When Sut and the Sebau had compassed the death of Osiris, a day of dissolution followed the great disaster. There was an overthrowal of the pillars—the tat-pillar at the centre of all, and the four supports at the four corners. Then Horus came as the avenger of his father and as the judge of the wicked, who after trial were annihilated on the highways of the damned. The tat was re-erected, and the four pillars (posts or flagstaffs) were set up once more “on the night of setting up the pillars of Horus and of establishing him as heir of his father’s property.” This was at the time when Horus, as Har-Tema, came to judge the adversaries of his father Osiris (Rit., ch. 18). A fragment from this would seem to have strayed into the 75th Psalm, like many other wandering words that have lost their senses. “When I shall find the set time, I will judge uprightly. The earth and all the inhabitants thereof are dissolved. I have set up the pillars of it”—which looks as if the Osiris deceased in Sheol were speaking in the character of Horus who re-erected the pillars. In the Ritual the dissolution and re-establishing of the earth by setting up
the pillars, immediately follows the battle with the Sebau, the Apap, and Sut; and in the preceding psalm (LXXIV) the war with the dragon is described. “Thou breakest the heads of the dragons in the waters.” “Thou breakest the heads of leviathan in pieces; thou gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness.” The dragons in the psalm are the evil crocodiles in the Ritual.
A profound study of the Ritual reveals the fact that the wisdom of Egypt was the source and fountain-head of the books of wisdom assigned to Moses and David, to Solomon and Jesus; and also proves the personages or characters to have been Egyptian. It is chiefly the wisdom of Egypt that gives a value to the Hebrew writings, as will be indubitably demonstrated. In Psalm XXIV there is a glorification of the coming king of glory:
Lift up your heads, O ye gates;
And be ye lift up, ye everlasting doors;
And the King of Glory shall come in.
Who is the King of Glory?
The Lord strong and mighty,
The Lord mighty in battle.
Lift up your heads, O ye gates;
And the King of Glory shall come in.
Who is the King of Glory?
The Lord of Hosts,
He is the King of Glory.
This king of glory was the sun-god in the astronomical mythology. The Hebrew repeats the king of glory, the gates, and the doors, but omits the astronomical foundation; and in this way the wisdom of Taht was deprived of its scientific value. But who is this king of glory? and what are the gates that are called upon to open and let him in? As the “Lord of hosts” we know him for Iao-Sabaoth, lord of the seven great spirits; therefore he is the solar god; but we must turn to the Ritual to understand the nature of the gates. There are thirty-six altogether, corresponding to the thirty-six decans of the zodiac. At the same time the gates are thirty-six doors in the great house of Osiris. Chapter 145 is devoted to the passage of the sun-god through twenty-one of these celestial gates. The sun-god is the king of glory in the Ritual. In “the book that was made on the birthday of Osiris,” in which “glory is given to the inviolate one,” Taht, the Kamite psalmist, sings, “Opened be the gates of heaven! Opened be the gates of earth! Opened be the gates of the east! Opened be the gates of the west! Opened be the gates of the southern and of the northern sanctuaries! Opened be the gates and thrown wide open be the portals as Ra ariseth from the mount of glory, the swift of speed and beautiful in his rising, and almighty through what he hath done.” “Glory to thee, O Ra, lord of the mount of glory.” (Rit., ch. 129.) The gates and doors are those that open as the solar god comes forth at dawn. He is the king of glory; these are the gates of glory that were opened on the mount of glory “at the beautiful coming forth of his powers.” “It is the gate and the two doors and openings through which Father Atum issueth on the eastern horizon (or mount) of heaven.” (Rit., ch. 17.) That is Atum-Huhi=Ihuh. The mythology is abso-
lutely necessary all through for us to understand the eschatology, whether in its Egyptian guise or Hebrew disguise.
When the Psalmist says, “The Lord is my shepherd,” it has become a mere phrase. The Egyptians presented the portrait. Horus was the lord as leader of the flock and guardian of the fold, because he represented the first who rose again from the dead, though not at any particular historic date. Amsu-Horus, with his crook in hand, shepherded the flocks of Ra beyond the grave. After the resurrection in Amenta he says to his first four followers, who are called his children, “Now let my fold be fitted for me as one victorious against all those adversaries who would not that the right should be done to me, the only one” (Rit., ch. 97). He is the “master of the champaign” and “of the inundation,” and therefore of the green pastures and the still waters of life. Horus, the son of god, came into the world as shepherd of his father’s sheep, to lead them through the darkness of Amenta to the green pastures and still waters of the final paradise upon Mount Hetep in the heaven of eternity. It was not supposed that he came to secure the Jew his cent. per cent., or the Christian capitalist the power to rob the workers of the fruits of their labour, or the Boers and Belgians to eat up the aborigines and lie down as loafers in the still pastures of their stolen lands.
Psalm XXIII contains a description of the green fields of pasture and the still waters that run through that paradise of plenty, peace, and rest:
The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want.
He maketh me to lie down in green pastures:
He leadeth me beside the still waters.
He restoreth my soul:
He leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name’s sake.
Yea, though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death (Amenta or Sheol),
Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies:
Thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over.
Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life:
And I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever.
The staff of Amsu was a symbol of Osiris who rose again as Horus. It was buried with the deceased, and is found in the oldest coffins together with other weapons that were interred with the dead as types of a protecting power. “The Osiris receiveth the Amsu staff wherewith he goeth round the heaven” (Rit., ch. 130). This elsewhere is called the palm of Amsu. It was the support of the Osiris in life and in death. This psalm is one of those that have been least denuded of the original object-pictures. The valley of the shadow of death is the Ar-en-Tet or valley of the dead in the Ritual, where those who suffer the second death are buried for ever (Rit., ch. 19) by the great annihilator Seb. Horus in one character is the good shepherd, but the lord, as leader in the green pastures, is the bull of the seven cows, who are the providers of plenty. He is called the lord of the pastures, or fields of the bull, the green meadows of Aarru. He also says, “I am the bull, the lord of the gods.” This answers to “The Lord is my shepherd; I shall not want. “He maketh me to lie down in green pastures,” says the Psalmist. The speaker in the Ritual says, “I take my rest in the divine domain.” “I sail upon its stream, and I range
within its garden of peace.” The speaker sings for joy, it may be, in the Psalms of Taht. He exclaims, “I utter my praise to the gods who are in the garden of peace.” The “still waters” are in Hebrew the “waters of rest”; these, in the Egyptian, are the waters of Hetep=the waters of rest and peace. The departed rests beside these waters in the green fields where Hetep, as the god of peace, is “putting together the oblations” for the spirits of the just made perfect. “Thou preparest a table before me,” says the Psalmist. The table likewise was prepared upon Mount Hetep, and piled with heaps of imperishable food. Hence the Osiris says, “I rest at the table of my father Osiris” (Rit., ch. 70). Mount Hetep was itself the tableland of the oblations. The “house of the lord” is designated by the speaker in the Ritual “the mansion where food is produced for me,” the mansion that was lifted up by Shu, the paradise of Am-Khemen. Two paths led up to it, called the “double path.” These are the “paths of righteousness.” The deceased in the Ritual is seen ascending the mount with the supporting rod or staff in his hand. Where the Psalmist says, “He restoreth my soul,” the speaker in the Ritual says rejoicingly, “My soul is with me.” This in Egyptian is the ka, that was ultimately attained in the garden of peace. The ka is the final form of the soul restored to the departed when they are perfected in the assembly or congregation on the mount. The speaker in Hetep says, “There is given to me the abundance which belongeth to the ka and to the glorified.” It was in Amenta that the lord’s anointed was begotten: one mode was by the transformation of Horus the mortal into Horus the beloved son. In the Hebrew Psalms the same transaction is repeated in the place of the “wicked” who rebel and rage against the Lord and his anointed. The son begotten by the father is born to become the ruler over them, and to effect the triumph of the father over all his adversaries on the day of judgment, the same as in the Ritual (ch. 1). The Lord himself that sitteth in the heavens “shall have them in derision,” yea, he has also set the son as king upon the holy hill of Zion, the mountain of the Lord. Here it may be remarked that the change from Horus the human youth with the side-lock to Horus the divine avenger would lend itself to the euhemerists for the conversion of David the shepherd boy into the solar hero who made war upon the giant and slew the Philistines.
The Jews, we are told, believe in a twofold kind of immortality, the one being in a state immediately following death, the other in the resurrection from Sheol at the judgment-day. These two aspects of continuity after death are to be explained by the Egyptian eschatology. The Hebrew Sheol is the Egyptian secret earth of eternity, the divine nether-world. In death the manes passed into the Amenta as a body-soul that survived the body and became a ghost or shade with power to reappear as an apparition on the earth. After passing through purgatory and all the other places and modes of purification, and making the necessary transformations as an Osiris, or human Horus, the manes rose from Amenta to the paradise of spirits perfected in the likeness of Horus the divine. The immortality that was previously potential for the human Horus or manes was established in Tattu and assured by the resurrection of the glorified spirit
from the Akar (Rit., 30, A). The manes in the Ritual says of himself, “After being buried on earth I am not dead in Amenta.” He is there “reunited to the earth on the western side of heaven,” to become a “pure spirit for eternity” (ch. 30, A). This is the original doctrine of a body, soul, and spirit—a body on earth, a manes soul in Sheol, and an immortal spirit in the resurrection on high. Horus was incarnated in the human body on earth. He died and rose again in Amenta as a sahu or soul in a rarer but corporeal form. This was a resurrection from the first death. Then he made his transformation into Horus the pure spirit, and ascended to his father in heaven, hawk-headed or dove-headed, from the mount of Amenta or the double earth. These things were visibly portrayed upon the walls and in the papyri of Egypt, not to be lost sight of there; but, away from Egypt, the pictures were no longer present, and the Jews lost their living memory of Amenta. They had only words, without the means of verification in the representative signs which had given a palpable reality to the most ancient mysteries in the chambers of Egyptian imagery; and gradually Sheol dwindled to the dimensions of the grave, as we find it continued in the Old Testament. In the mythology the messianic resurrection from Sheol was the annual re-arising of the Horus-sun at Easter. In the eschatology it was the resurrection of Horus divinized as son of Ra the holy spirit who ascended with his followers to the fields of peace in the upper paradise of the celestial Aarru. And just as the colours in Egyptian tombs remain at times as fresh as if the paint had never dried, so do the pictures and portraits survive in the mythology and eschatology, unfading in colour and imperishable in form, after they had grown dim and dead for the Hebrews and Greeks, to be counterfeited as historic for the Christians, who had no means of detecting the imposition by any reference to the prototypes, that are as living to-day as the hues in which the imagery was painted by Egyptian scribes, whose drawing was a means of bringing on and on the most ancient wisdom down from the days of gesture-language, when there was as yet no possible registry in words, to the time of the Egypto-gnostics.
There is plenty of proof that the same fundamental matter belonging to the wisdom of Egypt, in which Osarsiph of On was an adept, appears thrice over in the Hebrew writings. It is mythological in the books of Genesis, Exodus, and Joshua. It is eschatological in the Psalms. And in the later books it is converted into matter of prophecy. All three phases were Egyptian. With this difference: the sole possible fulfilment of prophecy was astronomical, not humanly historical. To illustrate two of these phases: the land of bondage in the book of Exodus is the Amenta of the solar drama, the lower Egypt of the double earth, the scene of the never-ceasing battles between the powers of light and darkness, the sun-god and the Sebau, Ra and the dragon, or Horus and Sut; Amenta in the mythology becomes Sheol in the Hebrew eschatology. The land of bondage, then, is the place of suffering souls that seek deliverance from the desert of darkness, the prison-house of death and hell. It is the sufferer in Sheol, the Osiris of the Ritual, who says, “Thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol; neither wilt thou suffer thy beloved to see
corruption. Thou wilt show me the path of life” (Ps. XVI. 10, 11). “That thy beloved may be delivered, save with thy right hand and answer us” (Ps. LX. 5). There is the same assimilation of the manes to the suffering Horus, or Osiris, as in the Ritual. There is also the same mixture of the mythical and eschatological. This is especially marked in the 18th Psalm, which purports to contain the words that were spoken by David on the day the Lord delivered him from all his enemies.
According to the Egyptian wisdom, whoever the speaker may be in the Hebrew Sheol, it is the suffering Osiris or the Osiris in Amenta; and the god appealed to by him in his trouble is the god who was Ra the father in heaven as Atum-Huhi in the Egyptian and Ihuh in the Jewish cult. Also it is the solar god alone that will account for the imagery. Not only are the ground-plan and total scheme Egyptian, the mythology and eschatology can be followed in innumerable details. It looks at times as if the scribes were directly citing the earlier scriptures, from which the mythos is quoted and converted into prophecies, chiefly concerning the coming judge and avenger, who in the Egyptian original is the avenger of Osiris-Un-Nefer, and his followers, the chosen people, or the glorified elect, who suffer in Amenta from the persecution of Sut and the Sebau, his co-workers in iniquity.
Let the 34th and the 35th chapters of Isaiah be compared with the Hymn to Osiris. (There are two versions of this hymn in the Records of the Past, first series, vol. IV, and 2nd series, vol. IV, that by Mallet being much the closer rendering.) “Seek ye out the book of the Lord and read,” exclaims Isaiah in his description of the coming one. The day of vengeance for long-suffering had obviously been foretold in this book. And at the advent of the Lord who was to bring deliverance to his people, it is said, “The wilderness and the solitary place shall be glad, and the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose.” “They shall see the glory of the Lord, the excellency of our God.” “Behold, your God will come with vengeance: he will come and save you. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall be unstopped.” The dumb are to break forth into singing, and the lame to leap for joy. Waters are to well forth in the wilderness, streams in the desert, and the mirage on the sands is to turn them to a pool. All this belongs to the mythical representation of the advent in the earth of eternity which was celebrated in the mysteries as occurring once a year. And it is this coming of Messiah as Horus the prince of peace on earth and the avenger who makes Osiris triumphant over his adversaries in Amenta or Sheol that is described in the Hymn to Osiris. When he has gone forth in peace by the command of Seb (that is, as the human Horus born of Seb, god of earth), the divine company of the gods adore him, the inhabitants of the Tuat prostrate themselves to the ground, the loftiest bow the head, the ancestral spirits are in prayer. When they behold him, the august dead (in the nether-world) submit to him. The two lands (of the double earth) unite in one to give him the glory, marching before his majesty: glorious, noble (or highest) among the sahus, from whom proceeds all dignity, who establishes supreme authority; excellent chief of the divine company of the gods,
with beautiful aspect, beloved of him who has contemplated him, extending his terror through all countries that may proclaim this name before all others. The great prince, eldest of his brothers, the chiefs of the divine companies, who establishes the truth in the double land, who seats the son (himself) upon the throne of his father, the favourite of his father Seb, the beloved of his mother Nut (heaven, one of whose names is Meri). Very valiant, he overthrows the impious; strong of arm, he immolates his adversary (Sut=Satan); breathing terror upon his enemies, conquering the distant frontiers of the wicked. Firm of heart, his feet are vigilant. Flesh (or heir) of Seb! Royalty of the double earth! (Horus of the royal countenance). Seb contemplates his benefits (the benefits of his advent to the earth); he has ordered him to govern all countries to assure their prosperity. . . . The desert carries its tribute to the son of Nut; Egypt is happy when it sees him appear upon his father’s throne. The author of evil (Sut) pronounces magical words and displays his power in his turn, but the son of Isis makes his way to him and avenges his father, sanctifying and honouring his name. The paths are cleared, the roads are opened, evil flees away. He has caused the authority of his father to be recognized in the great dwelling of Seb—that is, of earth. In this abstract the advent of Horus, which was annual in Egypt, whence he was the king of one year, is hymned in various phases of his pre-Christian character. He comes by order of Seb, the foster-father on earth, as his favourite of the brothers, who were five in number when Horus is counted as one. He comes in peace, but also brings the sword as a terror to the workers of iniquity and as the immolator of his adversary Sut. He comes also as Horus of the inundation; and thus the desert is made to blossom, and to carry its tribute to the son of Nut, who has conquered Sut, the cause of drought and sterility, in his contest with the devil in the wilderness in which Horus vanquishes his adversary and avenges his father.
Again, the following might have been designated a song of Har-Tema, who is Horus the fulfiller at his second advent. “The spirit of the Lord is upon me, because the Lord hath anointed me to preach good tidings unto the poor. He hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives and the opening of the eyes to them that are blind; to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord’s good pleasure and the day of vengeance of our God” (Is. LXI. 1, 2). Horus in his second advent came hawk-headed in the likeness of Ra as the anointed and beloved son. The divine hawk was his sign that the spirit of the Lord was upon him. He brought good tidings for the poor and comfort for the oppressed. He is Horus the compassionate. One of his titles is “the Comforter.” In one passage of the Ritual he says, “I have been produced to repulse the evil powers”—literally those who grovel on their bellies. “I come as the forerunner or messenger of the Lord, as councillor of Osiris.” He goes forth from the state of the disk to bring light and liberty to the manes who are darkling in their prison cells. He solaces those that mourn, he wipes away the tears from those who weep, and opens the eyes of those who are breathless, bound, and blind.
At the same time he was the stern avenger of injustice. The judgment day and dread assize were annual, in accordance with the
natural fact, and there was a time of terrible vengeance once a year. The “acceptable year of the Lord” was based upon this judgment and readjustment, the setting of the captives free and punishing the guilty once a year; and both the first and second advents of Horus were of annual occurrence in the year of “the Lord’s good pleasure.”
The fundamental doctrines and the imagery of the book of Job are also Egyptian. These include the Amenta or secret earth of eternity (the hidden place) (XL. 13), which is the land of darkness and the shadow of death (X. 21). The sufferer in Amenta, the redeemer from the dust of earth, the resurrection of the righteous and annihilation of the wicked (XIX. 25-26, XVIII. 5) The house of the prince (Hat-Saru) (XXI. 28). Stretching out the heavens (IX. 8). The day-spring on high (XXXVIII. 12). The group of the glorious ones, the sons of God, including Sut or Satan, the adversary (I. 6). The Lord as a lion in his terrible majesty (X. 16). The serpent pierced by the hand of God (XXVI. 13). The nest and the phœnix (XXIX. 18). The papyrus plant (VIII. 11). The pyramid tombs (III. 14). Leviathan, the crocodile-dragon (XLI. 1), and the rephaim beneath the waters. These are one and all Egyptian.
That which is non-human as matter of the mythos becomes inhuman when retailed as history, and it is inhuman in the one phase because it was not human in the other. This criterion is infallible. For example, the persecution of Job by Satan the adversary repeats the treatment of the good Osiris by the evil Sut. This of itself suffices to show that the drama was non-human in its oldest form. The Osirian drama unfolded in the mysteries of Amenta likewise furnished matter for the book of Job. The land of darkness described as Sheol by Job is one with Amenta in its secret unillumined parts. It is the land of darkness and the shadow of death, a land of thick darkness, as darkness itself, a land of the shadow of death (Job X. 21, 22). This is the Ar-en-Tet of the Ritual (ch. 19), the valley of darkness and death, whose unmitigable gloom conceals the secrets that are absolutely unknowable, and where those who died the second death were buried for ever in their mummied immobility. This is the condition threatened in the book of Job (XLIX. 19) for the wicked: “He shall go to the generation of his fathers; they shall never see the light.” This region of impenetrable darkness becomes the whole of Sheol, or Sualu, in this version of Amenta. Sheol is especially described as the land of shade, which suggests a Kamite origin for the name. As Egyptian, the root-word “shu” signifies shade, shadow, to be destitute, dark, void. Thence, the void, the hollow, the land of shade, is the land of Shual or Sheol as a Semitic place-name. The book of Job has been described as the most profound and wonderful drama of humanity ever written, yet those who so described it could not have told us what it is actually about. Fundamentally Egyptian, it has been re-adapted without the wisdom of Egypt. All has been changed by making the sufferer Job a human personage on this earth; and when we know the true nature of mythical characters like those of Job or Samson, David or Jonah, or Jack the Giant Killer, it lessens the interest we might otherwise take in them as human heroes. We must resort to the original. The drama of Job and Satan contains a euhemerized version of the