adversaries. Also the individual adversary is reproduced in the two characters of the Apap-dragon and of Sut or Satan, once the familiar friend or twin brother of the good Osiris, and afterwards his betrayer and inveterate personal enemy. Now, the adversaries of Osiris, or of souls in Amenta, include the Sebau, and these are the “wicked” by name, for the word in Egyptian signifies the profane, impious, blasphemous, culpable, or wicked. They rise up from Amenta as the powers of darkness in revolt, but are for ever driven back into their native night by Horus or Ra, Taht or Shu. These are the wicked of whom it is said in the Psalm, “They shall return or be driven back to Sheol” (Ps. IX. 17).
The comparative process shows that, like Taht, the Psalmist opens in Amenta, the place of the wicked who have no power to “stand in the judgment.” The “wicked” in Amenta are the adversaries of the sun and the soul of man. These are the rebels who for ever rise in impotent revolt against the Lord and his anointed, Osiris-Ra and Horus in the Ritual, Ihuh the father-god and David the beloved in the Psalms. The “wicked” rage against the Lord and his anointed, saying, “Let us break their bands asunder and cast away their cords from us” (Ps. II. 3). These are the “cords of death,” the “cords of the wicked” (Ps. CXXIX. 4), the cords with which the manes are fettered in the land of bondage and the depths of Sheol. The Lord that sitteth in the heavens has these children of failure in derision. He has set his son as king upon the holy hill of Zion, who is to break them with a rod of iron and dash them in pieces like a potter’s vessel. These are they of whom it is said to the Lord, “Thou hast broken the teeth of the wicked.” That is in defence of the sufferer in Sheol, who exclaims, “I cry unto the Lord with my voice, and he answereth me out of his holy hill. I laid me down in death and slept; I awaked, for the Lord sustaineth me” (Ps. III. 4, 5). Osiris the typical sufferer in Amenta was imaged as the mummy bound up in the bandages of burial. As Osiris the mummy he was the Karest or prototypal Corpus Christi. As Osiris-Sekeri he was the coffined one. As Osiris-sahu he rose again in a spiritual body. As Osiris-tat he was a figure of eternal stability. For reasons now to be adduced, Osiris, or the Osiris, represents that typical sufferer whose cries and ejaculations are to be heard ascending from Amenta in the Egyptian Ritual and from Sheol in the Hebrew Psalms.
David pleading in the cave is equivalent to Osiris crying in the caverns of Sut in Amenta. He says, “I cry with my voice unto the Lord. With my voice unto the Lord do I make my supplications. I said, Thou art my refuge, my portion in the land of the living” (he being in Sheol, the land of the dead). “I am brought very low. Deliver me from my persecutors. Bring my soul out of prison” (Ps. CXLII). The prison here is identical with the deep, the pit, the miry clay of Sheol, elsewhere specified. The sufferer in Amenta is Osiris or Horus in the Egyptian eschatology. He is also the Osiris as the suffering manes. Both have to be taken into account in tracing the sufferer in Sheol. He enters Amenta as a prison-house. He prays that it may be opened for him to come forth, so that he
may be finally established with those who have secured a place among the stars that never set, and who are called the masters of eternity. He cries, “O Ra, open the earth! Traverse Amenta and sky! Dissipate our darkness! O Ra, come to us!” (Book of Hades, 4th div., tablets 2, 7, and 8). Amenta or Sheol was the prison-house of the soul in death, and the soul of the deceased is portrayed as a prisoner in the bandages of the mummy, like Osiris in the Kâsu. The Osiris says to the warders of the prisons, “May I not sit within your dungeons, may I not fall into your pits” (Rit., ch. 17). Horus, the deliverer of the “spirits in prison,” comes to set the prisoners free from their sepulchres, to dissipate the darkness and open all the pathways to the land of light. In the chapter by which the prison-house of Amenta is opened to the soul and to the shade of the person, that he may come forth by day and have the mastery over his feet, the speaker prays that the eye of Horus may deliver his soul. He cries to the keepers, “Imprison not my soul, keep not in custody my shade. Let the path be open to my soul. Let it not be made captive by those who imprison the shades of the dead” (Rit., ch. 92). Horus is the Kamite prototype of the chosen one, called the servant by Isaiah, who came “for a light of the Gentiles, to open blind eyes, to bring out prisoners from the dungeon and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house” (Is. XLII. 7). It is not pretended that mortal Horus was born on earth of a mother who was a human virgin in the house of bread at Annu, or that he lived as Unbu the branch at Nazareth or its Kamite equivalent. Such localities in the Ritual are in Amenta, and the transactions take place there, not on this earth. There was the prison-house of death, and from thence the resurrection to a future life by transformation of the human soul into an immortal spirit, as it was represented in the greater and most solemn mysteries.
When the mortal entered Amenta, it was in the likeness of Osiris, who had been bodily dismembered in his death, and who had to be reconstituted to rise again as the spirit that never died. The mortal on earth was made up of seven constituent parts. The Osiris in Amenta had seven souls, which were collected, put together, and unified to become the ever-living one. The deceased in the image of the ba-soul asks that he may be given his new heart to rest in him (Rit., ch. 26). He becomes a sahu, or glorified body (ch. 47). He pleads that the way may be made for his soul, his khu (glory), his shade, and his ka (chs. 91 and 92). These have to be united in the likeness of the typical divine soul which was personalized as Horus the son of Ra, in whose image the spirits of the just made perfect finally became the children of God. When the deceased enumerates his souls, he is a manes in Amenta, and it follows that when the speaker in the Psalms does the same, he is in Sheol, the Hebrew Amenta, not on earth, and therefore is neither a King David nor any other mortal. This identifies the doctrine as Egyptian.
As we have seen, man, formed in the image of God, had seven souls. Seven souls were assigned to Atum-Ra, and the human being who was made in his likeness had seven component parts. These were described as the ka, the I or ego; the ba, a human-headed soul; the hati, or breathing heart; the sahu, or spiritual body; the khu,
or glory; the khabit, or shade; and finally, the perfect spirit. At least six of these can be identified in a passage of the sixteenth Psalm. “Because he (the Lord) is at my right hand, I shall not be moved. Therefore my heart is glad and my glory rejoiceth; my flesh (the mummy-form) also shall dwell in safety. For thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life.” In this passage we can perceive a reference to the hati or breathing heart, the khu or glory, the sahu or mummy-form, the ba-soul, the Horus-spirit, and the ka. If the khabit or shade had been mentioned, there would have been seven altogether, which constituted the totality of a future personality. The speaker in Psalm VII had said, “Let the enemy pursue my soul” (or human-headed ba); “let him tread my life (ankhu) down to the earth, and lay my glory (khu) in the dust,” but for all this he will be avenged upon his adversaries in the judgment. The khu is the particular soul of the seven that was known as the luminous one, or the glory—the soul that was brought up from Sheol or Amenta when it had attained the glory or become one of the glorified. At this stage the speaker in the Ritual says, “Here am I; I come, and am glorified and filled with soul and power” (ch. 94). He has attained the glory of the khu. In the book of Psalms the speaker, who has passed through Sheol, says, “Thou hast brought up my soul from Sheol.” “Thou hast girded me with gladness, to the end that my glory may sing praise to thee” (Ps. XXX. 3, 11, 12). “Awake up, my glory” (Ps. LVII. 8). “I will sing praises with my glory” (Ps., CVII, 1). The language is akin to that of the manes in the Ritual, who says he may be buried in the deep, deep grave and be bowed down to the region of annihilation, yet he shall rise again and be glorified (ch. 30, A), or he will attain the glory of the venerablekhu.
Sheol is a land of darkness and the shadow of death. So is Amenta, until lighted up with the presence of the sun by night in its nether firmament. Sheol is the place of the rephaim or shadows of the past. The rephaim are to be found in Amenta as giants, huge shades of enormous stature; types of terror, made more formidable by their exaggerated size. Sheol is the place of the shades, the under-world to which the souls of the departed went, and from which the dead were summoned by the consulters of oboth or familiar spirits. It includes purgatory and hell, the Ethiopic Siol and Assyrian Saul. There were deeper abysses in the abyss, and chambers of death in the house of death. “Tophet” is another Hebrew name for Sheol. “A Tophet is prepared of old . . . . deep and wide” (Is. XXX. 33), which may be traced to the Egyptian Tepht, a name of the abyss, the cavern of Apap or hole of the serpent. It was from Amenta, the hidden earth, that the ghosts of the dead were summoned by the magi, or rekhi-khet, not as evil demons, but as pure, wise spirits. It is from this nether earth of Amenta that the soul of Samuel is supposed to have ascended when invoked by the witch, pythoness, or 'Eggastrimuqoj of Endor. “And the woman said unto Saul, I see a god (or Elohim) coming up out of the earth,” but which earth of the two is not stated in the Hebrew (I Samuel XXVIII. 13). In several of the Psalms the singer utters the cries of a soul that suffers purgatorial pains in Sheol. As we have seen, the Egyptian purgatory is a
domain in Amenta called the meska=meshek. It was a place of spiritual rebirth by purgation—a meaning that survives in the name of purgatory. This is described in the Ritual (ch. 17) as “the place of scourging and purifying.” “Let not the Osiris advance into the valley of darkness.” “Let not the Osiris enter into the dungeon of the captives.” “Let him not fall among those who would drag him behind the slaughtering block of the executioner” are cries of the Manes.
Amenta is the land of monsters, chief of which in the mythos is the Apap-dragon, which has its lair in the lake of outer darkness. In Amenta the crocodiles have to be repelled (ch. 31). Also the serpent Seksek (ch. 35); Apshai, the devourer of the dead (ch. 36); the serpent Rekrek (ch. 39); the serpent Haiu (ch. 40); the serpent Abur (ch. 42); the crocodile-dragon in the land of bondage (ch. 72); the raging bull (ch. 78); the devouring monsters (ch. 80); the howling dogs (ch. 102); the piercing serpent (ch. 108); the black boar of Sut (ch. 112). Baba, the eternal devourer of the condemned, is the monster most eminent in the eschatology. “Deliver me from the crocodile (or devouring monster) of this land of bondage” (Rit., ch. 72). “Grant that I may come forth and have the mastery of my two feet. Let me advance to the goal of heaven.” “Deliver me from Baba, who feeds upon the livers of princes, on the day of the great reckoning.” These are also the cries of the manes.
The appeals for divine protection during the passage of Amenta and for deliverance from the pangs of purgatory and the terrors of the hells are echoed in the land of Sheol. “Many bulls have compassed me. Strong bulls of Bashan have beset me round. They gape upon me with their mouth” (Ps. XXII. 12, 21). “Thou hast sore broken us in the place of jackals, and covered us with the shadow of death” (Ps. XLIV. 19). “My soul is among lions. I lie among them that are set on fire” (LVII. 4). “Deliver not the soul of thy turtle unto the wild beast” (LXXIV. 19). There is a description in the Ritual of the torn and mutilated Osiris encompassed by the howling dogs of Amenta. “Salutation to thee, Ur-ar-set, in that voyage of heaven and the disaster in Tennu, when those dogs were gathered together, not without giving voice.” The dog is a prominent type of the devourer in Sheol. The sufferer exclaims, “Deliver my soul from the sword; my only one (or my soul) from the power of the dog” (Ps. XXII. 20). The dog in Amenta represents the devourer “who lives upon the damned. His face is that of a hound and his skin is that of a man. Eternal devourer is his name” (Rit., ch. 17). He seizes upon souls in the dark, and is therefore said to be invisible, as a type of very great terror. Osiris bound as a mummy in Amenta prays to be released by the god who had tied the cords about him in the earth. That is, by Seb, the god of earth, who was custodian of the mummies in the earth, whose hands and feet were bound up typically in Amenta in the likeness of the earthly mummy. The sufferer in Sheol cries, “My God! Why hast thou forsaken me? All they that see me laugh me to scorn. They shoot out the lip, they wag the head, saying, He trusted on the Lord that he would deliver him.” “Thou hast brought me into the dust of death. For dogs have encompassed me. The assembly of evil-doers have enclosed me. They bound my
hands and my feet. They look and stare upon me. They part my garments among them, and upon my vesture do they cast lots.” “Yea, mine own familiar friend in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted his heel against me.” “I looked for some to take pity, but there was none; and for comforters, but I found none.” They gave me also “gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.” These are the pitiful cries and ejaculations of the suffering Osiris or Horus, the saviour in the Egyptian wisdom, and these scenes, circumstances, and sayings have been reproduced as the very foundations of the “history” in the Gospels. They were confessedly found among “the parables and dark sayings of old,” which, as the scribe admits, “we have heard and known and our fathers have told us.” That is, they were found in the writings of the divine scribe and psalmist Taht, which were preserved in the psalms of the Hebrew David. The matter of the mythology goes with the mythical characters, and this has been mistaken for prophecy that was to be fulfilled in some future human history.
There is a chapter in the Ritual on not letting the mummy decay—that is, the mummy as a type of the personality continued in a future life (ch. 154). In this the mummy-god Osiris is addressed as the father by the Osiris as the manes in Amenta. The speaker says, “Hail to thee, my father Osiris! Thy limbs are lasting, thou dost not know corruption.” And as with the god so is it with the manes. In spite of death, he says, “I am, I am; I live, I live; I grow, I grow; and when I awake I shall awake, I shall awake in peace. I shall not see corruption. I shall not be destroyed in my bandages.” My limbs are lasting for ever. I do not rot. I do not putrefy. I do not turn to worms. My flesh is firm; it shall not be destroyed; it shall not perish in the earth for ever.” (Ch. 154, Naville.) In the parallel passages of the Psalms the speaker says, “My heart is glad and my glory rejoiceth; my flesh shall dwell in safety (or confidently). For thou wilt not leave my soul to Sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thine holy one to see corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life.” As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness. I shall be satisfied with thy likeness when I awake.” (Ps. XVI and XVII.) The “flesh” in the Psalm takes the place of the mummy in the Ritual. The speaker in the Psalms “cries out” continually, and calls on the ka or image of the eternal, in the likeness of which he expects to rise again and live as Horus or as Jesus the beloved son.
Another type of the beloved son in Sheol is the turtle-dove. The speaker cries to the god of his salvation, “Oh, deliver not the soul of thy turtle-dove unto the wild beast. The dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of violence” (Ps. LXXIV. 19, 20). The soul of the turtle-dove is the dove that was a symbol of the soul. When the transformation from the mummy was made in Amenta the deceased became bird-headed as a soul, and thus assumed the likeness of Ra the holy spirit. This bird of soul in the later eschatology was the hawk, the sign of a soul that was considered to be male, the soul of god the father. The dove of Hathor was an earlier type of a soul derived from the mother. This is the turtle-dove of the Psalmist. In one of the Egyptian drawings the soul is portrayed in the process of issuing from the mummy in the shape of a dove, instead of the usual hawk.
Both are emblems of the risen soul, but the dove in monumental times was almost superseded by the hawk of Ra and Horus.
In the Ritual snares are set and a net is prepared to catch and destroy the manes. The deceased prays that he may not be taken like a foolish fish in the net. In the Psalms the speaker, who is David in the cave, exclaims, “They have prepared a net for my steps” (Ps. LVII). “Pluck me out of the net that they have privily laid for me” (Ps. XXXI. 4). These are the liers in wait (Ps. V. 8) who privily lurk to catch the passing souls. In vignettes to the Ritual the souls of the ignorant are shown in the guise of fishes being caught in the net by Cynocephali, who are allowed to capture them because of their ignorance.
The waters of the deep were in Amenta. The deep is identical with the pit, the pit with Sheol, and Sheol with Amenta. “Save me, O God; for the waters are come in unto my soul. I sink in deep mire, where there is no standing. I am come into deep waters where the floods overflow me.” “Deliver me out of the mire, and let me not sink. Let me be delivered from them that hate me. Let not the water-flood overwhelm me, neither let the deep swallow me up.” In the Psalms the Hebrew deity is he who sitteth on the waters. “The Lord sitteth on the flood; yea, the Lord sitteth as king for ever.” “He hath founded the earth upon the waters and established it upon the floods” (Ps. XXIV. 2). “Even the Lord upon many waters.” This is the picture of Osiris in Amenta sitting on his throne of the waters as lord of all the earth. The earth itself is imaged by the lotus rising from the water as the mount arose from out the Nun, and the water springs up and flows from underneath the seat which is the throne of the god. The representation in the great hall of judgment is precisely the same as that described in the book of Revelation: “And he showed me a river of water of life, bright as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God” (Rev. XXII. 1). The action of the god throughout nature is imaged as a welling and a flowing forth of water from its secret source. Ihuh the Lord is described by Jeremiah as “the fountain of living waters” (XVII. 13). When it is said that the Lord sitteth on the flood (Ps. XXIX. 10, 11), or that “Ouranos (OuranÕj) is the throne of God” (Matt. V. 34, 35), the imagery is Egyptian, with certain features defaced. The Ouranos is heaven as the celestial water, upon which the lord has been left sitting without the solar boat. The lord as Ihuh is one with Atum-Huhi or Ra, who is described as making his voyage nightly on the Urnas=Ouranos, leaving the trail of otherworld glory in the river of the Milky Way. It is the same solar deity that rode through the deserts of the under-world, but again the modus operandi is omitted. In this way the Egyptian imagery has been divorced from the natural phenomena which it was intended to portray. In the Ritual the waters are described as bursting forth in an overwhelming deluge. “Knowing the deep waters is my name,” exclaims the sinking manes (ch. 64). “Do thou save me!” he cries to the Lord. Then he exults in not being one of those who drown. “Blessed are they that see the bourne. Beautiful is the god of the motionless heart (Asar), who causeth the stay of the overflowing waters. Behold! there cometh forth the lord of life, Osiris my support, who abideth day by day. I embrace the sycamore, I am
united to the sycamore.” The tree is a type of stability and safety in Amenta. In Sheol the refuge of the sinking soul is depicted amidst the waste of waters as the everlasting rock, but both have one and the same significance as the means of safety from the flood.
The mummy sleeping in Amenta as the god or as the manes waits the resurrection there. Horus wakes the manes in their coffins for the coming forth, when they are freed from the cerements, which he rends asunder. This resurrection is attained in Sheol when the speaker says, “I will extol thee, O Lord, for thou hast raised me up. Thou hast loosed my sackcloth and girded me with gladness, to the end that my glory (the khu) may sing praise to thee and not be silent” (Ps. XXX). In the Kamite resurrection there was a change from the earthly body. The bandages of burial were cast aside and the sahu mummy was invested in the robe of immortality. In fact, to be invested thus was to become a spiritual being. The “glory,” as one of the Egyptian seven souls called the khu, was now attained by the Osiris in the course of his being reconstituted. Salvation for the Egyptian was being saved from the fate of the irredeemably wicked, the doom of the second death, which was annihilation. Salvation was continuity of life hereafter, and this was only attainable by the righteous—those who did the right and acted justly, those who effected the truth of the word in their own life and pursued it through Amenta. They attained eternal life by personal, not by imputed, righteousness. Hence the deceased pleads his righteousness before the lord of righteousness in the great hall of righteousness. He pleads not what he believes, but what he has done. “I have done that which maat (the law) prescribeth, and that which pleases the gods. I have propitiated the god with that which he loveth. I have given bread to the hungry, water to the thirsty, clothes to the naked, a boat to the shipwrecked.” “I am one of those to whom it is said, Come, come in peace, by those who look upon him”—that is, the divine company of the gods. He passes in peace, and is invested with the robe of the righteous on account of his own righteousness. This is the doctrine of the Ritual, and it is likewise the doctrine of the Psalms. “Answer me when I call, O God of my righteousness” (Ps. IV. 1). “Judge me, O Lord, according to my righteousness and to mine integrity” (Ps. VII. 8. “As for me, I shall behold thy face in righteousness” (Ps. XVII. 15). “The Lord rewardeth me according to my righteousness” (Ps. XVIII. 20). This is not Christian doctrine, but it is Jewish, because it was Egyptian. Personal righteousness is pleaded in the Psalms, the same as in the Ritual. “Judge me, O Lord, according to my righteousness” (Ps. VII. 8). “The Lord rewarded me according to my righteousness” (Ps. XVIII. 24). In the Kamite judgment hall the speaker says, “I have done the righteousness of a lord of righteousness. There is not a limb in me which is void of righteousness” (ch. 125). This, as we interpret the Hebrew version, is the position of the speaker in Sheol who is awaiting judgment amidst the trials and the terrors that beset the manes in the caverns of Sut, through which he has to grope his way. On arriving at the judgment hall the Osiris says, “Hail to thee, mighty god, lord of righteousness. I am come to thee, O my Lord; I have brought myself that I may look upon thy glory.” He pleads in presence of those whose natural
prey is the souls of the wicked, “devouring those who harbour mischief and swallowing their blood, upon the day of searching examination in presence of the good Osiris. Behold me; I am come to you void of wrong, without fraud; let me not be declared guilty; let not the issue be against me. I subsist upon righteousness. I sate myself with uprightness of heart. I have propitiated the god with that which he loveth. I am come, and am awaiting that inquisition be made of righteousness” (ch. 125). In the Psalms “God is the judge” (Ps. VII. 11). “Righteousness and judgment are the foundations of his throne” (Ps. XCVII. 2, XCVIII. 2). “Thou sattest in thy throne judging righteously” (Ps., IX, 4). “The Lord sitteth as king for ever. He hath prepared his throne for judgment, and he shall judge the world in righteousness” (Ps. IX. 7, 8).
In one form of the mythos Sut and Osiris, in the other Sut and Horus, are born twin brothers. Sut becomes the adversary of Osiris, the Good Being. This conflict of the two opponent powers reappears in the Psalms as well as in the book of Job. “Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat my bread, hath lifted up his heel against me (Ps. XLI. 9-11). But thou, O Lord, have mercy upon me, and raise me up, that I may requite them. By this I know that thou delightest in me, because mine enemy doth not triumph over me.” “It was thou, a man mine equal, my companion and my familiar friend. We took sweet counsel together, we walked in the house of God with the throng.” “He hath put forth his hands against such as were at peace with him; he hath profaned his covenant. His mouth was smooth as butter, but his heart was war; his words were softer than oil, yet were they drawn swords” (Ps. LV. 20, 21). Nothing could more aptly reproduce the figure of fact as a figure of speech than the quotation from the Psalmist to the effect that he, the intimate friend and very brother, had “lifted his heel against” the Christ, the Lord’s anointed. In the double figure of Horus and Sut they are twinned together back to back and therefore heel to heel. David and the adversary are equivalent to Osiris and Sut, or to Horus and Sut in another phase of the mythos, the twin brothers being characters in both.