the female, because the maternal type and imagery of parentage are still dominant, and thus the father comes into existence, so to say, as the male-mother. The significance is the same as in the custom of couvade. The father was assuming the parentage in the likeness of both sexes. Thus Ptah, or Atum, or Osiris, presents a form of the same duality as the Australian “man with a vulva,” who in his primitive way was a twofold figure of the all-one. To recapitulate: in the Egyptian Genesis “created man” is Tum, later Atum, the original of the first man Adam. Atum was the son of the creator Ptah, the earliest biune parent divinized. The seven primordial powers had been previously recognized in nature as the offspring of the mother. Six of these were pre-human powers or souls developed from the external elements. The seventh was the earliest human soul, born of the mother-blood. This was the blind imperfect soul in matter that was imaged in Child-Horus, An-ar-ef. The soul of all the seven was matriarchal; they were the children of the mother only. Two other powers were added to make up the total in the Put-cycle or ennead of Memphis. The “double primitive essence” had been assigned to Ptah. Doctrinally this was the soul of blood derived from the maternal source, in combination with the spirit of the male. Thence came the human soul that was constituted in two halves, the soul in matter and in spirit. This biunity was first personified in Ptah as the mother and father in one divinity, and, as the biune parent, Ptah gave birth to man, or created his son Atum. In the text from Memphis the god is called “Ptah of the earth. The mother giving birth to Atum” (line 14). Here Atum=Adam has a mother, an item which is omitted from the Hebrew version. Thus Atum-Horus is the product of this biune parent; and the seven powers that contributed the seven souls or constituent parts of created man with Ptah and Atum, and the seven associate-gods compose the cycle or ennead of Annu. In this way the Put-cycle of the nine gods consisted of Ptah and his eight sons; an eighth one being added to the primary seven as the highest because he was the son of god the father, not merely the product of the mother, like the seven Ali or Elohim. That son of Ptah was Tum or Atum, born as Child-Horus, and one of Atum’s names or titles is Iu the coming son, or Iu-em-hetep, he who comes with peace. And in this Iu we propose to identify the Jewish divinity and also the name of Iah, or Iahu, distinguished from hvhv (Ihuh). The compound title Iahu-Elohim shows that Iahu
is one of the Elohistic group who was continued in a new rôle as the planter of the garden in the second of the two creations in the book of Genesis.
In the making of man by Ptah and the Ali or associate-gods, it may be said that man or Tum was created by their being converted into man, Tum, or Adam. It was they who made “the dexterity of the hands and the walking of the feet”; also they “created the sight of the eyes, the hearing of the ears, and the breathing of the nostrils.” In other words, they contributed those faculties to the creation of the human being—such faculties as the sight of the hawk (Horus), the breathing force of the panting lion (Shu), the ears of the jackal (Anup), the nose or neb of the knowing ibis, the hand of the ape, and others which had been exalted as superhuman and were now made use of in the creation of man or Atum by the Kamite Elohim. These powers in themselves were indefinitely earlier than Ptah, but in the theology of Memphis they became auxiliaries to the supreme one god, and were then held to proceed from him and to become his members and his attributes. The change is indicated when it is said of Ptah, “His associate-gods in his presence are the teeth and lips, the joints and hands of Atum, for these become the associate gods” (line 10). The same doctrinal change is apparent in the Ritual (ch. 17, 4), when it is said of the supreme one god, “It is Ra creating his members, which became those gods who are with Ra.”
Iu, the coming one, is the ever-coming son of the father who was re-born as his own son; and Iu (or Atum) with his associate-gods corresponds to Iahu-Elohim in the Hebrew Genesis, who follows the gods of the primary creation in the first chapter. Thus Ptah and his Ali are the prototypes or originals of the Elohim, in both the singular and the plural use of the word; whilst Iahu-Elohim answers to Iu and his associate-gods in the second creation. This development in the divine character may supply a rational explanation of the discrepancy concerning the name of Iahu in the first two books of the Pentateuch. It is related in Exodus (VI. 2, 3) that “Iahu spake unto Moses and said unto him, ‘I am Iahu. I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob as El-Shaddai, but by my name Iahu I was not made known to them.’” Whereas the name of Iahu had most certainly been known from the time of the second creation (Gen. II). This therefore must be a question of the nature, not merely of the name of the deity. If Iahu were one of the group of the Ali=Elohim he would be a son of the mother, one of the Baalim who preceded the fatherhood of Ihuh or Jehovah. The god who was known by the name of El was also one of the Baalim, Elohim, or Ali; the first company of the associate gods, who ruled under the matriarchate. Atum was born “Iu” as the son of Ptah at Memphis, and the same god became the father as Atum-Ra at On. The development is to be traced in the fact that the first Iu as Egyptian was only a form of god the mother’s son, whereas the later Ihuh had attained the status of the maker, as god the father, who was Atum-Ra in Egypt.
Chapter V announces that “this is the book of the generations of Adam.” In this the previous “generation of the heaven and the earth” are represented as the generations of Adam, who meanwhile had been transformed from the divine Atum of Egypt into the human
Adam of the Jewish writings, and the genuine mythos transmogrified into a spurious history. The translators of the Memphian text point out the extreme likelihood that there were two “originally independent texts” which have been artificially blended to produce a deceptive appearance of unity. This agrees with the fundamental difference betwixt the Elohistic and Jehovistic versions in the book of Genesis, those of the Elohim and Iahu-Elohim, in which two accounts of the creation have been run into one. It is plainly apparent in the book of Genesis that two originally independent legends of creation have been imperfectly welded together to give an appearance of unity. This is proved by the two different beginnings in which the heaven and earth are formed, and man is made twice over. The first chapter contains the generations of the heaven and the earth when these were created by the Elohim. The second contains the generations of the heaven and the earth when they were created in the day that earth and heaven were made by Iahu-Elohim. As Egyptian, these were (1) the Ali, or associate-gods with Neb-er-ter or Kheper-Ptah; and (2) Iu the son of God, who became the one god of both the Egyptians and the Jews, who, as we shall show, were the worshippers of Iu=Iahu.
The man created by the Elohim, or Ali, was totemic man, like the legendary Adam with the tail of an ape, a lion, or other zootype. It was thus the elemental powers were represented: Sut by the hippopotamus; Sebek by the crocodile; Atum by the lion; Iu by the ass; Seb by the goose; Taht by the Ibis; Anup by the jackal; Kabhsenuf by the hawk, in whose likenesses totemic men were imaged. This first man was the Adam, who failed and fell from lack of the vitalizing spark of the individual fatherhood; the man who was only born of the group in communal marriage under the matriarchate. These totemic forbears of man may also account for a Rabbinical tradition in which it is related that previous to the creation of Eve the man Adam entered into sexual intercourse with the animals. Which is doubtless an ignorant misinterpretation of the totemic status of man and animals made by theologians who were ignorant of totemic sign-language. Some of the Rabbins asserted that the first man, Adam, was created in the Garden of Eden with a tail like that of an ourang-outang. His tail was afterwards cut off to improve his appearance. The legend contains a fragment of the mythos which has been reduced to the status of Jewish märchen. This may furnish another link betwixt the Hebrew Adam and the Egyptian Atum, as the fiery-spirited ape was a type of Atum, the solar god of the garden in Amenta.
The pre-existent superhuman powers or associate-gods contributed all that they had previously attained for themselves to constitute the higher type of god as father. Atum was born as Horus or Iu, child of the mother, and afterwards developed into Atum-Ra as god the father. Hence he became the maker or creator of gods and men as the begetter, who succeeded the transformer Kheper-Ptah. The seven primordial powers had been recognized and divinized as offspring of the old First Mother. The Great Mother was combined with the male in Ptah. Atum, or “created man,” was formed by Ptah as an evolution from the seven elemental
powers. These became the seven souls of Atum-Ra, otherwise called the seven souls of man; the seven as elements or powers that went to the making of the manes in Amenta, or the human being when the rendering was literalized. Thus the evolution of man, according to the Egyptian wisdom, was from seven powers of the elements, on which a doctrine of the seven souls was founded. Six of these had been pre-human souls. The seventh alone attained the human type and status, whether as Child-Horus or the man as Atum the first father. These souls of life had been identified and divinized in the mythology: the soul of water as the fish of Sebek, the breathing force as the lion of Shu, the “creeping thing” of earth as the beetle of Kheper-Ptah. Such was the creation of man according to the Egyptian wisdom. The seven elemental powers then furnished his seven constituent parts, or seven souls, as co-workers with Ptah, and merged themselves in Atum or were absorbed in created man. In the second chapter of Genesis the god Iahu succeeds the Elohim. As an Egyptian deity Iu=Iahu was the son of Ptah. The oneness of the father and son, with the son as representative of the father, is a doctrine that was founded in the cult of Ptah at Memphis and perpetuated in the religion of Atum-Ra at Annu. It is Atum who says he is both the closer and the opener, and he is but one (Rit., ch. 17). And it is the father, whether as Ptah or Atum, who comes into being as his own son. Also, when Osiris has been mutilated by the murderer Sut he is reconstituted by Horus, and the father lives again in and as the son. It was by his ever-coming and continual rebirth that the son brought life and immortality or continuity to light as demonstrator in phenomena on behalf of god the father.
The earliest Egyptian type of a creator is the moulder or potter. The god Khnum, for example, is depicted as the potter in the act of forming man from the matter of earth. Ptah, sometimes called the son of Khnum, is likewise the divine potter. He is portrayed at Philæ in the act of heaping plastic clay upon the potter’s table from which he is about to form the image of man, which he had sketched in the likeness of Child-Horus. Previously the goddesses and gods were shaped in the likenesses of zootypes. Khnum himself was ram-headed; Kheper, the former, was beetle-headed. Up to the time of Ptah, or Bes, the Negroid pygmy, the human likeness was not given to any god; and his son Atum-Horus is the earliest divinity in perfect human form. Now, as Egyptian Atum is the original of the Hebrew Adam, it follows that we are witnessing the creation of Adam from the earth in a mythical representation, when Ptah, the potter, shapes the archetypal man as his son Atum from a lump of plastic clay.
We are also witnessing the creation of man, or of Tum, the son of Ptah, in the human likeness, when “the associate-gods as the Ali or Elohim created the sight of the eyes and the hearing of the ears, the breathing of the nostrils, and sent up that which gave pleasure to the father.” That is to Ptah, who is the father of Tum in this creation of man by the Put-cycle of the primordial powers, which corresponds to the first creation of Adam by the Elohim in the first chapter of the Hebrew Genesis. “Then was ordained the utterance of every decision of the tongue, which repeats the deliberation of the heart.”
“Now the creation of the gods,” that is to say “of Tum and his associate-gods, was when proclamation was made of all the divine names in his wisdom.” “The associate-gods in his presence are as the teeth and lips, the joints and hands of Tum, for these become the associate-gods,” or the associate-gods become the members and powers of Tum, Atum or Adam the created man, who was formed in the likeness of Iahu-Elohim. We are told in the texts that “men are mortal since the time of Ra,” that is since the time when a father in heaven or in Amenta was depicted in the image of man instead of being represented by some pre-human and totemic type. This was Atum. Atum in the solar mythos was Ra in his first sovereignty, and Atum=Hebrew Adam was primordial man. Otherwise stated, Atum was the first god delineated in the form of man. Hence men are mortal or human since the time of Atum-Ra (Rit., ch. 17). Previously they might be imaged as beetles and frogs in the time of Ptah, kaf-apes in the time of Taht, crocodiles in the time of Sebek, and hippopotami, giraffes, or black vultures in the time of Sut. This difference betwixt the animal and human types is also recognized in relation to Ra (Rit., ch. 153A) when the first creatures or beings are called “the ancestors of Ra” and “the ancestors of Seb,” and are designated “worms” to express their inferiority. They were mere reptiles in comparison with the human type. In the Hebrew Genesis, when the man as Adam was created (I. 26) he was to have dominion over all creatures of the water, air, and earth. And Atum, or Tum in the Ritual (ch. 79), is designated “the Lord of all creatures,” that is when he makes his appearance in the figure of man, who is described as being “in the form of the Lord of all creatures” (Rit., ch. 82). Atum, whom comes as the unique one god in the form of man, is hailed in the Ritual as the lord of heaven who “issues forth from the earth and createth whatever is begotten,” and “who giveth vigour to the men now living.” “I am summed up as Atum,” says the speaker (Rit., ch. 83). As Atum he exclaims, “I am a soul, and my soul is divine. It is the self-originating force.” The speaker, in the character of Atum-Ra, who makes his advent as a man, explains that the seven Uræus-divinities formed his body, but his soul is divine. It is an image of the eternal. These Uræi were a type of the seven primordial powers that were grouped and unified in one, whether as god or man. They are companions, seven in number, who became the associate-gods of Ptah in his creative work, and who were afterwards absorbed in Atum as constituents of his body, or the means of his embodiment as man.
The ascent of soul through various elemental phases of existence is alluded to in one of the “sayings of Jesus” when it is said that the fowls of the air, the beasts of the earth, and the fishes of the sea all “draw us” to the kingdom. These led the way as elemental and pre-human souls. A soul of the air was imaged by the bird; a soul of earth was imaged by the beast, or reptile; a soul of water by the fish; a soul of vegetation by the shoot or branch; and so on through the series, all of which were offspring of the Great Mother. But the highest soul was now derived from god the father as an effluence of the holy spirit. Therefore it is said, “The kingdom of heaven is within you; and whosoever shall know himself shall find it.” “Know yourselves (then), and you shall be aware that ye are sons of
the Father.” Horus in his resurrection, at his second advent, came to proclaim the father as the begetter of a spirit that should attain eternal life. He also came to personate that spirit in the likeness of the father to the manes in Amenta. Atum, the Egyptian holy spirit, was the author of that spirit by which totemic man became a living soul. With the Egyptians the soul was of both sexes. The divine being, as Ptah, Atum, or Osiris, was of a biune nature. Hence Ptah and Osiris are portrayed as the male and female in one image, and this one prototypal soul was discreted as human in the two sexes. In passing through Amenta the human soul is represented as the male accompanied by the female, the wife, sister, or some other female as supplemental to the male. This soul, divided in the two halves of sex, was united again in establishing an eternal soul. One form of the dual type is imaged by the twins, Shu and his sister Tefnut, who are blended in Tattu. They represent the soul that had been discreted in two sexes which is joined in one again to fulfil the likeness of the eternal spirit Atum-Ra, who was self-divided in the brother who wears her emblem on his head, and who is the twofold type of a dual soul now unified in one. Thus the soul that lived for ever was held to be established for eternity by the female being blended with the male. Now amongst the primitive races, African, Melanesian and others, the women will volunteer to be strangled at the funeral, or buried alive in the graves of their husbands (or the chiefs), believing it to be solely in company with the male that they can reach the realms of bliss; and the favourite wife in the abode of the blessed is held to be the one who meets her death with the greatest fortitude. That is, by the female being blended with the male in death, as Tefnut was blended with, or absorbed in, Shu.
When the human soul had been derived from the essence of the male instead of the blood of the female, the woman was naturally derived from the man, as she is in the second of the Hebrew creations described in the book of Genesis. A soul derived from Atum was dual in sex. This soul was divided into Adam and Eve, the typical two sexes of the Hebrew legend. Adam was Atum in the original mythos, and the soul derived from Atum was discreted in Adam and Eve, as the two sexes derived from the one primordial soul, which was figured first as the soul of Shu and Tefnut in the Egyptian mythos. Tefnut was not cut out of the side of Shu, but she was depicted as the hinder half of the lion with Shu as the fore-part. Atum was the lion as representative of the soul or force, and the lion was severed in two parts, head and tail, as the dual type of Shu and Tefnut, which preceded the anthropomorphic representation in Adam and Eve. So late is the Hebrew rendering compared with the Egyptian. The “self-splitting” of Atum is shown in the mutilation of his members. Hence we have made the suggestion that in the rite of sub-incision practised by the most primitive of races, like the Australian Arunta, this “self-splitting” of the male denoted the claim of the man to being the potential source of both sexes, and that, whereas the male was derived from the female under the matriarchate, it was now asserted that the woman was made from the man in a process of self-splitting illustrated by the practice of sub-incision, and by the later creation of the female from the male in the mythology. Queen
Hatshepsu claimed that the true image of the creator was formed by a combination of the mother and the male in one, which image she personated under her title of Mat-Ka-Ra, the true image of Ra, but gave pre-eminence to female nature as the bringer-forth from the beginning. The picture of the male endeavouring to take the place of the female as producer of the child is at times exceedingly pathetic. He carved the likeness of the female member on his own, as do the Arunta in their rites to-day, and masqueraded as “the man with a vulva.” He wore the woman’s garb in marriage. In the custom of couvade he went to bed to become a mother like Ptah, and to nurse the new-born little one.
In the earliest mythology the woman was dominant. Men derived their descent from the mothers. This was in the time of the first creation. In the second, when the woman was derived from the man, (even by a surgical operation), the male comes uppermost, the matriarchal woman succumbs to patriarchal man. This is glanced at obliquely in the doom pronounced upon the woman by Iahu-Elohim for “plucking the forbidden fruit.” “Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and conception; in sorrow shalt thou bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.” There is to be an end of matriarchal supremacy, and descent, as previously reckoned from the motherhood, is to be suppressed in this the second of two creations for the Adamic race. The two races of Adam are referred to by Esdras (II. VI. 55-56): “O Lord, thou madest the world for our sakes. As for the other people, which also come of Adam, thou hast said that they are nothing, but be like unto spittle.” Both were Adamic, however, but the first came from the red earth or the mother-blood only; the second were derived from the fatherhood. In the Latin version of Esdras those who are nothing are the people of the first-born world, whereas those of the second creation are called the “only-begotten.” In the mythical rendering of this twofoldness the first Horus was born but not begotten. He was the child of the mother only. The second Horus is the only begotten of the father, twice born and once begotten. In the primary phase he corresponds to the totemic people who were born under the matriarchate, those of the first-born world. In the second he is a representative of the people who are called the “only begotten” because they are the children of the fathers. The two primary castes or classes of Aryas in India, the sons of light and the children of darkness, were based upon the same original distinction betwixt those who were born of the matriarchate and those who are begotten under the divinized fatherhood. The Rabbins have retained some fragments of totemic tradition without the gnosis. It is said in the Targum of Palestine, “The Lord God created man in two formations.” This dual formation, or creation, is common to the märchen, which we are tracing to the original mythos. The first men recognizable were made of red earth, which, when interpreted, means that flesh was shapen from the mother’s blood. Then, say the Melbourne blacks, the god Pungel blew the spirit of life into the man at his navel (Nat. Gen., vol. II, pp. 34-40). The Arunta tribes likewise hold that the animistic spirit enters the navel to cause conception in their women. In the Egyptian texts it is
also said of those who derive from the mother, the Amu, the Tamehu, and the Negroes, “Sekhet has created them and she creates their souls,” the souls that were created under the matriarchate, and were only souls of blood, whereas the Ruti were derived from Ra the holy spirit. In a magical text supposed to be of Akkadian origin there is a version of the “cutting out” of the woman from the man which is a little nearer to nature than the creation of the female from a rib of the male in the Hebrew Genesis. It is said the woman was derived from the flank of the man. (Boscawen.) Scattered fragments of the ancient wisdom now identified as Kamite are often to be found in what the Christian writers ignorantly scout as the wild and foolish fables or the absurd fancies of egregious Talmudists. Here is an instance. It is related that the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall on Adam whilst he extracted something from his members which was dispersed over the globe so that the whole earth might be inhabited by his seed (Endeckt. Judenthum). This account is nearer to the original than the version given in Genesis. The creation of the human race by Atum is biological. The “double primitive essence” of life was first assigned to Ptah. This consisted of blood and protozoa, and the twin source was personalized in Atum, who as creator was an image of the male and female blended in one person. Atum is described as producing his children by spontaneous emission, and also by the drawing of blood from his members, which was a way of showing the duality of source that was made one in the primal parent thus personified in Atum or in Adam, and in the male with the image of the female cut twice over on his member, once in the ovoid figure and once in the opening by sub-incision.
According to the second Hebrew account of creation, “Iahu-Elohim formed man of the dust of the ground and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life” (Gen. II. 7), which can have no direct relationship to aught that ever did occur in this our human world, nor had it any such signification in the esoteric version of the mystery teachers. But this can be followed in the mysteries of Amenta, in which Ptah was the vivifier of the manes for the afterlife. The process of vivification was by opening the mouth of the dead and inspiring the breath of life into the nostrils. In the chapter by which the mouth of a person is opened for him in the earth of Ptah the Osiris pleads, “Let my mouth be opened by Ptah, and let the muzzles which are on my mouth be loosed by the god of the domain. Let my mouth be opened by Ptah with that instrument of steel or ba-metal wherewith he openeth the mouths of the gods and the manes.” (Renouf, Rit., ch. 23.) Breath was restored to those who had been deprived of it. In the chapter by which air is given in the nether-world it is said, “O Atum, let there come to me the air which is in thy nostrils” (chs. 54 and 56). Again, the Osiris says, “My nostrils are opened in Tattu,” the place of being permanently established; and by these ceremonies performed in mysteries man became a breathing soul after he had passed into the land of life. For it was the man who had died on earth to reappear as a sahu-mummy in Amenta whose mouth was opened and his nostrils inspired with the breath of second life derived from Atum-Iu=Iu-Elohim. Atum likewise is the giver of breath in the new life of
Amenta. He gives it to the spirit in the egg. This is a re-creation of Adam, or man, as manes in the earth of eternity, not the creation of a human being from the dust on the surface of our earth, as it has been misrendered in the Hebrew version.
The legend of the fall is not reproduced in the first account of the Hebrew creation. In this, homo had been created male and female in the likeness of the Elohim or the powers which were imaged by zootypes. The first Adam was totemic man with a tail, who is said to have had connection with all or any of the animals. In the second chapter of Genesis the first formation by the Elohim is not recognized in the human figure as man. For it is said “there was not a man to till the ground.” Now, the real man comes into being as “a living soul.” Iahu-Elohim breathes into his nostrils the breath of life. Iahu-Elohim is the author of a new creation; and it is this second Adam for whom the garden eastward is planted in Eden. “And there he put the man whom he had formed,” into the Garden of Eden to cultivate it, or “to dress it and to keep it” (II. 15). These two creations answer to the two creations in the Egyptian Genesis, which are the creation of Amenta by Ptah and his associate-gods the Ali=Elohim, and the creation of the garden for Atum and his associate-gods. In the Hebrew, Iahu and his Elohim take the secondary place of Tum and his associate-gods in the original. And however shadowy some of this may seem, the shadow is all there was to go upon so long as the substance was out of sight—the substance which is Egyptian.
The Litany of Ra describes itself as being “the book of the worship of Ra,” and identifies Atum with Ra in Amenta. It is said that “when anyone reads this book, the porcelain figures are placed upon the ground at the hour of sunset—that is, of the triumph of Ra over his enemies in Amenta” (Litany of Ra). When he arrives in the Amenta at sunset, “his form is that of the old man”; in his resurrection his form is that of the lion. He sets as Ra; he rises again as Horus. Atum in Amenta is the hidden soul of life that was imaged by the nocturnal sun. He is the supreme power who dwells in darkness and causes the principles to arise. He is “the pillar of Amenta” like the Tat with which Ptah supported the sky. He is manifested or born as his own son; he who was Ra as father is Horus as the son—Atum in the western mount, and Horus in the east. He is worshipped as the supreme power in seventy-five characters, under the same number of names. Atum is the one god who is always depicted in the human form, and who therefore enters Amenta in the shape of man for the overthrowal of Apap the monster and all the powers of evil.
Atum not only passed into the Hebrew legends as the earthly father in the book of Genesis, but also as the Adam Kadmon (]ymdq=cdX) of the Kabalah, who is the primordial, archetypal man, the heavenly man or man from heaven. The first Adam, like the first Horus, was finite and imperfect; the second was infinite and perfect. These are the first and second Adam according to the doctrine of Paul, who tells us that “the first man is of the earth, earthy; the second man is of heaven.” The first man Adam became a living soul.
The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. Howbeit, that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural. Now, as Atum is the god who followed Ptah as a birth of the Put-cycle, he is the tenth, and the god of the ten circles of Ra (Rit., ch. 18) is now called the creator of the nine. This was done in the process of compounding and unifying the powers, and of exalting the latest in the development to the position of the first in status. The present point is that in an address to Amen, a form of Atum, it is said, “The gods proceeded from thee. Thou didst create the nine gods at the beginning of all things, and thou wast the lion-god of the twin lion-gods.” (Budge, The Gods of the Egyptians, vol. II, p. 88.) This was in the course of making the latest in development first in status, which was the common course in the evolution of Ra. Thus in the cycle of Ptah the gods were nine in number. With Atum added as Ra, the number is ten; and as Ptah was called the father of the eight, so Atum is the father of the nine. In the hymns to Amen-Ra he is adored as one and the same with Atum; hence we infer that “Amen” is a later title of Atum as the hidden god of Amenta, the secret earth, the garden in which was made for him by his father Ptah. The object of the present comparison is to suggest that these ten powers or potencies were the originals of the ten Sephiroth which constituted the heavenly Adam Kadmon of the Kabalists, and which, according to the metaphysical doctrine, were the means whereby the En-Soph, the infinite or boundless, manifested within bounds (Ginsburg, The Kabalah). Atum, as we reckon, was the builder of the heaven in ten divisions which preceded the final one in twelve.
There is no Garden of Eden created in the first chapter of Genesis. No tree of life or knowledge was planted, nor is there any prohibition against eating the fruit of the tree. On the contrary, the primal pair, the male and female, are told that every herb and every tree are given to them for food. The theology of the Elohim differs from that of Iahu-Elohim. This agrees with a non-Semitic version of the creation legend (Records, New Series, vol. VI), in which there is no garden created, no mention of man being placed in the garden to tend it; no tree of life, nor tree of knowledge; and no temptation by the serpent, or story of the Fall. The primal paradise, that of Shu and the seven support-gods in Am-Khemen, is thus differentiated from the garden of Ptah in the secondary creation or representation. To reach the Kamite root of the matter we have to distinguish betwixt the making of Amenta and the planting of the garden eastward. When “the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them,” man was formed; then Iahu-Elohim planted a garden eastward, in Eden, and there he put the man whom he had formed, to dress it and to keep it. We have now to tell the story of Eden from the indefinitely older documents, legendary fragments of which have been mixed up together by the Elohistic and Jehovistic narratives in the book of Genesis.
Amenta and the garden of rest were not created for man the mortal, as mortal, on this earth. The man who was brought into being and placed in the garden to protect the tree of life and defend it from the depredations of the evil Apap, the serpent of darkness, the dragon of drought, the devouring reptile, was man in the likeness0of Atum, or
man the manes; the only man in the garden of Amenta, whether this is called the Aarru-Sekhet (field) or Gan-Eden. The primal paradise was founded on the natural fact of the oasis. Following this, the fundamental idea of a paradise made by human workmanship is an enclosure in which there was a tree or plants for food and an unfathomable well-spring of water for drink. It was the oasis with some kind of fence about it, which survives in the “little garden walled around” that is sung of in a modern hymn. Now, when the nomads of the equatorial regions wandered northward they left their primal paradise behind them as a geographical locality. This suffered a subsidence, in common with the southern pole, and was hidden beneath the horizon to become the legendary paradise that sank down under the waters and was lost, as would be indicated by the disappearing guide-stars, to become a subject of the Egyptian astro-mythology.
The legend of a paradise, or state of supreme blessedness, that was lost through the eating of forbidden food, or in not keeping the law of tabu, is indigenous to Inner Africa. It is the story of the first man, Khentu, in Uganda, previously cited. Dr. Nassau offers evidence that the Bantu tribes (who extend over a quarter of the continent) have the legend of a great chief who always warned people not to eat the fruit of a certain tree, but who ate of it himself and died. In another native legend it was a woman who brought the fruit of a forbidden tree to her village. She swallowed it to hide it, and then became possessed of an evil spirit, which was the beginning of witchcraft. (Nassau, F., Fetishism in West Africa, p. 40.) It is an ancient tradition that the homeland of the human race was actual at the sources of the Nile. Milton alludes to and repeats it in his “Paradise under the Æthiop line by Nilus’ head.” The Rabbins likewise affirm that “Paradise is localized under the middle line of the world, where the days are always of equal length.” That is in equatorial regions. Such a tradition, however true, could only come to us by means of mythology and the folk-tales. The Sekhet-Aarru or field of papyrus-reed was one name of this oasis on high, which was a heaven of boundless food and drink, and therefore a paradise of plenty. The point to be established now is that water and vegetable food were the primeval elements of life in equatorial Africa in such abundance as to constitute a permanent ideal; and these were constellated later in the northern heaven by the Egyptians as a picture of an earthly paradise that “once upon a time,” somewhere or other, had been geographical. Now, this circumpolar paradise upraised by Shu in Am-Khemen was reproduced with improvements and additions in the earthly paradise or garden of Amenta, the stellar imagery being repeated in the solar mythos. The mount of glory, the tree on the summit, the source of the water of life, the Apap-reptile of drought, the youthful hero and other types established in the upper paradise, were duplicated in the paradise below—the garden enclosed by Ptah for Atum his son to cultivate. The upper was the circumpolar paradise upon the stellar mount of glory in the region of the stars that never set. At first there was the water only, called the celestial sea or lake. The pole was imaged by the stalk, the reed or papyrus that was planted in the waters as the sign of a fixed support in a double sense. This
became the later tree in the midst of the garden or cultivated enclosure. In the Pyramid Texts it is called the khat-en-ankhu or tree of life, on the fruit of which the gods and the glorified were fed. When the garden in Amenta was created by Ptah this paradise of rest was repeated in the earth of eternity, to become the earthly paradise of the manes in the Book of the Dead.
As previously shown, the Jewish Kabalists preserve the tradition of an upper and a lower paradise. Manasseh Ben-Israel says, “Those who are learned in the Kabalah affirm that there is a paradise here on earth below.” Between the two it is said there is a pillar fixed that joins the two together, which is called “the strength of the hill Zion” (Nishmath Kajim, ff. 25, 26; Stehelin vol. II, pp. 2-8), and which corresponds to the ladder and the mount in the Ritual. The upper paradise, he says, is called by seven names: (1) The bundle of life, (2) the tabernacle of the Lord, (3) the holy hill, (4) the courts of the Lord, (5) the house of the Lord, (6) the hill of the Lord, (7) the holy place. He likewise gives the seven appellations of the lower paradise: (1) The garden of Eden, (2) the palace of the Lord, (3) the land of the living, (4) the sanctuary of God, (5) the city of God, (6) the dwelling of the Lord, (7) the lands of the living. Notwithstanding the vagueness of a later generalization, we may see (1) the garden of Amenta in “the garden of Eden”; (2) the palace of the prince in “the palace of the Lord” (Rit., ch. 1); (3) the earth of the living in “the land of the living”; (4) the shrine in the midst of the earth in “the sanctuary of God.” The ladder that is raised up in Amenta for the glorified to get a glimpse of the gods (Rit., ch. 149), when the manes says, “I raise my ladder up to the sky to see the gods,” is repeated in the pillar that is the means of communication betwixt the lower and the upper paradise. By this (says the Jalkut Kodash, f. 57, c. 2) they are joined together, and it is called “the strength of the hill Zion,” the hill which touches the sky being another Egyptian figure of the means of ascent. “By this pillar, on every Sabbath and festival, the righteous climb up, and refresh themselves with a glimpse of the divine majesty, till the end of the Sabbath or festival, when they slide down and return to the lower paradise.” The heptanomis is repeated in the plan of both the lower and upper paradise. In both there are seven mansions or dwellings for the reward of the righteous. All the glory, the excellency, the delight which the righteous obtain in the upper paradise is prepared for them in the lower paradise. In the vignettes to the Ritual the ba-soul is seen ascending and descending the ladder to visit the mummy in the tomb. In like manner it is said in Nishmath Kajim (f. 28, c. 1) that every twelve months after leaving the body the deceased descend and visit it, because they cannot be absolutely separated from their mummies.
Like other mythical types, the twofold paradise passed on into the legendary lore of various lands. It is to be seen in the enclosure of Yima in the Avesta. In one form this is Eran Veg, the paradise that was in the beginning, or in the first time, the paradise upon the mount of glory answering to the Am-Khemen that was upraised by Shu. Amenta, the secret earth of eternity, is also identifiable when it is said the human race shall be reconstituted in Yima’s enclosure; and for that reason it was made in a secret place=Amenta (Avesta).
It was in Amenta, the secret earth, that Osiris and the Osirified were reconstituted for the life hereafter. The Garden of Eden in the Hebrew Genesis is called the garden eastward. This is the position of the Aarru-garden in Amenta. It was on the eastern side of the mount of glory, in the very depths of dawn. According to the Ritual, life originated in the garden eastward. Hence it is there the man as manes inhales the breath of a new life (ch. 57), and drinks the water of life and plucks the fruit from the tree of life. An oasis is the figure that was followed by Ptah in making the garden of Aarru in Amenta. A mound or rampart is described as built around the water and the plants or tree at the centre, to protect them and to keep the Apap-serpent from the sacred precincts where Atum-Ra “frequenteth the persea tree of life.” “I know this field of Aarru, with the ba-enclosure,” says the Osiris in the Ritual (ch. 109, 4). The enclosing wall was made of ba, a word that meant earth at one time, then iron, and lastly steel, as the rampart was characterized according to the progress made in work from earth to iron and from one metal to another. This zeriba or barrier notwithstanding, the destroyer night by night and year after year was continually breaking into the beautiful garden of Aarru, to drink up the water and to wither the tree of life. The abyss within the earth from whence the water welled with life in the beginning, the abyss that is configurated in the southern heaven, was repeated in making the garden of Amenta. It is described in the Ritual as the Tuat “which nobody can fathom,” which “sends forth light in the dark night,” and “the offerings from which are eatable plants” (ch. 172). Also there are two lakes of water in Amenta, one of which is designated “the great Deep” (Rit., ch. 17). This agrees with the abyss which nobody can fathom (ch. 172). Thus the beginning with the abyss, the breaking forth of light, the water welling from the abyss, and the primeval food issuing from the water were repeated and preserved. The tree of life was planted in the water of life as the persea or ash, which is the tree of life by name in Egyptian, and which had taken the place of the papyrus-reed as the sign of vegetation.
When the Garden of Eden was created the tree of life is said to be in the midst of the garden, “and a river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from thence it was parted, and became four heads.” We shall find the same water going forth from the Aarru-garden in Amenta. The original river that issued from the lake of the abyss at the centre of the garden is determined by the 150th chapter of the Ritual, in which it is said the fourteenth division is “the domain of Kher-aba; the deity in it is the Nile.” The river that went forth from the circumpolar paradise represented the Milky Way, whereas the water that issued from the midst of the garden in Amenta is the divinized river Nile (Rit., ch. 149). Also in this form the celestial Nile is traced to its earthly source in the lakes and to the powers of the inundation or high flood in the south. Thus the Egyptian Ritual, which is not to be gainsaid, indubitably shows that the river which “went out of Eden to water the garden” in the original version of the mythos was the river Nile reproduced as the water-source of life in the garden of Amenta.
On entering the lower earth the departed spirit prays, “May there
be given to me a homestead in the fields of Aarru” (Rit., ch. 15). And again, the speaker for the pair says, “Open ye to the gods (or divinized spirits) who came to cultivate the soil and grow the food” (in this earth of eternity). “Let the god Amsu, the divine husbandman, give me the ground to till. Let the god of green things open his arms to me,” as giver of abundance. (124, 5.) In the Egyptian original this delightful garden is the place in which the spirit was refreshed “under any type it wished”—a mode of saying that it offered all that heart could desire, and to wish was to have. It was the typical land of grapes and peaches, where the plenty flowed in rivers of milk and honey according to the Hebrew report. But it was likewise a land of labour and industry—no lubber-land of lotus-eating laziness. In the true Egyptian representation worship is work, and in these fields of food
“They suck no honeycomb of drowsy peace
Because ennobling natural cares all cease;
They live no life, as many dream, caressed
By some vast tideless sea of endless rest;
For there, as here, unbusy is unblest.”
In proceeding to this elysium the Osiris takes the good path to the fields of flood. He says, “A divine domain hath been constructed for me: I know the name of it, the name of it is the garden of Aarru”=Eden (ch. 109). “I know the place where to plough the earth and mow the corn, to collect the harvest in it daily. I am in it, I prevail in it, I understand in it; food is in my hands from the lord of earth” (ch. 110). This agricultural mode of earning an eternal living was typified by every one of the shebti figures set up in the tombs with the hoe of the husbandman in their hands. It is said, “When thou hast mowed with the souls, having kept their stride to the closed gates, thou art acquitted, and approachest thy house after thy labours, to the delight of thy two souls.”
The Aarru paradise in Amenta is also the garden of the two trees, the same as the Hebrew Garden of Eden. A form of Eden is undoubtedly Babylonian, even by name. According to the native tradition, the type was localized in Eridu, the place of the eternal tree or stalk at the centre of the circumpolar paradise, or of Eridu in the firmamental water termed “the abyss.” In the mythos the Great Mother is called “the divine lady of Edin,” and also “the goddess of the tree of life.” As the tree she brings forth her child, the branch, the same as Hathor does in Egypt. The name of Hathor signifies the house of Horus, as the tree. So the Great Mother Zikum is the house of Tammuz, as the tree that grew in Eridu. But the Egyptian stalk of the uat or papyrus plant is indefinitely earlier than the typical tree. One fact of itself will serve to show that the biblical Eden was not derived from the Assyrian Edin, because in this garden there is but a single tree, which is apparently the tree of life. The divine lady of Edin is the goddess of the tree of life, and there is no mention of a tree of knowledge. Secondly, the serpent as a type of evil in the book of Genesis is not the Babylonian dragon Tiamat. The biblical dragon is of neither sex, whereas Tiamat is female. The Hebrew dragon or evil serpent is the Apap of Egypt from Genesis to Revelation. Apap is a water-reptile whose dwelling
is at the bottom of the dark waters called the void of Apap, from which it rises in rebellion as the representative of drought. This is the serpent described by Amos: “Though they be hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them” (Amos IX. 3). Another reason. The Hebrew Eden is in a land that was watered by a mist that went up from the ground, and where no rain fell on the earth (Gen. II. 5-6). That land above all earthly prototypes was Egypt, which assuredly did not suffer like Babylonia from the “curse of rain,” from which the Akkadian month “As-an” was named. But there was a pre-solar paradise enclosure which had but one tree in it.
This as Egyptian is the paradise of Am-Khemen, which Shu uplifted with his two-pronged prop that images the pole, when he divided earth from heaven and raised the upper circumpolar paradise. Paradise, says Ibn Ezra, is the place of one tree. Mount Hetep in the northern heaven is a kind of typical one-tree-hill. In some of the Mexican drawings there is a point of departure by water from the mount which has a single tree upon its summit. This we look on as the tree which represents the pole, the “one-tree-hill” of a legend that is universal. This typical one-tree-hill is also to be found at Sakapu in Manchuria, where it is represented by a mountain designated “lone tree hill.” The Norse tree Yggdrasil is single. Nor is there more than one tree or stalk in the garden of Eridu, where the Great Mother is the lady of the eternal tree. The eternal tree was certainly the pole. Its even branches show it to have been a numerical type of the heptanomis. Hence we infer that in the circumpolar paradise there was but one tree as a figure of the northern pole of heaven. The Chinese Fu-tree, the self-supporting, is likewise a figure of the pole. Hence it is said to grow on the summit of a mountain in mid-ocean at the north, and it is 300 Chinese miles in height. (Schlegel, Prof. G., Fou-Sang Kono.) There is nothing gained by calling this the tree of the universe instead of the pole. That is only to lose in vagueness all that the astronomers had gained by their definiteness.
The two trees in the Garden of Eden can be accounted for upon Egyptian ground, but on no other; one being the tree of the pole in the stellar mythos, the other the tree of life or of dawn in the garden eastward. The two typical trees are recognizable as Egyptian in the Book of the Dead. In one chapter (97th) they are called the two divine sycamores of heaven and earth. The sycamore of heaven is identified as the tree of Nut. It stands in the “lake of equipoise,” which is at the celestial pole. The tree of earth is the tree of Hathor and of dawn. Atum-Ra, the solar god, is also described as coming forth from betwixt the two trees. “I know those two sycamores of emerald, between which Ra cometh forth as he advances over the firmament” (ch. 109). The tree of earth, or Hathor, and the tree of heaven, or Nut, were brought on together and united in the tree of burial for the mummy. Wherever it was possible the Egyptian coffin was made from wood of the sycamore tree, the khat-en-ankhu, or tree of life, so that the dead might be taken in the embrace of the mother of life, who was represented by the tree. This was Hathor as bringer to birth in the mythology, and Nut the bringer of souls to
their rebirth in the eschatology. The relative positions of these two goddesses with the tree were illustrated by the pictures painted on the coffin. Hathor as a form of the mother-earth, the tree-form, is portrayed inside the coffin on the board upon which the mummy rested, taking the dead to her embrace as the mother of life. Nut, the mother-heaven, was represented on the inner part of the coffin-lid arching over the mummy as bringer of the manes to new life above. It was burial in the tree when the tree had come to be elaborately carved in the shape of a coffin. This symbolized a resurrection of the spirit from the tree of life as Horus rose again from out the tree of dawn. Now when Amenta was planted by Ptah, the father of Atum, several features of the circumpolar paradise, as before said, were not only repeated, they were duplicated. One of these was the typical tree. The tree of the pole remained as the central support of the universe, the tree of the three worlds, i.e., of Amenta, earth and heaven (Egyptian), Arali, earth and heaven (Babylonian), hell, mid-gard and heaven (Norse), and others that might be added. In Egypt this was almost superseded by the tat of Ptah, which is a pillar of the four corners based upon the tree as type of the pole when this was erected in Amenta. Thus, the primal paradise was the place of one tree. The paradise or garden in Amenta is the place of two trees—because the ground-rootage had been doubled in phenomena. These two trees appear in the Ritual as the tree of Hathor and the tree of Nut; the tree of earth and the tree of heaven; the tree of the north and the tree of the east.
The tree of Hathor was a tree of life in Egypt. It was the sycamore-fig tree, from the fruit of which a divine drink of the mysteries was made. Therefore it was a tree to make one wise, which became a tree of wisdom or abnormal knowledge. The tree of Nut was the tree of heaven and eternal life, hence it was designated the eternal tree. As herein suggested, the two trees originated as a dual symbol of the two poles in Equatoria. These were continued in two tree-pillars called Sut-and-Horus by Ptah in his making of Amenta. Again they are repeated in the garden or cultivated enclosure of Eden. Here they are called the tree of knowledge and the tree of life. As shown in the vignettes to the Book of the Dead, the tree or eatable plant and the water supplied the elements of life to the manes in the lower paradise. The goddess Nut pours out the water and offers the fruit of the tree to Ani and his wife, when he has reached the garden of Amenta (Pap. of Ani, plate 16). The pole had been the tree first planted in the astronomical mythology. It was the tree of Nut, or heaven, in the stellar phase, and being astronomical it was naturally the tree of knowledge. But in the making of the nether earth a second tree was planted in the garden eastward. The mythos now was solar, and this was the tree of dawn, the tree of wet or dew, which was a veritable tree of life in Egypt. It was the emerald sycamore of Hathor in her character of goddess of the leafy-green dawn. The first was the tree in the most ancient stellar mythos, the second was added as an equinoctial type, the sycamore of earth now rooted in the land of dawn. This is the tree in which Child-Horus, the young solar god, proclaims himself to be the newborn babe (Rit., ch. 42) at his coming forth as the sun of another day,
or the offspring of Hathor. He comes forth from between the two sycamores just as the good shepherd or royal Horus issues from betwixt the two trees in the symbolism of the Roman catacombs (Bosio, Rom. Sott., p. 311; Lundy, in Mon Christy.). It is related in a legend cited by M. de Gubernatis that the tree of Adam reaches to hell, Sheol, or Amenta with its roots, and to heaven with its branches, and that the infant Jesus lives in the top of the tree (M. des Pl., vol. I, 18), like Horus, Unbu, and Bata. This, like a thousand other things related of the divine, that is mythical, child, would be extremely interesting if the legend had not been put forth under the false pretence of its being historical. The only infant in the tree, who finally supplied the subject of a nursery song, “Hush-a-by Baby on the Tree-Top,” was the youthful god whose cradle was the tree of dawn, and who says in the Ritual (ch. 42), “I am the babe. I am the god within the tamarisk.” The tree of Adam was the tree of Atum in the garden of the lower Aarru which Horus or Jesus (the Su of Atum) climbs when he goes upwards from the garden to the eastern heaven. The infant was also Horus on his uat-papyrus, a symbol of the earth amidst the waters of the Nun, and a co-type of the tree of dawn (Rit., ch. 17). In one representation, the child issues from the papyrus or lotus, in another from the tree.