But we must make a further digression on account of Joseph as a form of the young solar god in Israel who was Iu, the ass-headed sif or son of Atum-Ra, in Egypt. Not one of the legends in the Hebrew writings attributed to Moses could be understood apart from the mythology from which they were fundamentally derived. Nor does the mythology remain intact in the form of the märchen. The story of Joseph, for example, is a collection of fugitive fragments, each one of which is separately identifiable. Joseph is not simply one of
ten or twelve or seventy brethren in the family of Jacob or Israel. Joseph-El as the beloved son of Jacob was divine, and would be a divinity if there were any possibility of all the other sons being human. It is now known that Jacob-El and Joseph-El were worshipped as two divinities in Northern Syria, and it is there we find a remnant of the seed of Israel or Isiri-El, and therefore of Jacob-El whose son was Joseph. But it is not to be supposed that Jacob was a human father, and that Joseph was his human son, who were divinized by adding the divine El as a suffix to their names. This leaves us with nothing but the two divinities to go upon. These probably originated with Iu in Kheb, or Lower Egypt, as Jacob, and Iu, the sif, or son, as Joseph; the two divinities being humanized in the later legends of the Iu, Aiu, or Jews, as was the common way in converting mythos into history. It can be shown that Joseph was a form of the divine, the beloved son, whose father was hvhy in one version of the mythos and Jacob in another. Io or Jo=Iu in the name of Joseph ([chy) is taken by Hebraists as the equivalent of Iahu; and in Ps. LXXXI. 5, the name of Joseph is written Iahusiph ([cvhy)—that is, Iah the siph or sif, which in Egyptian denotes the son. Also the names hypcvy, that is Joseph-Iah and of Josephiah (Ez. VIII. 10) proclaim the fact, in accordance with the use and wont of the Hebrew language, that Joseph is Iah=Iu in Egyptian. In the same way the name of El-Iasaph (Num. I. 14 and III. 24) identifies the deity of Joseph, and affirms that Iasaph is one with Iah, and therefore is Joseph-El. Joseph as son is Iu the sif, or the coming son, in Egyptian. These names show the identity of Joseph and Iu the sif, and denote that Joseph was the son of the same father, who is Jacob in the one version and Ihuh in the other. The descent of the sun-god into the lower Egypt of Amenta is portrayed in the märchen as the casting of Joseph into the pit, and the ascent therefrom in his glory by the coat of many colours. In Egypt Joseph plays the part of Repa to the Ra or Pharaoh. In this character he rides in the second chariot when he goes forth as the Adon, or Aten, over all the land. But as Joseph-El he is the divine Repa, the Horus of thirty years—that is, Iu the sif in the cult of Atum-Ra. At thirty years of age the son as Horus, or Iu the sif=Joseph, took his seat upon the throne beside the father, and went forth as ruler over all the land of Egypt, the halves of which were united when the young god assumed the sovereignty of the double country in the mythos, and is called Har-sam-taui, uniter of the double earth, or earth and heaven, in the eschatology. His relationship to Neith likewise attests his divinity. When the throne-name of “Zaphenath Paneah”=Sif-Neith the living, is conferred upon him he is identified as the son who became the consort of the cow-headed Neith, a form of whom was the goddess Iusâas, the mother of Iu the sif=Joseph, at Heliopolis. This relationship to the great Neith is fulfilled when he becomes the consort of Asenath or Asa-Neith, whose name identifies her as the great goddess Neith, the daughter of Ra, or, as “historically” rendered, the daughter of Potiphar.
As mythical characters, Joseph and Jesus are two forms of one original. Joseph in Israel was a name of the Messiah who was
expected as the ever-coming son. Now, in Egyptian there are two names for the coming son: one is Iu the su=Jesus; the other is Iu the sif=Joseph. And when the wandering Jew, named Kartaphiles, became a Christian he is called Joseph, and was said to have fallen into a trance once every century, and to have risen again at thirty years of age. That is the age of Horus the adult in his second advent; also of Jesus in the Gospels, as well as of Joseph when he became the Adon over all the land of Egypt, the double land or double earth of Egypt in Amenta.
Joseph being identified as a god in Joseph-El, the god Joseph is further identifiable as an Egyptian deity who was Iu, the ever-coming son, both in the dynasty of Ptah at Memphis and also of Atum-Ra at On. The divine nature of Joseph-El may explicate a passage from Cheremon, cited by Josephus, who records a tradition that one of the two leaders of the Israelites, in an exodus from Egypt which can no longer be considered historical, was Joseph. Cheremon was one of the most learned men in Egypt, and the contemporary of Apion, against whom Josephus wrote his reply. He was keeper of the rolls and books. He was an Egyptian historian in the library of the Serapæum. He also composed a hieroglyphical dictionary, fragments of which are still extant and have been of service to Egyptologists. Cheremon, therefore, was one of those who knew. He not only asserts that one of the two leaders was Joseph, but also that his Egyptian name was Peteseph, and that he was a sacred scribe. Now, as may be seen, the name of Ptah was rendered by Pet in the Greek name of Petesuchis for the Ptah (Putah) of crocodiles; and Joseph=Peteseph in Egyptian is the sif or son Iu, i.e. Iusif, whilst Peteseph is the son of Ptah, which he was as Iu the sif of Ptah in the Egyptian divine dynasties—that is, Iu-em-hetep. Peteseph as Iu the son of Ptah (or Ptah the son) was the divine scribe in person who is portrayed in that character with the papyrus-roll upon his knee and the cap of wisdom on his head. The fact of Joseph being the son of Ptah, or Ptah in the character of the divine son, was certainly not derived from the biblical history of the Jews, but it was derived by Josephus from an unimpeachable Egyptian authority, viz., that of Cheremon. Thus, Iu the sif of Ptah, with Moses, is equivalent to the youthful solar god with Shu-Anhur in the exodus from the lower Egypt of Amenta. Of course, Joseph and Moses could not be contemporaries as historical characters according to the book of Exodus, but they could as mythical divinities. And when Moses and Joseph are restored to their proper position as deities there need be no difficulty about dates. As gods they could be contemporaries
(see “The Exodus,” in Book X). Joseph is the typical dreamer and diviner in his youth. And if Iu the sif of Atum-Ra be not an interpreter of dreams, he was the revealer of the future by means of dreams. One of the Ptolemaic tablets records the fulfilment of the promise that was made in a dream by this god to Pasherenptah concerning the birth of a son (Renouf, Hib. Lect., p. 141). This would be ground enough for the “inspired” writer to go upon in establishing the character assigned to Joseph as the dreamer and interpreter of dreams. The dream of the sun, moon, and eleven stars making obeisance to Joseph shows the astronomical relationship of the twelve to the signs of the zodiac.
Doubtless there was “corn in Egypt,” which was at all times par excellence the land of corn, but the typical corn-land of the religious mysteries is in Amenta, where the corn germinates periodically from the buried body of Osiris. We need to go no farther than the Papyrus of Ani to see from whence the legend of the seven kine was derived. In the Hebrew märchen it is related that Pharaoh–which Pharaoh is never specified, and this is as it would or should be if Ra, the solar god, is meant–dreamed that seven kine came up out of the river that were fat and well-favoured, and seven other kine that were lean and ill-favoured. When interpreted by Joseph, the seven fat kine are said to signify seven years of plenty and the seven lean kine seven years of famine. The dream was fulfilled in proof that Joseph was an historical personage, and that all the rest of the mythos reduced to märchen was matter of fact. Now, in the Ritual these are the seven cows which are the givers of abundance in the Egypt of the lower earth, through which the river runs as the celestial Nile. This then is the river out of which the seven cows arose, and the country is in the other world, the lower Egypt of the double earth, from which the original exodus was made in the going forth of the manes from Amenta. The land of Egypt, the river and the seven cows, all go together in the mythical representation from which the “history” has been manufactured. The seven cows are associated with the bull in the Aarru-paradise of plenty. The bull was the young solar god as Horus, or the bullock-headed deity Iu, who passed out of Egypt as Joseph, the bull of Israel.
If there ever had been a failure of the Nile for seven years together, the biblical account is none the less a pious fraud (see the fraudulent “Tablet of the Seven Years of Famine,” Proc. Soc. of Bib. Arch.). For the fact is there was no real famine in the land of Egypt. “And the seven years of famine began to come, according as Joseph had said: and there was famine in all lands: but in all the land of Egypt there was bread. And the famine was over all the face of the earth. And all countries came into Egypt to Joseph to buy corn, because the famine was sore in all the earth.” (Gen. XLI. 54-57.) But not in Egypt. That is, not in the Egypt of eternal harvest, where the corn grew seven cubits high with ears some eighty-four inches long. There is no historical sense in which such a statement could be truly interpreted. The mythos only can render it intelligibly. As may be seen in the Vignettes to the Ritual, the seven cows, called the providers of plenty, are depicted in the Aarru-paradise. This is in the lower Egypt of Amenta, and it is a land abounding with corn, the
only harvest-field in all the earth of eternity. There was nought but arid desert and the wilderness of sand in the domain of Sut. The Aarru in Khebt was the harvest-field of Horus=Joseph, of the twelve who are his reapers, and the people who are his followers, amongst whom we shall at last discover the Jews as the Aaiu in Egypt.
Joseph in Egypt has been assigned the place of Horus in the Egypt of Amenta. “Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh, King of Egypt,” and went forth as the Repa to buy up the corn against the coming famine. This is the age of Horus when he rises in Amenta as Amsu the husbandman, the master of food, or lord of the harvest, to become the ruler for Ra, the divine Pharaoh, with the flail or khu sign in his hand. Pharaoh makes Joseph ruler over all the land of Egypt, second only to himself; that is, according to Egyptian usage, Joseph becomes the Repa to the Ra.
In the Stele of Excommunication “Tum the creator god” is said to be “the duplicate of Aten.” This tells us two things. First that the duality of the god, which is expressed by the names of Huhi and Iu, was also expressed by the names of Atum and Aten. Atum was god the father, and Aten the Nefer-Atum, the Repa, or royal son. Thus Iu the sif is Aten=Adon by name, and Aten is the Adon to Atum-Ra, the divine Pharaoh. Now we are told that it is, or was, a practice of the Jews to use the word Adon instead of the word Ihuh in calling on the sacred name. And Adon, we repeat, is the Hebrew equivalent of the Egyptian Aten as a title of Iu, the son of Atum-Ra, or of Atum who was “the duplicate of Aten” in the person of the father. The Aten in Egyptian is the lord, one with the Hebrew Adon, and when Joseph rode in “the second chariot” as lord over all the land of Egypt, and second only to the Ra, the Adon represented Aten the son to Ra, the father who was Atum-Ra or Atum-Huhi the eternal. Atum was adored at On or Annu as the living god who in Egyptian was p-ankhu, the living god. Now when the Egyptian titles are conferred on Joseph, and Pharaoh is said to have called him by the name of Zaphenath-Paneah, whatsoever Egyptian word may be represented by Zaphenath, it is generally agreed by Egyptologists that Paneah or Paneach is a rendering of p-ankhu, the living god, which was the especial title of Atum-Iu in the temple of On. Joseph was thirty years of age when he “went out over the land of Egypt.” Horus was thirty years of age when he went forth over all the land of Egypt. Thirty years was the age of full adultship. It is the typical age of the Sheru, the Prince, the Messiah in the Egyptian, Persian, and Christian mythology. Joseph was the Adon of the Pharaoh, the Aten of Atum-Ra, and therefore he was thirty years of age when he went forth as ruler over all the land of Egypt. Joseph as the Aten was the lord over Egypt, with Atum-Ra as over-lord. The divine Ra and Horus were impersonated in the human Pharaoh and Repa: these were previously extant as Atum and Aten, Tum and Nefer-Tum, who were the divine Ra and Iusif in the pre-Osirian religion of the Egyptian Ius who became the unclean, the accursed, the lepers, the outcasts of Egypt in later monumental times. Seek for the Jews in Egypt as the Iu, or Aaiu, and they will be found there in the same character that they assign to themselves as a people suffering terribly from leprosy and other diseases said to have been the result of
uncleanness in their religious rites, which are so fervidly denounced in the Old Testament. The conclusion that Joseph was the young solar divinity, Iu the Son of Atum-Ra at On, may be clinched by the story related of Potiphar’s wife, which is the same that is told in various other legends of this same mythical personage. The märchen that do exist in Egyptian, as shown by the “Tale of the Two Brothers,” prove themselves to be the deposit of indefinitely earlier myth, the tale in this instance being a literary version of the Sut-Horus legend, and of the two brothers, the twins of light and darkness, which is found world-wide as myth or märchen. The tale contains its own evidence of ancientness in the fact that the sun-god invoked is not Ra, but the Horus of both horizons, Har-Makhu, who preceded the earliest form of Ra. The seven Hathors, who are otherwise the seven cows of plenty, are also present with Bata, the bull of the divine company.
The history of Joseph can be partly traced to the Egyptian story of “The Two Brothers,” written by the scribe Anna in the time of Seti II, nineteenth dynasty, on a papyrus now in the British Museum (Records of the Past, vol. II, p. 139). In this story we find a form of the Sut-Horus myth reduced to the status of the popular märchen. Sut appears in his later character of Sut-Anup or Anup (to drop the name of Sut). Anup is the elder brother of Bata, who is Horus as the younger brother. Like Horus, he is the bull of the divine company of the gods who went down into Egypt or the dark land of Ethiopia. The double Sut and Horus imaged back to back is repeated when Anup is described as sitting on the back of Bata. “Anup his elder brother sat upon his back at dawn of day,” that is, in the twilight which was represented when Sothis rose heliacally, or, as it is imaged, sat upon the back of Horus the young solar god. The dual nature of Child-Horus is repeated in Bata when he says to his consort, “I am a woman even as thou art,” and declares that his male soul or his heart is in the flower of the acacia tree. This soul of Bata in the flower of the tree of life can be paralleled in the Ritual, where Horus is the golden Anbu, the flower of the hidden dwelling (ch. 71). Anup is the guide of Bata in the märchen, as of Horus in the myth. Anup is the attendant on Bata in the mountain and his mourner in death, as he is of Horus in the Ritual. Anup is the master of the fields of food, and he ordains that those who are in charge of the food shall be with the Osiris (ch. 144). Bata follows the beautiful cattle, who tell him where the greenest grasses and the richest herbage grow. These are the seven cows who are the providers of plenty, to whom Bata, like Osiris or Horus, is the fecundating bull. The seven cows likewise appear in the same story as the seven Hathors. Bata the strong one can be identified with Horus in the character of Amsu the husbandman, who is portrayed as the preparer of the soil and sower of seed. Bata does the ploughing and other labours in the fields of Aarru, and his equal was not to be found in all the land. Thus the myth of Sut-Horus the twin brothers can be traced in the ancient folk-lore of Egypt, and this can be followed into the “historic” or euhemeristic phase in the book of Genesis, where it reappears as the story of Joseph
the beautiful youth and Potiphar’s wife. Bata was the bull of the divine company that went down into the Egypt of Amenta. Joseph is the bull or chief one of the children of Israel who went down into Egypt. Bata is the divine husbandman and lord of the harvest. Joseph is the one to whose sheaf the other sheaves bowed down in recognition of his supremacy as lord of the harvest (Gen. XXXVII. 5-8). The seven cows or Hathors are the foretellers of fate consequent on their being the bringers of good fortune. Also the bull of the cows is the diviner of fate. Bata the bull divines and foretells the events that will occur to him. This is the character ascribed to Joseph as the diviner in the biblical version. If the parallel had been perfected, Potiphar, whose name denotes the servant of Ra in Egyptian, should have taken the rôle of Anup, who is the servant of Ra. In the Hebrew version we read that “Joseph was comely and well-favoured. And it came to pass after these things that his master’s wife cast eyes upon Joseph, and she said, Lie with me. But he refused, and said unto his master’s wife, Behold, my master knoweth not what is with me in the house, and he hath put all that he hath into my hand: there is none greater in this house than I; neither hath he kept anything from me but thee. How then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God? And it came to pass, as she spake to Joseph day by day, that he hearkened not unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her. And it came to pass about this time that he went into the house to do his work, and there was none of the men of the house there within. And she caught him by his garment, saying, Lie with me: and he left his garment in her hand, and fled, and got him out” (Gen. XXXIX. 9-12). In the Egyptian folk-tale Bata goes into the house of Anup to fetch seed, and the wife of Anup cast her eyes upon him. “And she spoke to him, saying, What strength there is in thee; indeed, I observe thy vigour every day. Her heart knew him. . . . She seized upon him, and said to him, Come, let us lie down for a little. Better for thee. . . . beautiful clothes. Then the youth became like a panther with fury on account of the shameful discourse which she had addressed to him. And she was alarmed exceedingly. He spoke to her, saying, Verily, I have looked upon thee in the light of a mother, and thy husband in that of a father to me. (For he is older than I, as much as if he had begotten me.) What a great abomination is this which thou hast mentioned to me. Do not repeat it again to me, and I will not speak of it to anyone. Verily, I will not let anything of it come forth from my mouth to any man” (Records, vol. II, pp. 140, 141). Joseph being identified as the same character with Bata, it is Bata who will explain that character. Bata signifies the soul of the earth. In the Egyptian mythos this was the sun. “I am Bata,” says the manes in the character of the solar god who is renewed and reborn daily as the soul of the earth and multiplier of the years (Rit., ch. 87). He might be reborn under the serpent type, or as the soul of Atum from the lotus, or the soul of Bata from the flower of the tree of dawn. But the myth is not merely solar. In fact, there is no bottom to the solar myth except in the lunar. Anup and Bata must be identified with Sut and Horus as the brothers in the two halves of the lunation before the tale can be correlated and correctly read.
Sut-Anup was the elder brother of the two. His consort was Nephthys, the lady of darkness, who is charged with soliciting the young lord of light. There was some scandal respecting her and Osiris. The typical wanton who seduces or tries to seduce the youthful hero is the lady of the moon, who overcomes or who assails the lord of light. The character is determined in relation to Anup=Sut, the elder of the twin brothers in the mythos which passed into the eschatology and finally survived in the märchen of the two brothers. The story was represented three times over: (1) as mythical, (2) as eschatological, and (3) as a folk-tale, before it was narrated of Joseph in Egypt as Hebrew history or biblical biography. The origin of the mythos rests with the darkly beautiful Nephthys, consort of Sut (or Anup), the power of darkness in the nether-earth. That she had a character somewhat aphrodisiacal assigned to her, which became the subject of the legend, may be gathered from her being a divinity of the Egyptian town Tsebets, called Aphroditopolis by the Greeks. But she has been degraded as a wicked wanton in later representations of the dark lady who was originally the lady of darkness, at first in complexion, afterwards in character. The Semites began it with their scandal-mongering concerning Ishtar (or Shetar, the bride in Egyptian), because she had been the pre-monogamous great mother whose child and spouse were one. The Greeks followed them either directly or indirectly. Plutarch repeats a tale in which it is charged against Nephthys that either she seduced Osiris or he succumbed to her wiles. It is represented in the romance that after Nephthys had become the wife of Anup she fell in love illicitly with Horus, and besought him to stay with her when he came to plough and sow the seed-fields of Amenta. It is as the sower of seed that Bata goes to the house where Anup’s wife is sitting at her toilet. He says, “Arise and give me seed, that I may go back to the field.” Nephthys is literally the house of seed personified. She carries both the house and the seed-bowl on her head, and her name of Nebthi signifies the seed-house or granary of the earth. The story of Joseph and Potiphar’s wife contains a mutilated fragment of this ancient Egyptian märchen reduced from the mythos into a romance. In this Potiphar is Anup, the wife is Nephthys, and Joseph is Bata or Horus, who is called the bull. Bata was the bull, and Joseph is also the bull, in Israel; hence the totem of the tribe of Ephraim was the bull. Bata is the bull of the seven cows which come to him as the seven Hathors, and, to make use of the Egyptian figure, Joseph, likewise is the bull of the seven cows that were seen in Pharaoh’s dream. He was also the bull as the adult of thirty years. In the Egyptian story Bata becomes a bull. “And Bata said to his elder brother, Behold, I am about to become a bull with all the sacred marks, but with an unknown history. The bull arrived, and his majesty the Pharaoh inspected him and rejoiced exceedingly, and celebrated a festival above all description; a mighty marvel and rejoicings for it were made throughout all the land. To the bull there were given many attendants and many offerings, and the king loved him exceedingly above all men in the whole land. And when the days were multiplied after this his majesty was wearing the collar of lapis lazuli with a wreath of all kinds of flowers on his neck. He was
in his brazen chariot, and he went forth from the royal palace. Bata was brought before the king, and rejoicings were made throughout the whole land. They sat down to make a holiday (and they gave him his name); and his majesty at once loved him exceedingly, and raised him to the dignity of Prince of Æthiopia. But when the days had multiplied after this, his majesty made him hereditary prince of the whole land. And the sun-god Horus of both horizons said to Khnum, O, make a wife for Bata, that he may not remain alone. And Khnum made him a companion, who as she sat was more beautiful in her limbs than any woman in the whole earth; the whole godhead was in her.” And now a tale is told of this consort of Bata which tends to identify her with Neitochris, that is primarily with the goddess Neith, and thence with Asenath the wife of Joseph. These quotations from the Egyptian tale contain the gist of the following statement. “And Pharaoh said unto Joseph . . . . Thou shalt be over my house, and according to thy word shall all my people be ruled; only in the throne will I be greater than thou. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. And Pharaoh took off his signet-ring from his hand and put it upon Joseph’s hand, and arrayed him in vestures of fine linen and put a gold chain about his neck; and he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had: and they cried before him Abrech: and he set him over all the land of Egypt. And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without thee shall no man lift up his hand or his foot in all the land of Egypt. And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-Paneah (hnip=tnpj), and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Potiphera. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt. And Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh the King of Egypt” (Gen. XLI. 40, 46). The passage in which Joseph makes himself known to his brethren should be compared with the scene in which the lost Bata reveals himself and says, “Look upon me; I am indeed alive. Look upon me, for I am really alive. I am a bull!” and Bata “reigned for thirty years as king over Egypt.” “And Joseph said unto his brethren, I am Joseph; doth my father yet live? And he said, I am Joseph your brother, whom ye sold into the land of Egypt” (Gen. XLV. 3, 4). Joseph also had become a bull or typical adult like Horus the man or god of thirty years. The fact is admitted when it is said that “Joseph was thirty years old when he stood before Pharaoh, King of Egypt.” In the solar symbolism the sun as a calf in the winter solstice became a bull in the vernal equinox, where he found his heart, his soul, his force, sometimes imaged as phallic, upon the summit of the tree of dawn. In the human sphere the boy became a bull—that is, a typical adult of thirty years. Asenath we take to be a form of the great Neith, who was represented at On (Annu) by Iusāas the mother of the young bull Aiu (or Iu=Io), who as her sif or son was Iusa. Professor Sayce in his “History of Joseph” says, with an unabashed effrontery, “What is important” (in this episode) “is that the incident which played so large a part in Joseph’s