The Supply and Demand of Human Body Parts: Frankenstein and Economics

:)


Download 90.18 Kb.
Date conversion19.03.2017
Size90.18 Kb.
The Supply and Demand of Human Body Parts: Frankenstein and Economics- HCP Economics 2010-2011 Paula Biancalana Casa Grande High, Petaluma CA

This series of activities, which ran from January until April, were organized to mention, reinforce, and teach information surrounding Frankenstein, basic economic principles, and anatomy and physiology.


  • Econ. – Factors of Production, Production Possibility Frontiers, Opportunity Costs/Trade-offs, Demand/Supply, Elasticity and Inelasticity of Demand/Supply

  • Article on Alistair Cooke: What would people do with used body parts?, Crimes of Anatomy reading and questions, Article on Body Parts Trade: Is this a human rights issue? How is this tied to the idea of supply and demand relating to scarcity?, Nuffolk Bioethics Study – groups of students( one group for each chapter) read and answered questions purposed in the study, they then presented the information to the class. The Body-Snatcher Project assigned. Video: Young Frankenstein. (Jan.4 – Feb. 9) First Essay Test Inelastic supply

  • Econ.- Advertisings influence on consumers, Market Systems , Inflation, Budgeting, Recession: Keynesian vs. Reaganomics, economic issues within health care make money or take care of patients, Consumer Savings

  • Article on Mickey Mantle, Article on The Monkey Gland Affair: What was the purpose behind the surgeries? Were they successful?, Economic Problems in the Health Care Industry, Creating Frankenstein: Students in groups of three reassemble bodies and research the price for body parts. Video: How Much is Your Dead Body Worth? – take notes on the value of body parts and the market systems that have developed around the buying and selling of body parts, Coma – What causes Dr. Wheeler to become suspicious?, Why do people in the hospital not believe her?, What events occur that continue to make her believe there is something wrong?, Blade Runner- Review the comparison piece, what issues does it bring up regarding the creation of life? ( Feb. 11- April 7) Second Essay Test Spending and Savings

“Crimes of Anatomy” Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers HCP Econ 2011

You are reading a chapter from the book Stiff. Please read and answer the questions carefully and thoughtfully. This information will not only help you in understanding the time period that Frankenstein was written, but also the economic, political, and social dilemmas that medicine has faced.


  1. Why do you think medical schools have tried to develop a respectful attitude towards cadavers?

  2. Summarize, in bullets, the history of body snatching, dissection, etc. Use pages 39-48.

  3. What role did resurrectionists play in developing anatomy programs in London?

  4. What was Robert Knox’s big mistake? Why?

“Crimes of Anatomy” Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers HCP Econ 2011

You are reading a chapter from the book Stiff. Please read and answer the questions carefully and thoughtfully. This information will not only help you in understanding the time period that Frankenstein was written, but also the economic, political, and social dilemmas that medicine has faced.



  1. Why do you think medical schools have tried to develop a respectful attitude towards cadavers?

  2. Summarize, in bullets, the history of body snatching, dissection, etc. Use pages 39-48.

  3. What role did resurrectionists play in developing anatomy programs in London?

  4. What was Robert Knox’s big mistake? Why?

“Crimes of Anatomy” Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers HCP Econ 2011

You are reading a chapter from the book Stiff. Please read and answer the questions carefully and thoughtfully. This information will not only help you in understanding the time period that Frankenstein was written, but also the economic, political, and social dilemmas that medicine has faced.



  1. Why do you think medical schools have tried to develop a respectful attitude towards cadavers?
  2. Summarize, in bullets, the history of body snatching, dissection, etc. Use pages 39-48.


  3. What role did resurrectionists play in developing anatomy programs in London?

  4. What was Robert Knox’s big mistake? Why?


The Body-Snatcher – Robert Louis Stevenson

http://www.online-literature.com/stevenson/3534/

Econ HCP – Ms. Biancalana

For this short story you will need to complete one of the following projects. You should be ready to discuss your project and the short story next week.

Suggested Projects: timeline of events, movie poster (12x 18), collage (12x18), a series of letters between the characters (minimum of 4), diorama of a scene in the story, interview one of the characters, type a two page review on the story, character and scene mobile, or type a two page paper researching body-snatchers during the Victorian Era.

The Body-Snatcher – Robert Louis Stevenson

Econ HCP – Ms. Biancalana

For this short story you will need to complete one of the following projects. You should be ready to discuss your project and the short story next week.

Suggested Projects: timeline of events, movie poster (12x 18), collage (12x18), a series of letters between the characters (minimum of 4 ), diorama of a scene in the story, interview one of the characters, type a two page review on the story, character and scene mobile, or type a two page paper researching body-snatchers during the Victorian Era.
Young Frankenstein and Frankenstein Comparison

A comparison of Mel Brook’s Movie “Young Frankenstein” and Mary Shelly’s book “Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus”.

Young Frankenstein and Frankenstein Comparison

            Mel Brook’s movie “Young Frankenstein” and Mary Shelly’s book “Frankenstein: The Modern Prometheus” are of two very separate genres.  The movie is a great comedy that ends happily and keeps its viewers laughing consistently, while Mary Shelly’s book is a tragic horror story with almost the opposite effect.  The book involves very serious action, containing almost no humor and ending tragically.  Comedy and tragedy can easily be looked at as opposite one another, but really accomplish the same goals in two completely different ways.  Mel Brooks and Mary Shelly’s works both have common themes throughout them, even though they are presented and dealt with in different ways.

            One of the most common themes throughout Mary Shelly’s book is that of companionship.  This not only applies to the monster, but is also applicable to Victor, Walton, Elizabeth, and Victor’s family.  Almost every character in the book is lonely or wants companionship at some point in time.  The main two dealing with the issue are the creature and Victor.  The creature doesn’t fit into society, and can’t befriend anyone because of his looks so he lives miserably and lonely.  At the same time Victor has to power to find companionship, but is so obsessed with his work he pushed them away and becomes a lonely man over time as he drifts and his family is killed.  This theme is also very present in the movie.  The main course of action in the movie is the monster going out into the human world, and trying to find companions and fit in.  There is one main difference between two works regarding to this theme.  In the movie the creature is embraced by his creator and finds happiness and companionship.  While in the book Victor is killed by the creature and the creature runs off to die itself, neither of them ever finding happiness or companionship.  Nonetheless both approaches transmit the same message and theme to their audience.

            Another example of how comedy and tragedy can use opposite emotions to communicate the same points, is the creation of the monster itself.  In the book Victor Frankenstein creates the monster because he is interested in nature, and wants to achieve something great scientifically.  In the movie the situation is similar, the grandson of Victor, Frederick Frankenstein, finds himself reading his grandfather’s notes and decides to create a monster himself.  In both stories the outcome is bad.  In the book the creation is hideous so Victor abandons it leaving it helpless, and eventually leading it to turn evil.  While in the movie, Fredrick gets an abnormal brain accidentally and that causes the monster to be completely stupid.  This unintelligent monster is never really evil, but is mistakenly looked at that way at times because of his fear of fire and other circumstances.

Mel Brooks takes a tragic horror story, and turns it into a hilarious comedy without changing the themes too much.  In the movie it is almost as if Mel Brooks tried to answer all of the “what if?” questions, and presented many alternate possibilities and outcomes for the story.  This technique left the viewers with the same themes and basic storyline, but portrayed them in a comedic matter rather than a tragic one.  The only big contradiction in the movie was the ending.  The characters all survive, Victor never marries Elizabeth, a companion for the creature is made, and everyone lives happily ever after.  This is very different from the outcome of the play, but is explainable because the movie fitting the definition of a formal comedy has to end happily, while the book being a formal tragedy has to end on a worse note.  Overall I enjoyed both the book and the movie, and think Mel Brooks did an awesome job making a great tragedy into a funny comedy.


RCathey, November 4, 2009 http://bookstove.com/classics/young-frankenstein-and-frankenstein-comparison/


Give and take?

Human bodies in medicine and research

CONSULTATION PAPER


April 2010

Contents

This Consultation Paper contains an introduction and six separate sections of questions, each accompanied by some background explanatory material. Please feel free to answer as many, or as few, questions as you wish, and to take them in any order you wish. Italicised words are included the glossary where more detailed information is provided.

Questions are addressed to ‘you’ either as an individual or as an organisation, and respondents should feel free to interpret them in the way that fits best with their own experience or knowledge. The aim of this consultation is not to gather quantitative data about opinions, but rather to collate as many views and approaches to these issues as possible, in order to inform the Working Party’s own deliberations. Please therefore feel free to respond with your own personal views, with any commentary on the range of views of which you are aware, or with your organisation’s policy on the issue at hand, as appropriate.

If you have personal experiences which are relevant to the issues being considered during this consultation, the Working Party would be pleased to receive your views in the “Any other issues” section, either in addition to the consultation questions or as an alternative to them.

Introduction ......................................................................................................... 10

1. Nature of human bodily material and first-in-human trials ............................... 12

Human bodily material ................................................................................ 12

Participation in first-in-human trials ............................................................. 13

2. Purposes of providing bodily material/volunteering in a trial ........................... 14

3. Ethical values at stake .................................................................................... 16

4. Responding to demand ................................................................................... 18

Supply and demand .................................................................................... 18

Current regulatory framework ..................................................................... 18

Increasing supply ........................................................................................ 19

Alternatives to increasing supply ................................................................ 20

5. The role of consent ......................................................................................... 22

Valid consent .............................................................................................. 22

Consent for future unknown (‘secondary’) uses of bodily material .............. 23

Role of families: living donation .................................................................. 24

Role of families: donation after death ......................................................... 24

6. Ownership and control .................................................................................... 26

Property rights ............................................................................................ 26

Control ........................................................................................................ 27

7. Any other issues ............................................................................................. 28

Glossary .............................................................................................................. 29

9

Bioethics Groups: Econ HCP Ms. B



Each chapter will review the “Factors being considered include”, on page 10. You will, as a group, discuss what your chapter covered and then work together to answer the questions posed on page 10. Each person in the group will write one answer. You will then present the information covered in your chapter and your answers to the introduction questions.

This will be information will need to help you with the essay test next week.

Bioethics Groups: Econ HCP Ms. B

Each chapter will review the “Factors being considered include”, on page 10. You will, as a group, discuss what your chapter covered and then work together to answer the questions posed on page 10. Each person in the group will write one answer. You will then present the information covered in your chapter and your answers to the introduction questions.

This will be information will need to help you with the essay test next week.

Bioethics Groups: Econ HCP Ms. B

Each chapter will review the “Factors being considered include”, on page 10. You will, as a group, discuss what your chapter covered and then work together to answer the questions posed on page 10. Each person in the group will write one answer. You will then present the information covered in your chapter and your answers to the introduction questions.

This will be information will need to help you with the essay test next week.

Bioethics Groups: Econ HCP Ms. B

Each chapter will review the “Factors being considered include”, on page 10. You will, as a group, discuss what your chapter covered and then work together to answer the questions posed on page 10. Each person in the group will write one answer. You will then present the information covered in your chapter and your answers to the introduction questions.

This will be information will need to help you with the essay test next week.

HCP Economics Essay 2011- Ms. B. Supply and Demand of Body Parts

In a five paragraph essay:

Discuss the ethical issues regarding body parts/tissues in light of the inelastic supply and the increasing demand. How do we as a society deal with this growing concern?

( Think of the court case article, Alastair Cooke, Crimes of Anatomy, etc)

Extra Credit – How do the ethical issues raised by the Nuffield Bioethics paper compare with the concerns and problems faced by Dr. Frankenstein, after he has made the creature?

HCP Economics Essay 2011 - Ms. B Supply and Demand of Body Parts

In a five paragraph essay:

Discuss the ethical issues regarding body parts/tissues in light of the inelastic supply and the increasing demand. How do we as a society deal with this growing concern?

( Think of the court case article, Alastair Cooke, Crimes of Anatomy, etc)

Extra Credit – How do the ethical issues raised by the Nuffield Bioethics paper compare with the concerns and problems faced by Dr. Frankenstein, after he has made the creature?


Comparison of Blade Runner and Frankenstein

Genre:

BLADE RUNNER

FRANKENSTEIN

Blade Runner1 is a Ridley Scott adaptation of the Philip K. Dick novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?

As a dystopia (dark future) it uses the glazed cinematic techniques of film noir that tends to distance us from the characters and actions. 

 

More @ Cinematic Techniques: 



 

 


This is a Gothic Novel.

Mary claims the inspiration for her story came from a vision she had during a dream.  Her story was the only one completed and has become one of the most famous Gothic novels of all time.

Mary Shelley uses the narrative device of a Ship’s Captain retelling a tale through epistemology (letters to his sister) he has heard from an obsessed distraught Scientist he has rescued from an ice floe in the remote Arctic Ocean.

Context


BLADE RUNNER

FRANKENSTEIN

Blade Runner has a strong environmental focus.  It was only after the publication of Rachel Carson’s (An American writer and scientist) Silent Spring, (1961) that people began to recognise the potential of human disaster through the vandalism perpetrated by improved technology. 

Rather than resilient, nature was fragile and vulnerable when fundamental natural rhythms were ceaselessly destroyed by ruthless exploitation by ever increasing mammoth technology.  If Ecosystems are repeatedly defeated, human life will be diminished and likely extinguished.

The bleak vision portrayed illustrates a chaotic nuclear holocaust, ecological fragility through soil depletion and acid rain.

In BR. man has not only subdued the earth but conquered and utterly defeated it.

 

As a Canadian Indian Chief queried; “When we kill the last fish, what will we eat – money?


The sixties and seventies were times of great social, cultural and historical changes with changes in attitudes in sexual relations, racial integration and political upheaval.


As Europe moved away from a world dominated by superstition and religious faith to one of empirical scientific research and logical deductive reasoning, the Romantics helped to retain some of the personal and emotional compassion that makes us fully human.

The swing towards a more humanistic attitude towards fellow mankind and the reverence for the natural over the man made is clearly depicted in Frankenstein.  Shelley questions the eighteenth-century scientific rationalists' optimism about, and trust in, knowledge as a pure good.  While the Philosophers believed in the perfectibility of man through reason, the Romantics put their faith in the ‘immortal spirit’ of the individual’s emotions.

The Romantics maintained suspicions about the dark inscrutable workmanship of the Scientific and empirical attempts to improve on nature.

Learn from me, if not by my precepts, at least by my example, how dangerous is the acquirement of knowledge, and how much happier that man is who believes his native town to be the world, than he who aspires to become greater than his nature will allow.  (101)

Science and Humanity


BLADE RUNNER

FRANKENSTEIN

Blade Runner depicts an industrialised society where Technology is supreme. The climate – appears a nuclear winter poisoned by fall-out- dark, dank, with constant acid rain.  The City is full of human misery – crowded, homeless, so anyone with good health has moved off earth.

Technology, from fire (over cold& dark), the wheel (over gravity and distance), flight and genetic engineering all contribute to moving away from the natural rhythms of life and from what it means to be a human being.

- Don McLean:  “developments in technology and communications are not liberating but controlling, “I always wanted to be free.”

The Dehumanizing effects of technology:

·        Loss of power – fulfillment

·        Isolation from others

·        Loss of empathy - Increasing disconnection or alienation from society

·        Loss of people skills -


  • Loss of heroism – only celebrities

This is a cautionary tale warning about the threat to a diminished humanity posed by Science.  Both Walton, the narrator and Frankenstein are challenging the frontiers of human knowledge and will suffer for it.  Shelley parallels Walton's spatial explorations and Frankenstein's forays into unknown knowledge, as both men seek to “pioneer a new way,” to make progress beyond established limits. Science and too much rational learning can diminish our humanity. We should value our natural sensual humanity and reject the scientific notion that rational thought will lead us to a more humane society. If not, our humanity will become diminished.

In both texts, humans lose control over their man made creations.


What makes us Human  


BLADE RUNNER

FRANKENSTEIN

Humanity has been diminished as there is little evidence of community displayed by human characters in contrast to the replicants who appear to have genuine companionship, compassion, empathy, morality and courtesy.

As Tyrell’s motto: “ more human than the humans”

 

The lack of Civility is another major concern.


Bryant has a confrontationalist manner of speaking. First he tries to be slimily ingratiating to Deckard but when this doesn’t work he resorts to abusive threats and bullying to get Deckard to come out of retirement.

The human characters snap at each other indicating the lack of respect they have for each other due to the break down in human relationships, whereas the replicants speak much more politely and courteously to each other demonstrating the regard they have for each other and a caring empathy lacking in the humans.

There isn't much dignity left today, a point beautifully made in an essay by David Brooks in The New York Times. The "dignity code", as Brooks calls it, has been "completely obliterated" by the pressures of modern life.


Frankenstein is a gothic horror novel that explores what makes us human.  What are the attributes of a human being and how do we become integrated into society.  Are we born with human nature or are we conditioned and constructed to value each other.  The old nature/nurture argument.  When his creation turns against him, who is at fault; the creature or the society that rejects him?  We know from a study of social customs that many people who feel rejected by society often turn into mass killers.  Repeated negative experiences of social outcasts can lead to anti-social behaviour and the best way to socialise people is to include and value them as fellow human beings. 

There are many examples of people who are Altruistic – caring - kind to each other throughout the novel including the Monster’s many initial acts of kindness; cutting wood for Felix’s family, saving a young girl from drowning - all not appreciated.  Shelley is obviously contrasting mankind’s ability for civility and amity with its capacity for callous barbarity.

  • The rise of Cybernetics (use of implants to make robots or cyborgs – humans with computer chip grafts, implants or biological brains) is a growing field of technical development and increases the threat of Artificial Intelligence taking control over humans as portrayed in Space Odyssey, Terminator or The Matrix. Computers double their capacity every 18 months and they could acquire a billion times more intelligence than the human brain. It is possible this Artificial Intelligence could develop into a malign force and eliminate all humans from the face of the earth. Alternatively by merging with the technology we create, we become more like it and we could become less human and more mechanical in our outlook.

“Nebo Literature English For Everybody!” http://www.nebo-lit.com/film/Blade%20Runner/Comparison-Blade-Runner-and-Frankenstein.html (2011)


HCP Econ Test Name --------------------------------------------------Ms. B. 2011

Answer the following three questions with a minimum of two paragraphs, 5-6 sentence each. Be sure that you provide examples to support your points.

1. What role does the price system play in motivating producers and consumers to balance supply and demand? (Price affects supply and demand how?)

2. Describe the benefits of saving money and ways you can do this.

3. Compare and contrast the creators and their creatures in Frankenstein and Blade Runner. Discuss the ethical and societal issues that are addressed.

HCP Econ Test Name --------------------------------------------------

Ms. B. 2011

Answer the following three questions with a minimum of two paragraphs, 5-6 sentence each. Be sure that you provide examples to support your points.

1. What role does the price system play in motivating producers and consumers to balance supply and demand? (Price affects supply and demand how?)

2. Describe the benefits of saving money and ways you can do this.

3. Compare and contrast the creators and their creatures in Frankenstein and Blade Runner. Discuss the ethical and societal issues that are addressed.

Design Challenge Reflection: Making Your Body Name _____________________________ Ms. B Econ 2011

1. What were important to consider when designing your body?

2. What systems did your model demonstrate?

3. How well did your model demonstrate those aspects?

4. How would you change or improve your body?

5. How does this connect with economics supply and demand? And English?

(Body Systems, Functions, & Organs)

A. Circulatory system / cardiovascular system

B. Digestive System

C. Endocrine System

D. Immune System

E. Reproductive System

F. Nervous System

G. Excretory System

H. Respiratory System

I. Skin

J. Muscular System



K. Skeletal System

Using the letters A-K to match the body systems with the corresponding organs.

_____1. Heart, arteries, capillaries, veins, & blood

_____2. T cells & B cells

_____3. Epidermis, dermis, pores, follicles

_____4. Urethra, penis, testes, scrotum, ovary, oviducts, uterus, cervix, vagina

_____5. Nose, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, trachea, lungs, bronchi

_____6. Mouth, epiglottis, salivary gland, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, stomach, large intestine, pancreas, small intestine, rectum

_____7. Brain, spinal cord, nerves

_____8. Skeletal, smooth, cardiac

_____9. Skull, Humerus, Radius, Ulna, clavicle, Scapula, sternum, ribs, vertebral column, pelvic girdle, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges

_____ 10. Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries/testes

____11. Urea, ureters, urine, kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra

Using the letters A-K match the appropriate systems with the corresponding functions.

_____12. Breaks down food into molecules that the body can absorb into blood and carry through-out the body, also wastes are eliminated from the body

____13. Carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells

____ 14. Controls many of the body’s daily activities as well as long-term changes such as development

_____15. Distinguishes between cells and reacts against specific pathogens with defense targeted specifically at that pathogen

____16. To produce sperm, testosterone, eggs, developing babies until birth

____ 17. Central is the control center of the body and connects the central system to the rest of the body

_____18. The system in the body that collects waste produced by cells and removes the waste from the body

_____ 19. Moves oxygen from the outside environment into the body and moves carbon dioxide and water away from the body

_____20.Covers the body, prevents the loss of water, protects the body from injury and infection, helps to regulate body temperature, eliminate waste, gather information about the environment and produces vitamin D

_____ 21. Involuntary, not under voluntary control, is responsible for activities such as breathing and digestion. Voluntary actions controlled by voluntary control.

_____ 22. Provides shape, support, enables movement, protects internal organs, produces blood cells and stores certain material until the body needs them


www.okaloosa.k12.fl.us/technology/.../HumanBodyandFunctionQuiz.doc 05/04/06

You are here: BBC > Science & Nature > Horizon > Recent Horizons > How much is your dead body worth?













Tuesday 18th March 2008, 9pm, BBC Two

When veteran broadcaster Alistair Cooke died in 2004 few suspected that he was yet to uncover his greatest story. What happened to his body as it lay in a funeral home would reveal a story of modern day grave robbery and helped smash a body-snatching ring that had made millions of dollars by chopping up and selling-off over 1000 bodies. Dead bodies have become big business.

Each year millions of people's lives are improved by the use of tissue from the dead. Bodies are used to supply spare parts, and for surgeons to practice on. Horizon investigates the medical revolution that has created an almost insatiable demand for body parts and uncovers the growing industry and grisly black market that supplies human bodies for a price.


 Watch: Plastinating brains

 Discover: Body part values

 Join: the mortuary science lesson

 Watch: Highlights from the programme

http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/tvradio/programmes/horizon/broadband/tx/bodyparts/ (Last updated March 2008)
















ttp://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/tvradio/programmes/horizon/broadband/tx/bodyparts/values/ / (Last updated March 2008)


Body Part ____________________



Price: ______________

Bibliography

Baek, Glenn. Body Parts Trade (Body Case) Case Number: 323 Case Name: body Case Identifier: Human Body Parts Trade April 30, 1996. http;//www1.american.edu/TED/body.htm (2010).

Fremgen, Bonnie. “Ethical and Bioethical Issues in Medicine” in Medical Law and Ethics 2nd ed. (New Jersey, Pearson Education, 2006): 227-244.

Goldman, Adam “Cooke case causes stir in cadaver industry” International Herald Tribune 19 September 2006.
Nuffield Council on Bioethics: Give and take? Human bodies in medicine and research CONSULTATION PAPER April 2010 http://www.nuffieldbioethics.org/sites/default/files/ Human %20bodies%20in%20medicine%20and%20research% 20consultation% 20paper.pdf (November 2010).
Roach, Mary. “Crimes of Anatomy” in Stiff: The Curious Lives of Human Cadavers, (W.W. Norton & Company, New York 2003): 37-57.
Stevenson, Robert Louis, “The Body-Snatcher” in Victorian Ghost Stories: An Oxford Anthology, ed. Michael Cox, R.A. Gilbert. (New York, Oxford University Press, 1991): 303-318. Available online at: http://www.online-literature.com/stevenson/3534/
Wilson, J. Holton. “Economic Problems in the Health Care Industry “Economics in American Society: An Introduction to Economics Issues. Macmillan Pub Co (January 1977): 215-227.
Youngson, Robert and Ian Schott. “The Monkey gland affair” in Dangerous Doctors from Medical Blunders: Amazing True Stories of Mad, Bad, and Dangerous Doctors. (New York: New York University Press, 1996): 164-170.
Other helpful sources:

Blum, Deborah. The Poisoner’s Handbook: Murder and the Birth of Forensic Medicine in Jazz Age New York. (New York: Penguin Books, 2010).


Kress, Nancy. Beaker’s Dozen. (New York: A Tom Doherty Associates Book, 1998).

Offit, Paul A. Deadly Choices: How the Anti-Vaccine Movement Threatens US All. (New York: Basic Books, 2011).

Sickness and Health in America: Readings in the History of Medicine and Public Health, ed. Judith Walzer Leavitt. (University of Wisconsin Press; 3 Rev Sub edition, May 15, 1997).




:)


The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2017
send message

    Main page

:)