the Papyrus. The sun as soul of life in the tree of dawn is probably the nature-type of the soul in the bush, the “bush-soul” of various African races, i.e., the spirit of vegetation and food. The name of Heitsi-Eibib the Hottentot deity in his solar character signifies the one who appears in the tree, misrendered by Hahn as the “one who has the appearance of a tree.” The god was not the tree itself but the power appearing in the tree as giver of food. This tree that springs up below the horizon on the eastward side of the earth may be meant by the bush of the Australian blacks who, on being asked by a missionary where the soul went when it left the body, said it went “behind the bush,” the same bush that was signified in the custom of the Hottentots. Behind the bush was equivalent to our “beyond the veil.” The typical two trees in the enclosure are both Egyptian, and both are represented in Amenta. The tree of earth is Hathor’s, called the sycamore of the south. The tree of heaven is the sycamore of Nut, who pours the water from it for the revivification of the manes. Water, as the supreme element of life, retains its primacy of place in the Amenta in relation to the two waters of earth and heaven and the two goddesses Hathor and Nut. The sycamore of Hathor had been the discoverer of water with its deep rootage in the desert sand. The sycamore of Nut dropped down the liquid of life in dew and rain as water of heaven. These two are both represented by two lakes or pools of water welling in the garden of Amenta from the fount of source itself in the abyss. The tree of life is imaged standing in a pool of the water of life in the midst of the Aarru-garden and the goddess in the tree who gives the water also gives the fruit for food and sustenance to the Osirified deceased. The tree is thus portrayed with its roots in the water of earth and its branches dropping down with the life-giving dew or
divine drink of heaven. In some of the Egyptian drawings the goddess Nut is represented in the tree of knowledge, gathering baskets-full of figs from the sycamore-fig tree, and presenting them to the souls of the departed. At other times she offers fruit directly from the tree itself. Nut in the tree offering its fruit to the pair in the garden, who are Ani (male) and Tutu his wife, in the papyrus of Ani (plate 16), are the nearest likeness to the woman tempting Adam to eat the fruit of the tree; and Nut is the goddess feeding souls with the fruit of the tree of life here figured as the sycamore-fig tree. No name of species is given to the tree of knowledge in the book of Genesis, but we assume it was the fig-tree that furnished the leaves from which the loin-girdles of the primal pair were made. And the fig-tree as now traced was the sycamore-fig of Egypt. This was the tree of Hathor in the Aarru-paradise. Moreover, the goddess Iusāas, the consort of Atum-Ra and mother of the coming son, Iusa, or Iu-em-hetep, was a form of the cow-headed or cow-eared Hathor, lady of the sycamore-tree in the temple of the sun at Annu.
Doubtless one cause of the curse pronounced upon the tree was on account of its being the tree of Hathor, the goddess of fecundity. No better or more beautiful description of Hathor in the tree could be found than the one in the “Wisdom of Jesus.” This Jesus, as Iu the son of Atum, was brought forth by Hathor-Iusāas from the tree. As Wisdom, she identifies herself with the tree of knowledge. The pæan of her exultation might be called the hymn of Hathor. Hathor was the Egyptian goddess of love, though the love first personated by her was not the sexual passion. It was the love of the mother for her offspring; the love of the mother of life who fed the child in the womb and at the breast as the divine wet-nurse. In her pre-anthropomorphic form she is the mother imaged as the milch-cow (this being preceded by the water-cow) and therefore not a type of sexual human love. As the wet-nurse she was also depicted in the tree of life and the tree of dawn, which dropped the dew as very drink of life. Hathor is the habitation (from hat, the abode), one primitive form of which was the tree, and hence the tree of dawn was a typical abode of the young god born of her, or from her sycamore as the branch of endless years. “I was exalted like a cedar in Libanus, and as a cypress-tree upon the mountains of Hermon. I was exalted like a palm-tree in En-gaddi, and as a rose-plant in Jericho, as a fair olive-tree in a pleasant field, and grew up as a plane-tree by the water. As the vine brought I forth pleasant savour, and my flowers are the fruit of honour and riches. I am the mother of fair love, and fear, and knowledge, and holy hope; I therefore, being eternal, am given to all my children which are named of him. Come unto me, all ye that be desirous of me, and fill yourselves with my fruits. For my memorial is sweeter than honey, and mine inheritance than the honeycomb. They that eat me shall yet be hungry, and they that drink me shall yet be thirsty.” (The Wisdom of Jesus, ch. 24, 13-21, translated in the time of Euergetes.) The woman who offers the fruit of the tree of knowledge in this book of the secret doctrine is in one form the goddess Hathor, and if the Hebrew version of the tree of knowledge had been true, this would be the song of the siren tempting her lovers to perdition.
The tree of knowledge being the sycamore-fig tree of Hathor the goddess of love, we see in that fact the raison-d’être of its being degraded by the Semitic bigots and turned into the tree of temptation and the cause of the fabled fall. Very proper physiological knowledge was also taught by means of the fable, but the primary motive for the perversion of the tree was the religious hatred of the motherhood by those who exalted the fatherhood as unique and alone. Precisely the same spirit is shown in the cursing of the fig-tree, which is the sycamore-fig, in the Gospels. “If ye had faith as a grain of mustard-seed, ye would say unto this sycamore tree, Be thou rooted up, and be thou planted in the sea” (Luke XVII. 6). Cursing and casting out the sycamore-fig was damning the tree of the woman, the emerald sycamore of the lovely Hathor, and also the sycamore of Nut, whether in the Old Testament or the New. And this was a mode of destroying “the works of the female” (Gospel of the Egyptians).
The tree of the upper paradise was held to have been thornless. As it is said in the Persian Revelation, on the nature of plants and trees, “before the coming of the destroyer, vegetation had no thorn or bark about it. And afterwards when the destroyer came, it was coated with bark and grew thorny” (Bundahish, ch. 27, West). Thus the tree in the celestial paradise was differentiated from the tree in the earthly paradise, which became thorny as the result of Adam’s fatal fall. Egypt is not a cloudy land, though there is sufficient morning-mist, however thin and filamental, for the golden rays of the sun to blend with the azure tints of upper heaven and produce a greenish colour from the mixture of the two. This was represented as the great green sycamore of dawn, of Hathor or Nut, which in Egypt was a tree of life that struck its roots down to the eternal springs and would find moisture even in a Sahara of desert sand. And from this tree of heaven the earth was watered with refreshing dew. This imagery of Egypt is virtually repeated in the book of Genesis (II. 5, 6) when the writer tells us that “Iahu-Elohim had not caused it to rain upon the earth, but there went up a mist from the earth and watered the whole face of the ground.” The sycamore of dawn is mentioned in the Ritual. It is also spoken of as the sycamore in the eastern sky (Pyramid Texts, Pepi, I, 174). Few things in literature are more lovely than the way in which the imagery of dawn was thus utilized as the road to travel by in attaining the other upper land of life. So far as the Babylonians and Assyrian versions of the mythos have been recovered we find no written account of the creation of man or the placing of the man in the Garden of Eden “to dress it and to keep it.” But the garden is represented on one of the cylinders in what has been termed the scene of the temptation by those who read the subject backwards according to the Hebrew story of the fall. The tree in Eridu is called the shrine of the two, whom we understand to be the primeval mother and her son, who as Egyptian was called the bull of the mother. The pair are also described as “the lady of the eternal tree” and the great supreme bull, he who was both the child and consort of the mother. These two, we now suggest, are the male and female pair who are seated underneath the tree as the scene is pictured on the Assyrian cylinder. The bull of the mother is obviously represented by the pair of horns upon the figure of the male. A tree with seven branches is portrayed with
the pair of male and female figures seated underneath, and the serpent erect at the back of the female, as if posed and holding forth in the character of the legendary tempter. The reptile corresponds to the flat-headed Apap of the Egyptian drawings, which signifies evil because it is the serpent of darkness, drought, dearth, and negation. One cannot resist the impression that this representation may be responsible for the legend of the serpent, the temptation and the fall that is found in the Hebrew book of Genesis.
The Babylonians were such perverters of the Kamite mythology in relation to woman and the serpent. But instead of a human pair, the male and female seated under the tree are two divinities. The figure next the serpent is a form of the Great Mother. Thence we infer that the male is a form of the son, and that the pair are the well-known duad of mother and son, as in Ishtar and Dumuzi or Zikum and Tammuz, the genetrix with the son who became his own father, as did Sebek-Horus, the son who was the husband of his mother. Also, on the third tablet of the creation series there is a Babylonian prototype for the Hebrew legend of the fall that followed on the eating of forbidden fruit. In this it is said that “the command was established in the garden of the god.” But, “in sin one with the other in compact joined.” “The asnan fruit they ate, they broke in two; its stalk they destroyed. Great is their sin. Themselves they exalted. To Merodach, their redeemer, he (the god Sar) appointed their fate” (Boscawen). The doctrine of a fall and of a redemption therefrom is plainly apparent in this inscription which the Hebrew compilers apparently followed and in that way the later theological legend would get intermixed with the original mythos in a Semitic moralizing of the Kamite mythology.
Various vignettes to the Ritual show us Ani and his wife, the pair, as spirits, in the Aarru-garden eating the fruit of the tree and drinking the water of life, but with no relation to a fall from paradise through plucking the forbidden fruit. The pair of beings in the Semitic versions are supposed to have fallen from the garden of the beginning through eating the forbidden fruit of the asnan tree. And according to the rendering of the myth in Hebrew, the pair are driven forth lest they should also eat of the tree of life. “And Iahu-Elohim said, Behold, Adam is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now lest he put forth his hand and take also of the tree of life, and eat and live for ever: therefore Iahu-Elohim sent him forth from the garden. So he drove out Adam.” As there is no mention of the woman in this expulsion, the man must have gone alone upon his “solitary way,” unless the woman is included in Adam-homo as in the first creation. “So he drove out Adam, and he placed at the
east of the Garden of Eden the cherubim, and the flame of a sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life” (Gen. III. 22-24). The tree of life, we repeat, was the tree of dawn with its rootage in the garden of Amenta. In the Hebrew Genesis, the tree is to be protected by the flame of a sword that turns in all directions, which conveys the idea of a swordsman dexterously making the moulinet figure of defence. Now let us turn to the great original symbolism which has been so mutilated. The tree of life, the emerald sycamore of dawn, stood with its roots below the horizon in the garden eastward. It needed protection by night from the insidious assaults of the Apap of darkness, drought, and dearth, as shown in the illustrations to the Book of the Dead. The precious water and tree of life were protected within the enclosure formed by Ptah that was raised against the incursions of Apap, the eternal devourer.
The prohibition against eating the fruit of the tree would have had no meaning for Ani and his wife. They were there to eat of it and live as spirits. For that purpose the water and fruit are being given to them by Nut or Hathor in the vignettes. The protector of the tree of life by night is Atum-Ra, the solar god, whose weapon is the flaming orb of the nocturnal sun (Rit., ch. 15). The sword that turned in every direction is depicted in the radiating disk which is set all round as it were with sword-blades of the solar flame. “Salutation to Ra radiating in his disk as the light that issues out of the horizon,” is a greeting made by the worshipper (Rit., ch. 148). In the pictures to the Ritual the sun is imaged by a radiating disk that rises up from the tree of life, the emerald sycamore-fig or the fig-tree of the garden eastward, and this is described as being a symbolical representation of Atum-Ra. The radiating life-giving disk is a sworded flame which turns every way, seeing that it is rayed and darting fire all round. The way of the tree of life is towards the eastern horizon where the sun goes out of the garden eastward, and the sworded disk is not only in the way of the tree of life, it also rises out of the tree, and is described as turning round when it rises. The “flame of a sword which turns every way” is no doubt an adaptation of the radiating disk which is here portrayed at the summit of the tree of life. Ra “circulating in his disk” (15, 32-3), who “radiates in his disk: who fashions himself in his metal and turns round so soon as Shu upraises him on the horizon” (Rit., 17, 50). In one passage it is said that the flame of the solar disk emblematically designed saves the god Ra from Apap (Rit., ch. 149, 12, Pierret), which is the prototypal equivalent of the sworded flame that revolves to keep the way of the tree of life in the book of Genesis. The way of the tree of life that goes out of Eden can be identified with the way that goes out of the field of Aarru in Amenta. The speaker in the Ritual had travelled that way, as one of the manes, but NOT AS A MORTAL. He says (149, 5-9), “I know the way of the field Aarru by which Atum-Ra goes forth to the east of heaven” (or from the garden eastward). The “way of the tree of life” in Genesis is the “road of the disk” in the Ritual (ch. 129, 1). We learn from Origen that there was a certain diagram current amongst the gnostic Ophites, which contained the seven ruling dæmons. Amongst the other matters
mentioned is the flaming sword that kept the tree of life at the gates of paradise. Of this he says the picture in the accursed diagram was impiously unlike the figure drawn in “Sacred Writ”. “The flaming sword was depicted as the diameter of a flaming circle, and as if mounting guard over the tree of knowledge and of life” (B. 6, ch. 33). From this description of the figure we perceive that the gnostic diagram contained a copy of the Egyptian original.
The Flaming Sword which Guarded the
As first pointed out in the Book of the Beginnings (1881), the word cherub, or kerub, is Egyptian. It signifies a primary figure, a model form. The type may vary, but the word denotes primacy whatsoever the figure. The variant kherp means the first, chief, principal, forepart or foremost. Still more to the purpose the Kamite kherefu=kherebu are a pair of lion-gods joined back to back that keep the gates of dawn, or we might say, the way of the tree of life, which is the green sycamore of dawn. The Egyptian kherefu lift up the solar orb upon their backs; they form the primary figure of support for the god that preceded the ark or chariot, which consisted of an ark that rested on the boat. The twin lions or kherefu form the natural throne or seat of the solar deity “Atum-Iu” (Vig. to ch. 18, Rit.; Pap. Ani., pl. 7).
According to Josephus (Ant. I, II, 6, 5), Moses had seen such things as the cherubs near the throne of Iahu; and here we find the kherefu, in the form of twin lions, are the throne of Atum in the Easter equinox when it coincided with the Lion sign. These things are not merely matters of philology. The kherub as a determinative type passes into the griffin. A pair of griffins still keep the gate or gateway of the avenue of trees that leads up to the great house. Also the crab and the scarab still represent the kherub both by name and type. In some of the ancient Egyptian zodiacs the scarabæus takes the place of the crab. In others the sign is represented by a pair of scarabs or beetles; and two scarabs are also equivalent to the two cherubs. Thus when the equinox had passed into the sign of Cancer the two kherefu or kherubs as lions were succeeded in the astronomical mythos by the two scarabs that now kept the way of the tree of life at the point in precession where the vernal equinox was stationed for the time being—namely, in the sign of the Crab or the beetles.
The mother of beginnings, the primordial parent in the abyss of earth and the height of heaven, was also reproduced as the Great Mother in Amenta. In the vignettes to the Ritual Apt is portrayed in both forms of the cow, the hippopotamus and the milch-cow, among the papyrus plants of the morass at the foot of the mount of Amenta, as the bringer to rebirth for the upper paradise (Papyrus of Ani, pl. 37). The mother of life on earth was now made protector of the dead in Amenta, and she who was the kindler of the stellar sparks in
heaven by night became the re-kindler of the sparks of life from the eclipse of death (Rit., ch. 137, B; Papyrus of Ani, Pap. Nebseni). Thus we can identify Eve, or Chavvah, as Kefa or Kep, the Great Mother, with Adam or Atum in the garden of Amenta. The name of Eve in Hebrew (hvx), Chavvah, signifies life or living, whence Eve is the mother of life. Life, however, is a somewhat abstract term. Still the mother of life, as Egyptian, was Khep, Kep, or Kefa=Chavvah by name. Kep signifies the ferment of life, the mystery of fertilisation, the enceinte mother; the Khep, Khev, or Kefa, as Egyptian, we hold to be the original of the Hebrew Chavvah. Kefa appears along with the great scarab in the thirteenth domain of Amenta (Renouf, Book of the Dead, ch. 149, pl. 52). Moreover, the lioness Kefa, or Kheft, is a form of Sekhet the solar goddess, who was the beloved consort of Ptah and the mother of Atum-Ra.
According to the Jewish legends Adam had two wives, one named Lilith, the other Chavvah, or in the English version, Eve. Atum also had two wives. These at Annu are Neb-hetep and Iusāas, the mother of the prince of peace, in her two characters of “lady of peace” and she who is great with Iu the coming son (or su), who was the prince of peace as conqueror of the serpent and all the evil powers in earth, in heaven, and in Amenta; otherwise in drought, in darkness, and in death. We can identify the wife of Adam with the old first genetrix of gods and men and mother of beginnings in at least three of her mythical characters. In one she was imaged as Rerit the sow. In another she is Kefa, or Kheft, the lioness. Lastly, she was portrayed as the mother of life in human form, the prototype of Eve. Now, as the mother of Atum was the lioness Sekhet, as the mother of “the princes of Israel” was a lioness (Ez. XIX. 2) who nourished young lions for her whelps, the inference is that Eve or Chavvah represents the lioness Kefa. In Rabbinical tradition Lilith is known as Adam’s first wife, but only Chavvah has been brought on as Eve in the garden of the beginning. The Great Mother was single in herself, but may be dual or several in type. She remained single in the fields of heaven, the upper Aarru, where the Great Bear was her constellation, but she might be represented as Rerit the sow, or Kep the hippopotamus, or Kefa the lioness, according to phenomena. Father Atum is connected with the sow. He also has two wives. One of these, Iusāas, is a form of the goddess Hathor, and in one character Hathor was Shaat the sow. The sow was sacred in Israel because it had been a zootype of the multimammalian Great Mother in Egypt. According to the totemic law of tabu, the eating of the sow as ordinary diet was prohibited because it was sacred to the periodic celebration which passed into the Eucharistic meal, at which it was religiously eaten once a year. For a long time the Jews remained faithful to the Great Mother in their sacramental eating of swine’s flesh among the graves (Isaiah LXV. 4, and LXVI. 17). The graves identify the mortuary meal, and the swine’s flesh will answer for the mother, who was imaged in one form as the many-teated sow, the flesh of which was prohibited in later ages because it was sacred and had originally represented the mother, who was at one time eaten with honour in propria persona. This also tends to identify Eve, or Chavvah, with Kep or Kefa, the first mother in the
Egyptian astronomical mythology. The story of Lilith, Adam’s first wife, has been omitted from the book of Genesis. There are two wives involved, however, in the two different creations, although no name is given to the first. Man, as homo, was created “male and female” by the Elohim (I. 27). The Rabbinical tradition relates that the woman was created out of the ground together with the man, and was named Lilith. She obviously represented the first Great Mother, one of whose Egyptian names was Rerit=Lilith, and whose zootype was the sow as well as the hippopotamus. The submerged gnosis respecting the priority of the matriarchate comes to the surface in the story of the contention betwixt Lilith and Adam for marital supremacy. The two wives of Adam answer to the two consorts of Atum, who were Neb-hetep, the lady of peace, and Iusāas, she who was great with Iu-em-hetep, the bringer of peace, the Kamite Jesus, as Iu-sa the coming son.
In the Hebrew legend it is the woman Eve who offers the fruit of the tree of knowledge. In other versions, especially the Greek, the fruit is offered to the man by a serpent in the tree. Now the serpent was another type of the Great Mother, Kep, who was earlier than the serpent-woman, Rannut; and whether portrayed in the shape of a serpent or in the human form, she was the primordial giver of fruit from the tree. The serpent, the crocodile or dragon, the hippopotamus, the sow, the cow, the lioness and woman all meet as one in Kep, the earliest mother of life. The primal mother in the Kamite representation was the bringer-forth of Sut and Horus as her first two children, who were born twins. These, as the powers of darkness and light, or drought and fertility, were a pair of combatants who fought for the supremacy until one brother slew the other. This is one of those primary legends that became universal, but not because it had a hundred different origins at different times. Sut and Horus were indefinitely earlier than the solar Atum. But in the cult of Atum-Ra at On or Annu they were fathered on him and continued as his sons. Sut and Horus offer an instructive instance of evolution in mythology. They were born sons of the first Great Mother as two of the primordial powers, the twin powers of darkness and light. But in the re-cast of their theology the priests of Annu brought them on as the warring sons of Atum-Ra, who fought each other “up and down the garden” until, as here related, one of them was slain. In various inscriptions Sut and Horus are called the sons of Atum (Renouf, Hib. Lectures, p. 84). Otherwise stated, they became two of the associate-gods, the constituent parts and powers of Atum, as the sons of Ptah and members of the Put company of the Ali.
The battle in Amenta was not only fought betwixt the Apap of darkness and the sun-god Ra. When the two brothers Sut and Horus were repeated in the solar mythos, as the sons of Atum, the conflict was continued for possession of the garden. This was now the motive of the warfare. Previously it was for the water of the inundation or light in the moon. Now it was for the water and the tree of life in the Aarru-garden. In one version of the mythos, Sut is the murderer of the good brother as Osiris. In the other, Sut pierces and puts out the eye of Horus. This is represented as the contest between Cain and Abel, the two sons of Adam, in the book of Genesis. Sut
and Horus represented two contending nature-powers. They fought each other as the two rehus or lions in the light and dark halves of the moon, with Taht as the adjudicator of the landmarks. They also fought as two dragons, or as the crocodile of water and the dragon of drought, both of which were rightly represented in the astronomical mythology. “Hydra” remains for all time as the “hellish Apap” who drank up the water. And “Draconis” is a figure of the good dragon or Horus-crocodile. Lastly, the two opponent powers were portrayed as twin-brothers, fighting for the birth-right, or seeking to overcome each other. Thus they contended for possession of the garden in Amenta, where they fought upon the mount of glory or were constellated as the Gemini contending in the zodiac. The conflict of the brothers was continued in the Garden of Eden, and Cain fulfils the character of the murderer Sut, the slayer of his brother. There is an attempt even to discriminate betwixt the two domains of Sut and Horus, when it is said that “Abel was a keeper of sheep, but Cain was a tiller of the ground” (Gen. IV. 2, 3).
The Aarru-garden, or paradise, planted in Amenta by Ptah for Atum his son, was founded on food and liquid, that is on the water, and the tree, or plant, as food of life. These, in the Hebrew version, are called “the trees in the midst of the garden,” and “the river that went out of Eden to water the garden.” They represent the mythical tree and the water of life, which had their beginning in actual food and drink, and were afterwards repeated, on earth, in heaven, and in the making of Amenta. The well or water-spring that was the source of life to primitive man was here continued as a basis for the re-beginning of life in the earth of eternity. In the Ritual the manes, or Osiris N., says, “I am he whose stream is secret.” This was the hidden source of water in the earth itself that was repeated as divine source in Amenta. In some of the vignettes to the Ritual Osiris, god of Amenta, is portrayed upon his throne within a shrine that rests upon the water welling from the underworld. One of his titles was the water of renewal. So supreme an element of life was water, by the aid of which the Aarru-paradise was made. “I know the names of the streams within the garden,” exclaims the manes; “I utter my praise to the gods who are in the garden” (Rit., ch. 110). The water issues now from underneath the throne of Osiris. But in the earlier cult the source of life as water was the secret of the great god Ptah. In a hymn on the walls of the temple at El-Khargeh, Ptah is saluted as the lord of all, from the very beginning. It is said, “Thou hast made the double earth.” “Thou hast placed thy throne in the life of the double earth.” It is also said of this one god, “Thy secret is in the depths (or the deep) of the secret waters and unknown” (Renouf, Hibbert Lectures, p. 231). This secret rests in the beginning with water. The source of water was the well within the earth, the wellspring of life in the Neter-Kar, the secret water emanating from the Nun, as if it broke up through the solid earth. It was the secret guarded by the Sphinx, by the seven spirits of the earth, the seven Anunnaki seated on their golden thrones. It was the water of the Tuat in the Ritual called “the deep which no one can fathom” (Rit., ch. 172). This is the beginning of life with water and vegetation now repeated at the point of a new departure in the making of Amenta by
Ptah the planter of the Aarru-garden. The four waters into which heaven was divided are portrayed in the Sekhet-hetep or fields of peace. Cool water, eatable plants, and refreshing breezes constituted the Egyptian heaven as it had been from the first time in Inner Africa. And according to the pictures, paradise in Amenta is mapped out in four divisions of land amidst the cooling waters of the Aarru meadows or Elysian Fields, the Semitic Garden of Eden. The sign of heaven or the sky is to be seen above a vertical table which is divided into four parts. The garden is intersected by the four waters of the book of Genesis. The great water is the celestial Nile, called the father of the gods, the giver of plenty. The other three are designated the power of the water, innumerable waters, and great place of the water (Rit., ch. 110, and vignettes).
But the paradise depicted in the vignettes to the Ritual is sub-terrestrial, not celestial or circumpolar; it is the earthly paradise. This is the garden of the lower Aarru, not the garden on the summit of the stellar mount of glory. In that, the one water was divided into the two lakes with the river running down from the north to the south. The terrestrial paradise in Amenta is based upon the four quarters of the sky that was suspended by Ptah, and the four quarters are equivalent to the four waters or rivers in the vignettes to the Ritual. The four rivers of Eden belong to this later heaven that was divided into four parts and are a co-type with the four quarters. Hence they are portrayed as issuing from the four sides of the mythical mount in pictures of the garden. In a Buddhist legend, cited by Hardy, a tree takes the place of the mount and four great rivers flow unceasingly from the four boughs of this tree of immensity. The river names, in the biblical version, belong to a later geography, which has to be allowed for; they are a mixture of Egyptian and Assyrian. “A river went out of Eden to water the garden, and from thence it was parted and became four heads.” The first is Pishon, the second is Gihon, the third is Hiddekel, the fourth is Euphrates. Of the water or fountain-head Pishon it is said, “That is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold, and the gold of that land is good; there (also) is bdellium and the onyx stone” (Genesis II. 11, 12). This land of the good gold corresponds to the Egyptian Puanta or Ta-Neter the divine land which is called “the golden” in the Ritual (ch. 15). But this land of gold was the land of the solar glory. Adorations are offered to Atum as he rises out of “the golden” or comes up from Puanta to illumine the earth.
Atum was the god in spirit, the one god in spirit and in truth; and Atum or Adam in the garden was the man in spirit striving as manes for assimilation to the god. The man of earth as the first Adam passes into the Amenta to become the second Adam in the garden as the heir of life eternal. Atum in Amenta represents generic man and individual manes. He is the god-man, both human and divine, the man in matter and the man in spirit. The French Egyptologist, M. Lefébure, who has lately identified Adam with the Egyptian Atum, as the present writer had done seven years earlier in A Book of the Beginnings, refers to a scene on the coffin of Penpii in the Louvre, which is similar to the history of Adam in the sub-terres-
trial paradise, where a naked and ithyphallic personage called “the lord of food” (Neb-tefa) is standing before a serpent with two legs and two arms, and the reptile is offering him a red fruit, or at least a little round object painted red. The same scene is again found on the tomb of Rameses VI. And on a statue relatively recent in the museum at Turin it is to Atum=Adam that the serpent, as tempter, is offering the round object, or fruit of the tree. The same writer says, “The tree of life and knowledge was well known in Egypt.” And “whether the scene of Neb-tefa can be identified with the history of Adam or not, we can see that the greater number of the peculiar features of this history existed in Egypt—the tree of life and knowledge, the serpent in paradise, Eve thinking of appropriating divinity to herself, and in short Adam himself, are all there” (Trans. S. Bib. Arch., vol. IX, pt. I, p. 180).
The entrance to the hidden earth was in the western region, founded on the pathway of the sun. The garden of Aarru was the land of promise, peace, and plenty on the eastward side of the Amenta. The manes carries the title-deeds of his allotment with him. In later copies of the Book of the Dead some lines were added to ch. 109: “There are writings in thy possession for the grant of fields, of cornland in which there springeth corn from the effluxes or sap of Osiris.” “Enter boldly at the mysterious portals, and be purified by those who are there.” The promise is that when the purified deceased comes forth to the Sekhet-Aarru wheat and barley shall be given to him there, and he will sow and reap it with the glorified (Rit., rubric to ch. 72). In another chapter, when the speaker has arrived, he exclaims, “I am the great owner in the garden of Aarru. O this garden of Aarru, the walls of which are of steel (or ba-metal).” “I know the inner gate of the garden of Aarru, out of which cometh Ra, in the east of the sky.” “I know those two sycamores of emerald, between which he cometh forth as he advanceth to the eastern gates of the sky, through which he proceedeth” (ch. 149). This is the garden to the eastward of Amenta, or of Eden in Genesis. The speaker also describes it as the garden which is a field of divine harvest. “I know this garden of Ra (Atum): the height of its wheat is seven cubits, the ears are two cubits, the stalks five cubits, the barley is seven cubits. It is the glorified ones, each of whom is nine cubits in height, who reap there in presence of the powers of the east” (ch. 149). Whether imaged as the garden or the harvest-field, this was the earthly paradise, the land of promise and of plenty, and Atum in the harvest-field or Aarru-garden represented not the man of earth, but the manes of Amenta, the man who died and was buried and who rose again in spirit to cultivate his plot of ground for edible plants, or the wheat that grew seven cubits high in this the earth of eternity. The manes makes his way towards those who have become the lords of eternity living for ever, the spirits made perfect, or the gods and the glorified. And it is probable that when he says, “Let me go up to the Sekhet-Aarru and arrive in Sekhet-hetep” (ch. 72), there is a reference to the ascent from the lower to the upper paradise by way of the mount, the tree, or ladder of Ra which reaches to the sky—that is, from the garden of the vine in Amenta to the field of rest in heaven. Hence the need of the ship.
The ship of Nu is thus addressed by the manes in chapter 106: “O thou ship of the garden of Aarru, let me be conveyed to that bread of thy canal like my father, the great one, who advanceth in the divine ship, because I know thee,” as was shown from the examination of the initiate in chapter 99.
The garden was divided into fourteen portions called domains, a number which indicates a foundation in one half of the lunar circle. The first of these is entered by the manes in the character of Atum=Adam. He enters with the crown of Atum on his head. He says, “Doff your headdress in my presence. I am the great one; I am the lord among the gods.” “Horus has crowned me with ‘the diadem of Atum.’” The garden of Aarru itself is the second of the fourteen domains in Amenta. The manes in the character of Atum=Adam enters the second domain as the owner of it, saying, “I am the great proprietor in the garden of Aarru.” This he goes on to describe. It is on the horizon of the east=the garden eastward. The god who is in the garden with the manes is Har-Makhu, that is Atum. And as Atum is the Kamite original of the Hebrew Adam so the garden of Atum is the Gan-Eden of Adam (ch. 149 and vignette). The third is the domain of “the glorious ones,” the seven great companion-spirits who assisted Ptah as his craftsmen in the making of Amenta. In this, the third domain, the manes assumes the divinity of Atum himself, saying, “I am the lord of the red crown which is on the head of the shining one, he who gives life to mankind with the breath of his mouth.” It was Atum who gave life to mankind or the manes with the breath of his mouth. This is repeated (Gen. II. 7) when Iahu-Elohim breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul. In the fourth domain there is a great and lofty mountain of the nether world, the mountain of Amenta, three hundred measures in length and ten in width, the highest point of which ends with the sky. There is a serpent coiling on it seventy cubits in its windings. “He with sharp knives is his name,” or, in a word, it is the “piercing” serpent. “He lives by slaughtering the glorious ones and the damned in the nether world.” This is the Apap-reptile who may be seen in a vignette to the Ritual facing Sebek on the mount (ch. 108). The manes addresses the monster in the fourth domain, saying, “I see the way towards thee. I gather myself together. I am the man who put a veil upon thy head, without being injured. I am the great magician. Thine eyes have been given to me, and through them I am glorified. Who is he that goeth on his belly? Thy strength is on thy mountain; behold, I march toward it (the mountain), and thy strength is in my hand. I am he who takes possession of thy strength. I go round the sky; thou art in thy valley, as was ordered to thee before.” He has deprived the serpent of his magical power and cast him down in the dust, or into the valley.
No sooner was Amenta made and the tree of life, which represented vegetation, planted in the water of life than the Apap-reptile, the serpent of darkness or the dragon of drought, broke into the enclosure. As the representative of drought, its fangs were fastened on the tree of food, of dew, of life. As the representative of darkness it warred against the light of Atum, Horus, Ra, and Taht. And, as the
Ritual has it (ch. 17), “There was conflict now in the entire universe,” in heaven, upon earth, and in Amenta, inclusive of the garden. In the great battle betwixt Ra and Apap, described in chapter 39 of the Ritual, Atum as Horus the son fights for the father Ra. When the victory is won Atum says, “Lift up your countenance, ye soldiers of Ra!” The same part is taken by Atum in the garden of Aarru when he delivers Ra from Apap in the third domain. There is a scene in the vignette to ch. 17 (Pap. of Ani, plate 10), in which Atum Ra appears as god the father and Atum-Horus as god the son. The youthful solar god is imaged in the form of a cat, the seer in the dark, and is grappling with the serpent and cutting off or bruising its head. Ra the father is intently gazing at his son whilst the battle is raging. The group of gods looking on are watching the struggle betwixt the great cat and the serpent Apap.
Horus bruising the Serpent’s Head.
The god in conflict with the serpent is Iu the son of Atum, otherwise Atum in the person of the son. And here we have delved down to a tap-root of the Jesus legend. Iu-em-hetep in the cult of Atum-Ra is the coming son, the ever-coming su or son of the eternal; and Iu the su=Iusu, or Iusa the son of Iusāas, is the original of Iusu or Jesus. In one phase the battle was fought nightly betwixt Iu the son of Atum, or, in the Osirian version, betwixt Horus the son of Asar and the loathly reptile. In another phase of the mythos the great battle was fought annually between the saviour-son and the serpent in the garden of Aarru hard by the tree of life, as described and portrayed in the Ritual (ch. 17, 20-22). This war betwixt the serpent and the son who came to save went on for ever, every night, every year, and every other period of time; hence the bruiser of the serpent’s head was the saviour who for ever came as the lord of light, the giver of life, protector of the tree of life at its rootage in Amenta.
There is another personification of the woman who wars against the serpent as Sekhet, otherwise Pasht. This goddess is sometimes depicted standing at the prow of the boat in the act of spearing the serpent as he raises his head and tries to hypnotise the passengers with his evil eyes (ch. 108, LL, 3, 4). It is Sekhet who is mistress of the water in which the Apap lurks by night (ch. 57, L, 1), because she was a lunar goddess, the seer by night, who was also imaged as the cat that killed the serpent or the rat abominated by the sun. Thus there are two versions, lunar and solar. In one the woman or goddess is the slayer of the serpent, in the other it is the son of the woman that bruises the reptile’s head. The Romish Church has perpetuated the former; the latter survives in the Protestant world, and, as here shown, both are Egyptian. Moreover, Sekhet the cat-headed consort of Ptah was the mother of Atum-Ra. When we have identified the son in this disguise of a great cat killing a serpent as defender of his father, we may perhaps experience less surprise on learning that the cat was also continued in the Christian Church as a
living type of the “historical Christ.” At Aix, in Provence, the great cat was a representative of the newly-born Jesus. On the solemn festival of Corpus Christi the finest tom cat to be found in the canton was exhibited in this character. It was wrapt up like a child in swaddling-clothes and made a show of in a gorgeous shrine. Every knee was bowed in adoration to this effigy, who was Iu in Egypt, and Iahu, cat and all, in Christendom. (Hampson, Medii Ævi Kalendarium; Mill, History of the Crusades.)
In the pre-Osirian mysteries of Amenta Atum the father was re-born as his own son Iu, the bringer of peace and plenty and good luck, as manifestor for the eternal in time. The birth was periodic because the phenomena were first recurrent in external nature—in the renewal of the light, the return of the waters, the rebirth of vegetation. Hence the Messiah was known as “the king of one year.” The son, as Horus, son of Isis, or Iu the su (son) of Atum, was incorporated or incarnated in matter as a spirit from heaven to become the second Atum, Iu-em-hetep, the ever-coming son, whom we identify as the original Iu-su, the Egyptian Jesus. His mission is sufficiently set forth in the texts and pictures of the Ritual, more expressly as the opponent and the conqueror of Apap, the evil serpent. The fight is several times alluded to in which Horus, or the deceased who impersonates him, defends the enclosure against the Apap-serpent. “He makes his way. He repulses the attack of Apap. He crosses the enclosure and repulses Apap” (Rit., 144, 20). “He puts an end to the rage of Apap and protecteth Ra against him daily” (ch. 130). Again, he says, “I have repulsed Apap, and healed the wounds he made” (ch. 136, 3). Ra is identical with Atum, but the character is duplicative. In one Atum-Ra is the father-god, in the other Atum-Horus, or Iu, is the son; and as the son he is the protector and deliverer of his father when he staggers forth upon the horizon from his conflict with the serpent, bleeding with many wounds (Rit., ch. 39).
There is hardly any more precious document on the face of the earth at the present moment than the Papyrus of Ani (published by the British Museum). In this the happy garden is portrayed with the pair of souls, once human, passing through the various scenes which are depicted in the Ritual. The soul, or manes, makes the journey through Amenta in the two halves of sex; “male and female created he them.” Thus Ani is accompanied in the pictures by his wife Tutu, who had died eight years before him, and who comes to meet him at the entrance to Amenta, to protect him on the way she travelled first, and to scare away all evil spirits with the shaking of her sistrum as she guides him to the heaven of the glorified elect. As gods, the divine pair in the garden of this late beginning, called Gan-Eden, were Atum and Iusāas. As human, they may be any pair of manes, or translated mortals like Ani and his wife, to whom an allotment in the Sekhet Aarru was given for them to cultivate. In the Hebrew version the divine pair have been humanized in Adam and Eve, as beings on this earth, and thus the mystery of Amenta loses all the meaning, which has to be restored by reading the mythos once more in the original. The male and female pair are portrayed together in the vignettes to chapters 15, 15a, 2; 15a, 3; 15a, 4; 15b, 1; 15b, 2, all of which
scenes belong to the earth of eternity. (Naville, Das Ægypt., Todt., pp. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19.) The primal pair of human beings, who are Adam and Eve in the Semitic version of the legend, had been represented in the Papyri as Ani and his wife Tutu, the man and woman that once were mortal on the earth, but have passed into the state of manes, who are on their way to or in the terrestrial paradise. They enter the Aarru-garden. They drink the water of life at its secret source in the Tuat. They eat the fruit of the tree of life, which is offered to Ani, the man, by the divine woman in the tree, who may be Nut or Hathor. If it be Hathor who offers the fruit of the tree, there is a possible link betwixt this scene and the story of Adam’s temptation by the woman in the book of Genesis. Hathor’s was the tree of earth, Nut’s was the tree of heaven. The pair are pictured in the earthly paradise, and therefore in the place of Hathor’s tree, the sycamore-fig tree. Now Iusāas, the wife of Atum=Adam and mother of Iu at Annu, was a form of Hathor. So that Hathor-Iusāas offering the fruit of the sycamore-fig to Atum in the Sekhet-Aarru is equivalent to Eve, who offers the fruit of the tree of knowledge to Adam in the Garden of Eden, which, as shown by the apron of fig-leaves, was a fig tree.
When Ani and his spirit-consort, who had been his wife on earth, appear together in the happy garden, they drink the water of life and eat the fruit of the tree, as spirits among spirits. They nestle in the green bower of Hathor the goddess of love, and the pleasures of the earthly paradise are denoted by their playing games of draughts together in the garden. In one scene the pair are portrayed hard by the tree of life, both of them drinking the water of life that flows from beneath the tree. In the next vignette the man is kneeling alone before the tree, which is a sycamore-fig tree. A woman in the tree is offering some of its fruit to Ani. This is the goddess Nut, the lady of heaven, who presents the fruit of the tree to the man in the garden of the earthly paradise (Pap. of Ani, pl. 16), and who has been converted into the woman that tempted Adam to eat of the tree as the cause of the fallacious fall. The biblical rendering of this representation is a blasphemy against the Ritual, against womankind, against nature, and against knowledge. The goddess Nut, who offers the fruit of the tree of knowledge to the kneeling man, is in shape a woman, and the meaning could be only too easily misread, as it has been in the legend of the first woman who tempted the first man to eat of the forbidden fruit and to cause the loss of paradise.
According to the Ritual the manes who receive food in the garden of Aarru (ch. 99, 32, 38) or who eat of the fruit of the sycamore-fig tree of Hathor (ch. 52) are empowered to make what transformation they please, and go out of it as spirits. They literally become spirits among spirits as a result of eating the fruit of the tree. The manes says, “Let me eat under the sycamore of Hathor! Let me see the forms of my father and mother” (ch. 52), as he would when the spirit sight was opened for him to perceive with the beatific vision. This is sufficient as a text for the serpent when it says, “Ye shall not surely die; for God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then
your eyes shall be opened and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil” (Gen. III. 4, 5). Instead of being damned eternally through eating the fruit of the tree, the manes in Amenta are divinized piecemeal as the result of eating it (82, 2, 5). In the rubrical directions at the end of chapter 99 we read, “This chapter being known, the deceased appears in the field (or cultivated enclosure) of Aarru. He receives food there, the produce of its fields. His members become like to those of the gods. He goes forth pure spirit.” (Lines 32-34.) Instead of referring to the fall of man from the terrestrial paradise, this relates to the ascent of souls from a lower heaven won by hard labour in Amenta to an upper heaven attainable at last by spirits perfected. When the manes have literally done their digging in cultivating the fields of Aarru, they ascend the mount of re-birth in heaven to enter the ark or bark of souls, and sail or row themselves to the Hesperian isles.
It follows that the hiding of the guilty pair in the garden is derived from the manes being overshadowed and concealed by the foliage of the tree of Hathor under which they were refreshed. If these do not hide themselves, they make their refuge and secret resting place beneath the tree. “I embrace and make my asylum of the sycamore,” says the speaker in the Ritual (64, 24).
In the book of Genesis the fruit of the tree is the means of knowing good from evil, and in the Ritual both the good and evil are determined by the nature of the food presented to the cultivators of the garden, or field of divine harvest, in Amenta as it was on earth. The speaker has a choice between the good and the evil—that is, betwixt the food offered by the Apap-serpent of evil, which is denounced as detestable, vile, excrementitious, and the fruit of the tree, upon which the gods and all good spirits feed. The speaker repudiates the Typhonian diet. He only accepts that which is offered to him by a messenger who comes from the gods and not from the Apap-serpent. He subsists on the food which is the bread of Horus and Taht. “The Osiris feeds on the fruit which is produced by the sycamore-fig tree of Hathor.” On that he is nourished in his turn. In Egyptian the wise spirits are the akeru, which are the wise spirits of the instructed dead, and in eating the fruit of the tree the eaters are to become the wise as spirits. This therefore is the tree of wisdom, or of knowledge. In this way, eating of the tree is a part of the process by which the manes in the garden make their transformation into pure spirits. Certain of the baser sort of manes were represented as feeding in Amenta on the excremental foulnesses of human life. In chapter 32 the speaker exclaims, “Back, crocodile of the east, who livest upon those that devour their own excrement!” There is a Mangaian representation of some poor wretches in Savaiki who are doomed to endure the indignity of being befouled by the fæces that fall from the more fortunate spirits who are happy in their world of plenty overhead. (Gill, p. 164). The doctrine is native to the Book of the Dead. The Egyptians held that those who were foul and filthy in this life would be fed on excremental matter in the next. The dirty would be dirty still. The Catamite and Sodomite would devour the fæces that are probably denoted figuratively by the words hesu and ushem, which
the deceased abominates when he asserts that he does not eat the dirt or drink the lye.
It is possible that hints for the story of eating that which was prohibited, and the becoming aware of their nakedness by the guilty pair, and their hiding under the trees, were taken from chapters 53A, B and 124 of the Ritual. The speaker who has been constituted a soul by Osiris says, “That which is forbidden I do not eat. I do not walk upon it with my sandals.” Here the forbidden thing is odious because it is evil, filthy, excremental. For those who abstain from such repulsive food, the object of unclean appetites, there are pure foods and proper nourishment provided. To these the manes, man and wife, the pair seen in the pictures, uplift their hands. The speaker for both says they eat under the trees and beautiful branches of the tree upon which the fruit grows within reach (124, 1, 4). The notion of a tree that grew forbidden fruit is probably of totemic origin, with a mystical application to sexual uncleanness. The people whose totem was a particular tree would be forbidden to eat of its fruit, or if it were eaten it must be sacramentally, because it was sacred to them. “Do not eat forbidden food,” is a command sternly spoken to the young men in the initiation ceremonies of the Arunta tribes.
In one episode the guilty pair, having eaten of the tree that was to make them wise, perceive themselves to be naked in the garden, and are then clothed with skins by Iahu-Elohim. This also may be explicated by the gnosis. The manes in the Ritual consist of the clothed and the naked. Those who pass the judgment hall become the clothed. The beatified spirits are invested with the robe of the righteous, the stole of Ra, in the garden. There was a special investiture by the god in the garden of Aarru. This clothing in the garden is likewise a part of the process by which the manes pass into the state of spirits. The investiture in the garden of Hetep denotes a spirit made perfect in the likeness of the Lord. This is followed at a distance in the Hebrew Genesis. When the man and woman are invested in their coats of skin they also become spirits, if not as the spirits of the just made perfect. And Iahu-Elohim said, “Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good from evil.” The deceased pleads that he may attain the “investiture of the garden” (ch. 110). When clothed they issue in what is termed the “coming forth in exultation” (Renouf, ch. 99). “I hasten to the land, and I fasten my stole upon me, that I may come forth and take possession of the wealth assigned to me” (ch. 110). “I range within the garden of Hetep; I fasten my stole upon me” (ch. 110). “I am the girdled one, coming forth in triumph” (ch. 117). Now in the judgment scenes there is a skin called the nem-skin suspended over a sign that represents the ba-soul (Hor-Apollo, I, 40). The word nem denotes another, a second, also to repeat. Thus the nem skin is a second skin, covering, or investiture. That which it hangs on in the vignette signifies a soul. So that the nem-skin means another garment for the soul. The lord of transformations is said to have numerous skins, as the rehabiliments of souls. A new skin was equivalent to a new lease of existence. It is this clothing
of the manes in a coat of skin that is repeated in the book of Genesis.
Whatsoever astronomical data there may have been for the typical rendering of a fall in heaven, or from the Garden of Eden, it is the Semites, not the Egyptians, who are responsible for introducing a fall into the moral domain and calling it the veritable fall of man in the beginning.
The Babylonians handling of the Egyptian wisdom was begun by falsifying it on behalf of an indefinitely later system of theology, which was continued on the Hebrew line of descent in the book of Genesis. Besides which, if the fall of Adam from paradise is identifiable with the falling away of Atum in the astronomical mythology, it becomes at once apparent that the restoration from the effects of such a fall is equally astronomical and a matter of scientific verification. Atum, as father, sank down to Amenta every night, and every morning there was a restoration of the light made by the second Atum in his character of the youthful solar god. In the same way Atum, the closer of the year, was the autumn sun that went down in the winter solstice and rose again in the equinox as opener and restorer in the person of Nefer-Tum, the coming son, who was Iu-su=Jesus as Egyptian. So was it through all the cycles of time, including finally the cycle of the great year of the world. On the scale of precession he who made the lapse at first as Atum or Adam would naturally make the restoration as Iu at the end of 26,000 years for those who rightly kept the reckoning and did not mistake this great ending in time for an actual ending of the world. It was the subject of astronomical prophecy that Atum in person of the son (that is, the su or sa) would come again to restore that which was lost of old, when time had once more travelled to the place of the beginning in the Lion sign, the station of the sphinx in heaven, who kept the secret for the mystery teachers of the eternal, or in whichever sign the cycle was to be fulfilled, when paradise would be regained, and all would be once more as at the first; when, as Vergil sang of the great cyclical renewal, “There shall be another ark, steered by another pilot, bearing the chosen heroes” (the twelve kings or gods that voyaged in the solar bark), “and there shall be other wars, and great Achilles shall be sent once more to Troy” (Vergil, Eclogue IV). In other words, the wandering Iu or Horus, Prince of Eternity, would travel once more round the cycle of precession as divine manifestor and fulfiller in the great year of the world. The tree of life retained its place and prominence in the new heavens of Hebrew prophecy as in the old heaven of the astronomical mythology. “For unto you is paradise opened; the tree of life is planted, the time to come is prepared, plenteousness is made ready, a city is builded, and rest is allowed. Sorrows are passed, and in the end is shown the treasure of immortality” (II Es. VIII. 52-54). All of which had been realized for the Egyptians in the garden of Hetep, the Aarru-paradise upon the stellar mount of glory.
Apart from the astronomical allegory, the only fall of man was that of the Adam whom the seven Elohim tried to make out of the red earth, but failed from lack of the immortal spark of spirit, which was ascribed to the father in heaven when the human father had been
individualized on earth. This was the man of flesh who was born, not begotten; the man who descended from the mother only—that is, totemic man, who was shaped by the apprentice hands of the seven powers, together with their mother, and who preceded the supreme being. The first-formed Adam was of the earth earthy, of the flesh fleshly, the man of matter=the mother. This was the origin of an opposition betwixt the flesh and spirit, the man of earth and the man from heaven, which led to a doctrine of natural depravity and pollution of the flesh when compared with the purity of spirit. The doctrine of natural depravity did not originate in the moral domain, it originated in matter considered to be at enmity with the spirit. The cause of this depravity in the flesh was ascribed to the woman after the soul or spirit had been assigned to the fatherhood. The mother was the maker of flesh from her own blood or the red earth, and in one particular phase the blood of the woman was held to be vile and filthy. Job asks, “How can man be clean that is born of a woman?” (XXV. 4). But this “depravity” was a result of confounding the blood as virgin source of life with the menstrualia. There is a hint of the doctrine in the Ritual. In the chapter “whereby one cometh forth to day from Amenta,” the manes says, “Shine thou on me, O gracious power; as I draw nigh to the divine words which my ears shall hear in the Tuat, let no pollution of my mother be upon me.” The speaker is making his transformations into the glorious body of a manes who will be perfected in becoming pure spirit, which is the antithesis of the earthly body that was made flesh in the blood of the mother. “Let no pollution of my mother be upon me” is equivalent to saying, “Deliver me from all fleshliness of the old earth life.” Here, however, the utterer of this prayer is one of the manes who has risen in the shape of the old body, but changed in texture, and who is desirous of being purified and perfected in the likeness of the holy spirit, which is personalized in Amenta as Horus, the anointed son of god the father. A hundred times over one sees how these utterances pertaining to Amenta have been perverted through being assigned to human beings in the life on earth.
The additional features added by the Semites to the original version of the mythos consist in the introduction of a primal pair of mortals eating the forbidden fruit; the temptation and seduction of the woman by the deceiving serpent; the turning of the woman into the tempter of the man; the criminality of the first parents, who lost the world and damned the race before a child was born; the creation of an original sin which was destined to overshadow the human family with an antenatal cloud of guilt and of hereditary depravity, and thus prepare the way and the need for the Christian scheme of redemption to regain a paradisaical condition which was never lost and never had existed. These were the crowning achievements of those who falsified the teachings of the Egyptians. Nothing could better illustrate the difference between the two versions than the opposite treatment of work. In the biblical travesty the curse is to come to the man in the shape of work and to the woman with the labour pangs of maternity. Whereas in the Ritual work is the blessing and the workers in Aarru are the blessed. They cultivate their own allotted portions in the field of divine harvest, and may be said to
make their way and win their other world by work. For the Egyptian could find his heaven in the satisfaction of accomplished work. Again, if we take Ani and his wife, Tutu, as representatives of the pair, once human, and now manes, in the garden, we shall find that so far from the “woman” having been the cause of a fall in the Egyptian Genesis, so far from her having been an agent of the evil serpent, or of Satan, as the Christian fathers ignorantly alleged and brutally maintained, she, the only one who ever had been a woman in this or in other forms of the pair, is portrayed as defender of the man all through the trials and temptations that beset him in his passage through the nether world. She is his guide and protector. She propitiates the powers with offerings on his behalf. She makes his music and his magic all the way.
The pair in Eden or the earthly paradise fulfil two characters in the Kamite myth and eschatology. They are either two of the gods, as Atum and Kefa (Kep), or two of the glorified, as Ani and Tutu. But in neither are the male and female in the garden a pair of human beings; both as the gods and the glorified they are supra-mundane and doubly non-human. Finally, if the “fall” had ever been a veritable fact, the subsequent history of man might be summed up as one long, vast, unceasing, vain endeavour to remedy the disaster and the failure that befell the divine government of the universe in such a helpless way as would destroy all future trust. The vessel would have been lost in the act of being launched, and not a hand reached forth to save the victims until some nineteen centuries ago, when God himself is said to have come down in person for a long-belated rescue of shipwrecked humanity. But the Semitic story of the fall is false, and the scheme of redemption founded on it is consequently fraudulent. As it comes to us, the book of Genesis is based on misappropriated legends. It is responsible for an utterly erroneous account of creation and the origin of evil, and its damnation of the race through Adam’s fall is the sole ground on which the Christian world can now find foothold for its coming Saviour. And, however long or however short a time the imposition lasts,