The twelve apostles

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The Urantia Book www.TheUniversalFather.org Knjige Urantije www.TheUniversalFather.org/hr/index.htm


PAPER 139

THE TWELVE APOSTLES

It is an eloquent testimony to the charm and righteousness of Jesus' earth life that, although he repeatedly dashed to pieces the hopes of his apostles and tore to shreds their every ambition for personal exaltation, only one deserted him.
The apostles learned from Jesus about the kingdom of heaven, and Jesus learned much from them about the kingdom of men, human nature as it lives on Urantia and on the other evolutionary worlds of time and space. These twelve men represented many different types of human temperament, and they had not been made alike by schooling. Many of these Galilean fishermen carried heavy strains of gentile blood as a result of the forcible conversion of the gentile population of Galilee one hundred years previously.

Do not make the mistake of regarding the apostles as being altogether ignorant and unlearned. All of them, except the Alpheus twins, were graduates of the synagogue schools, having been thoroughly trained in the Hebrew scriptures and in much of the current knowledge of that day. Seven were graduates of the Capernaum synagogue schools, and there were no better Jewish schools in all Galilee.

When your records refer to these messengers of the kingdom as being "ignorant and unlearned," it was intended to convey the idea that they were laymen, unlearned in the lore of the rabbis and untrained in the methods of rabbinical interpretation of the Scriptures. They were lacking in so-called higher education. In modern times they would certainly be considered uneducated, and in some circles of society even uncultured. One thing is certain: They had not all been put through the same rigid and stereotyped educational curriculum. From adolescence on they had enjoyed separate experiences of learning how to live.

1. ANDREW, THE FIRST CHOSEN

Andrew, chairman of the apostolic corps of the kingdom, was born in Capernaum. He was the oldest child in a family of five -- himself, his brother Simon, and three sisters. His father, now dead, had been a partner of Zebedee in the fish-drying business at Bethsaida, the fishing harbor of Capernaum. When he became an apostle, Andrew was unmarried but made his home with his married brother, Simon Peter. Both were fishermen and partners of James and John the sons of Zebedee.

In A.D. 26, the year he was chosen as an apostle, Andrew was 33, a full year older than Jesus and the oldest of the apostles. He sprang from an excellent line of ancestors and was the ablest man of

POGLAVLJE 139

DVANAEST APOSTOLA
RJEČITO svjedočanstvo šarmu i ispravnosti Isusovog zemaljskog života počiva u tome što ga je izdao samo jedan apostol, unatoč tome što je toliko puta osujetio apostolske nade i razorio svaku njihovu ambiciju za osobnom slavom.
Apostoli su od Isusa naučili o nebeskom kraljevstvu, dok je Isus od njih mnogo naučio o kraljevstvu ljudi, prirodi žitelja Urantije i drugih evolutivnih svjetova vremena i prostora. Dvanaestorica apostola predstavljaju više različitih tipova ljudske ćudi koji nisu postali žrtvama jednolikosti obrazovnim procesom. Više ovih galilejskih ribara je u sebi nosilo bitnije nasljeđe nežidovske krvi kao rezultat prisilnog obraćenja galilejskih nežidova otprilike stotinu godina prethodno ovim događajima.
Bilo bi pogrešno smatrati apostole posve neukim i priprostim. Izuzev Alfejevih blizanaca, svi su diplomirali iz sinagoških škola, gdje su podrobno upoznati s židovskih svetim knjigama i s većim dijelom ondašnjeg suvremenog nauka. Sedam apostola je diplomiralo iz kafarnaumskih sinagoga, u ovo doba najboljih židovskih škola cijele Galileje.

Kad vaši zapisi opisuju ove glasnike kraljevstva kao "neuke i priproste," ovo se odnosi na činjenicu da su bili svjetovnjaci, neupućeni u rabinski nauk i neobrazovani u pogledu rabinskog tumačenja Svetih knjiga. Oni nisu imali takozvane više naobrazbe. U suvremeno doba bi zasigurno bili smatrani neobrazovanim, a u nekim društvenim krugovima i nekulturnim. Jedna stvar je sigurna: Nisu svi prošli istim krutim i stereotipnim obrazovnim programom. Svaki se od rane mladosti ponaosob bavio savladanjem životnog nauka.

1. ANDRIJA, PRVOIZABRANI APOSTOL

Andrija, predsjedatelj apostolskog kraljevskog zbora, vuče porijeklo iz Kafarnauma. On je bio najstarije od petero djece--u obitelji koja se pored oca i majke sastojala od njega, njegovog brata Šimuna i tri sestre. Njegov otac koji je tada već bio preminuo, je bio Zebedejev partner pri sušenju ribe u Betsaidi, ribarskoj luci Kafarnauma. Andrija po primitku apostolske pozicije nije bio oženjen i živio je kod svog oženjenog brata, Šimuna Petra. Radili su kao ribari i partneri Zebedejevih sinova Jakova i Ivana.

Kad je postavljen za apostola, 26. godine p.K., Andrija je imao 33 godine; bio je punu godinu stariji od Isusa i najstariji apostol. Potekao je od izvanredne linije predaka i bio je najsposobniji apostol. the twelve. Excepting oratory, he was the peer of his associates in almost every imaginable ability. Jesus never gave Andrew a nickname, a fraternal designation. But even as the apostles soon began to call Jesus Master, so they also designated Andrew by a term the equivalent of Chief.

Andrew was a good organizer but a better administrator. He was one of the inner circle of four apostles, but his appointment by Jesus as the head of the apostolic group made it necessary for him to remain on duty with his brethren while the other three enjoyed very close communion with the Master. To the very end Andrew remained dean of the apostolic corps.


Although Andrew was never an effective preacher, he was an efficient personal worker, being the pioneer missionary of the kingdom in that, as the first chosen apostle, he immediately brought to Jesus his brother, Simon, who subsequently became one of the greatest preachers of the kingdom. Andrew was the chief supporter of Jesus' policy of utilizing the program of personal work as a means of training the twelve as messengers of the kingdom.

Whether Jesus privately taught the apostles or preached to the multitude, Andrew was usually conversant with what was going on; he was an understanding executive and an efficient administrator. He rendered a prompt decision on every matter brought to his notice unless he deemed the problem one beyond the domain of his authority, in which event he would take it straight to Jesus.

Andrew and Peter were very unlike in character and temperament, but it must be recorded everlastingly to their credit that they got along together splendidly. Andrew was never jealous of Peter's oratorical ability. Not often will an older man of Andrew's type be observed exerting such a profound influence over a younger and talented brother. Andrew and Peter never seemed to be in the least jealous of each other's abilities or achievements. Late on the evening of the day of Pentecost, when, largely through the energetic and inspiring preaching of Peter, two thousand souls were added to the kingdom, Andrew said to his brother: "I could not do that, but I am glad I have a brother who could." To which Peter replied: "And but for your bringing me to the Master and by your steadfastness keeping me with him, I should not have been here to do this." Andrew and Peter were the exceptions to the rule, proving that even brothers can live together peaceably and work together effectively.

After Pentecost Peter was famous, but it never irritated the older Andrew to spend the rest of his life being introduced as "Simon Peter's brother."

Of all the apostles, Andrew was the best judge of men. He knew that trouble was brewing in the heart

S izuzetkom oratorske vještine, bio je ravan svojim suradnicima u gotovo svim zamislivim sposobnostima. Isus Andriji nikada nije dao nadimak, očinsku oznaku. Ali jednako kao što su apostoli uskoro prozvali Isusa Učiteljem, tako su prozvali Andriju imenom koje je odgovaralo naslovu Poglavara.
Andrija je bio uspješan organizator i još uspješniji administrator. Pripadao je unutarnjem krugu kao jedan od četvorice apostola, ali nakon što ga je Isus postavio za poglavara apostolske grupe, morao je ostati na dužnosti sa svojom braćom dok su druga tri apostola mogla uživati u Učiteljevom društvu. Andrija je do samog kraja ostao poglavar apostolskog zbora.
Iako Andrija nikad nije postao uspješan orator, bio je djelotvoran pri osobnom kontaktu s ljudima i bio je prvi misionar kraljevstva kako je kao prvoizabrani apostol odmah doveo Isusu svog brata Šimuna, jednog od najvećih budućih propovjednika kraljevstva. Andrija je bio glavni potporanj Isusove metode korištenja osobne djelovatnosti pri obuci apostola na glasničkim pozicijama kraljevstva.

Bilo prilikom Isusove privatne pouke apostola ili pri propovijedi masama, Andrija je obično bio upoznat sa svim događajima; suosjećajno je djelovao kao izvršitelj, dok je bio uspješan administrator. Brzo je donosio odluke u svakom pogledu na koji mu je skrenuta pažnja izuzev ako je smatrao da je problem bio izvan njegove autoritativne domene, kad bi se obratio Isusu.

Dok su se Andrija i Petar jako razlikovali u pogledu karaktera i raspoloženja, treba zabilježiti i priznati zauvijek na njihovu čast, da su se odlično međusobno slagali. Andrija nikad nije bio ljubomoran na Petovu oratorsku vještinu. Rijetko se može naći stariji čovjek Andrijinog tipa koji bi ispoljio tako snažan utjecaj na svog nadarenog mlađeg brata. Andrija i Petar nikad nisu osjećali na najmanju uzajamnu ljubomoru, bilo u pogledu sposobnosti ili postignuća. Na dan Duhova, kasno uveče kad su najvećim dijelom zahvaljujući Petrovoj energičnoj i inspirativnoj propovijedi dvije tisuće duša pristupile kraljevstvu, Andrija je rekao: "Ja to nisam bio u stanju učiniti, ali mi je drago što imam brata koji jeste." Na što je Petar odgovorio: "A da me ti nisi doveo Gospodinu i da me nisi čvrsto držao uz njega, ne bih danas bio ovdje da ovo učinim." Andrija i Petar nisu podlijegali pravilu, dokazujući da i braća mogu živjeti u uzajamnom miru i uspješno zajednički surađivati.

Dok je Petar nakon Duhova stekao veliku slavu, Andriju nikad nije ljutilo što je do kraja života bio predstavljan kao "stariji brat Šimuna Petra."
Od svih apostola, Andrija je najbolje znao prosuditi ljudsku ćud. On je znao je da je nevolja

of Judas Iscariot even when none of the others suspected that anything was wrong with their treasurer; but he told none of them his fears. Andrew's great service to the kingdom was in advising Peter, James, and John concerning the choice of the first missionaries who were sent out to proclaim the gospel, and also in counseling these early leaders about the organization of the administrative affairs of the kingdom. Andrew had a great gift for discovering the hidden resources and latent talents of young people.


Very soon after Jesus' ascension on high, Andrew began the writing of a personal record of many of the sayings and doings of his departed Master. After Andrew's death other copies of this private record were made and circulated freely among the early teachers of the Christian church. These informal notes of Andrew's were subsequently edited, amended, altered, and added to until they made up a fairly consecutive narrative of the Master's life on earth. The last of these few altered and amended copies was destroyed by fire at Alexandria about one hundred years after the original was written by the first chosen of the twelve apostles.

Andrew was a man of clear insight, logical thought, and firm decision, whose great strength of character consisted in his superb stability. His temperamental handicap was his lack of enthusiasm; he many times failed to encourage his associates by judicious commendation. And this reticence to praise the worthy accomplishments of his friends grew out of his abhorrence of flattery and insincerity. Andrew was one of those all-round, even-tempered, self-made, and successful men of modest affairs.

Every one of the apostles loved Jesus, but it remains true that each of the twelve was drawn toward him because of some certain trait of personality which made a special appeal to the individual apostle. Andrew admired Jesus because of his consistent sincerity, his unaffected dignity. When men once knew Jesus, they were possessed with the urge to share him with their friends; they really wanted all the world to know him.

When the later persecutions finally scattered the apostles from Jerusalem, Andrew journeyed through Armenia, Asia Minor, and Macedonia and, after bringing many thousands into the kingdom, was finally apprehended and crucified in Patrae in Achaia. It was two full days before this robust man expired on the cross, and throughout these tragic hours he continued effectively to proclaim the glad tidings of the salvation of the kingdom of heaven.

2. SIMON PETER

When Simon joined the apostles, he was thirty years of age. He was married, had three children,

kuljala u srcu Jude Iskariota kad ni jedan drugi apostol nije sumnjao da nešto nije bilo u redu s njihovim blagajnikom; ali on nikome nije povjerio svoje sumnje. Andrijin veliki doprinos kraljevstvu počiva u tome što je savjetovao Petra, Jakova i Ivana pri izboru prvih misionara prilikom objave evanđelja, kao i tome što je savjetovao ove rane vođe u pogledu organizacije administrativnih poslova kraljevstva. Andrija je imao bitnu sposobnost opažanja prikrivenih sposobnosti i pritajenih talenada mladih ljudi.

Odmah nakon Isusovog uzašašća, Andrija je započeo s pisanjem osobne arhive mnogih riječi i djela svog pokojnog Učitelja. Ovaj privatni zapis je umnožen nakon Andrijine smrti, te je slobodno kružio među ranim učiteljima kršćanske crkve. Ove Andrijine neslužbene bilješke kasnije postaju uređene, dorađene, izmijenjene i dopunjene, sve dok nisu primile oblik kronološkog zapisa Učiteljevog života na zemlji. Posljednja od ovih nekoliko izmijenjenih i proširenih kopija je uništena prilikom požara u Aleksandriji otprilike stotinu godina nakon što je prvoizabrani apostol napisao original.

Andrija je bio čovjek bistrog uvida, logične misli i čvrste odluke čija se velika karakterna snaga sastojala u najvišoj stabilnosti. Njegova spoticajna mana koja predstavlja rezultat temperamenta, počiva u nedostatku entuzijazma; rijetko bi ohrabrio svoje prijatelje. I ovo uzdržavanje od pohvale vrijednih uspjeha svojih prijatelja proizlazi iz gnušanja prema ulagivanju i neiskrenosti. Andrija je bio jedan od onih svestranih, uravnoteženih i uspješnih ljudi skromnih poslova čija postignuća predstavljaju rezultat vlastitih zalaganja.

Dok su svi apostoli voljeli Isusa, svakog je privukla neka crta Isusove ličnosti koja ga se naročito dojmila. Andrija se divio Isusu zbog njegove dosljedne iskrenosti, njegovog neizvještačenog dostojanstva. Nakon što bi upoznali Isusa, ljudi su imali želju da ga upoznaju sa svojim prijateljima; stvarno su htjeli da ga upozna cijeli svijet.

Nakon što su tijekom kasnijih godina progoni rastjerali apostole iz Jeruzalema, Andrija je putovao kroz Armeniju, Malu Aziju i Makedoniju i nakon što je u kraljevstvo uveo više tisuća osoba, bio je uhićen i raspet u Patrasu na Ahaji. Ovaj snažni čovjek je puna dva dana izdisao na križu, dok je kroz ove tragične časove djelotvorno nastavio proglašavati radosne vijesti spasenja, ideje nebeskog kraljevstva.

2. ŠIMUN PETAR

Šimunu je bilo trideset godina kad se pridružio apostolima. Bio je oženjen, imao je troje

and lived at Bethsaida, near Capernaum. His brother, Andrew, and his wife's mother lived with him. Both Peter and Andrew were fisher partners of the sons of Zebedee.

The Master had known Simon for some time before Andrew presented him as the second of the apostles. When Jesus gave Simon the name Peter, he did it with a smile; it was to be a sort of nickname. Simon was well known to all his friends as an erratic and impulsive fellow. True, later on, Jesus did attach a new and significant import to this lightly bestowed nickname.

Simon Peter was a man of impulse, an optimist. He had grown up permitting himself freely to indulge strong feelings; he was constantly getting into difficulties because he persisted in speaking without thinking. This sort of thoughtlessness also made incessant trouble for all of his friends and associates and was the cause of his receiving many mild rebukes from his Master. The only reason Peter did not get into more trouble because of his thoughtless speaking was that he very early learned to talk over many of his plans and schemes with his brother, Andrew, before he ventured to make public proposals.

Peter was a fluent speaker, eloquent and dramatic. He was also a natural and inspirational leader of men, a quick thinker but not a deep reasoner. He asked many questions, more than all the apostles put together, and while the majority of these questions were good and relevant, many of them were thoughtless and foolish. Peter did not have a deep mind, but he knew his mind fairly well. He was therefore a man of quick decision and sudden action. While others talked in their astonishment at seeing Jesus on the beach, Peter jumped in and swam ashore to meet the Master.

The one trait which Peter most admired in Jesus was his supernal tenderness. Peter never grew weary of contemplating Jesus' forbearance. He never forgot the lesson about forgiving the wrongdoer, not only seven times but seventy times and seven. He thought much about these impressions of the Master's forgiving character during those dark and dismal days immediately following his thoughtless and unintended denial of Jesus in the high priest's courtyard.

Simon Peter was distressingly vacillating; he would suddenly swing from one extreme to the other. First he refused to let Jesus wash his feet and then, on hearing the Master's reply, begged to be washed all over. But, after all, Jesus knew that Peter's faults were of the head and not of the heart. He was one of the most inexplicable combinations of courage and cowardice that ever lived on earth. His great strength of character was loyalty, friendship. Peter really and truly loved Jesus. And yet despite this towering

djece i živio je u Betsaidi blizu Kafaranuma. S njim su živjeli njegova punica i brat Andrija. Petar i Andrija su radili kao ribari i partneri Zebedejevih sinova.

Učitelj je poznavao Šimuna prije nego što ga je Andrija predstavio kao jednog od drugoizabranih šest apostola. Kad je Isus Šimunu dao ime Petar, učinio je to s osmjehom na licu; bilo je to poput nadimka. Šimuna su svi poznavali kao ekscentričnog i impulsivnog čovjeka. Točno da je Isus kasnije pripojio novi i znameniti smisao ovom nadimku koji izvorno nije imao bitnijeg značaja.

Šimun Petar je bio impulsivan čovjek, optimista. U mladosti si nije branio slobodno uživanje snažnih emocija; stalno je zapadao u teškoće zato što mu je jezik bio brži od pameti. Ova vrsta nepromišljenosti je također neprestano stvarala nevolju svim njegovim prijateljima i suradnicima i često je rezultirala Učiteljevim ukorom. Petru njegove nepromišljene riječi nisu stvorile ozbiljniju nevolju jedino zato što je rano naučio raspraviti mnoge svoje planove i zamisli s bratom Andrijom prije nego se odvažio iznijeti ove ideje u javnosti.

Petar je bio rječt govornik, elokventan i dramatičan. Pored toga je bio prirodan i inspirativan vođa, čovjek brze misli ali ne i dubokoumnog suda. Postavljao je mnogo pitanja, više od svih ostalih apostola zajedno, i dok su ova pitanja većinom bila dobra i relevantna, mnoga su bila nepromišljena i glupava. Petar nije imao dubok um, ali je ovaj um prilično dobro poznavao. Stoga je bio čovjek brzih odluka i iznenadnih akcija. Dok su se apostoli dali u razgovor iznenađeni što su vidjeli Isusa na obali, Petar je skočio u more i počeo plivati prema obali.

Od svih Isusovih osobina Petar se najviše divio njegovoj božanstvenoj nježnosti. Neumorno je razmišljao o Isusovoj strpljivoj suzdržljivosti. Nikad nije zaboravio lekciju o oprostu zlotvoru, ne sedam već sedamdeset sedam puta. Za vrijeme onih tamnih časova neposredno nakon što se u dvoru visokog svećenika nepromišljeno i nenamjerno odrekao Isusa, dosta je razmišljao o utiscima koje je na njega ostavio Učiteljev milostivi karakter.

Šimunova nevolja počiva u nestabilnosti; iznenada je prelazio iz krajnosti u krajnost. Prvo je odbio dopustiti da mu Isus opere noge, dok je potom tražio da ga Učitelj cijelog opere. Ali Isus je naposljetku znao da su Petove mane bile stvar glave, a ne stvar srca. Petar predstavlja jednu od najizražajnijih kombinacija kukavičluka i hrabrosti koja je ikad živjela na licu zemlje. Njegova velika karakterna snaga počiva u lojalnosti, prijateljstvu. Petar je stvarno i istinski volio Isusa. Ali unatoč ovoj

strength of devotion he was so unstable and inconstant that he permitted a servant girl to tease him into denying his Lord and Master. Peter could withstand persecution and any other form of direct assault, but he withered and shrank before ridicule. He was a brave soldier when facing a frontal attack, but he was a fear-cringing coward when surprised with an assault from the rear.

Peter was the first of Jesus' apostles to come forward to defend the work of Philip among the Samaritans and Paul among the gentiles; yet later on at Antioch he reversed himself when confronted by ridiculing Judaizers, temporarily withdrawing from the gentiles only to bring down upon his head the fearless denunciation of Paul.
He was the first one of the apostles to make wholehearted confession of Jesus' combined humanity and divinity and the first -- save Judas -- to deny him. Peter was not so much of a dreamer, but he disliked to descend from the clouds of ecstasy and the enthusiasm of dramatic indulgence to the plain and matter-of-fact world of reality.
In following Jesus, literally and figuratively, he was either leading the procession or else trailing behind -- "following afar off." But he was the outstanding preacher of the twelve; he did more than any other one man, aside from Paul, to establish the kingdom and send its messengers to the four corners of the earth in one generation.

After his rash denials of the Master he found himself, and with Andrew's sympathetic and understanding guidance he again led the way back to the fish nets while the apostles tarried to find out what was to happen after the crucifixion. When he was fully assured that Jesus had forgiven him and knew he had been received back into the Master's fold, the fires of the kingdom burned so brightly within his soul that he became a great and saving light to thousands who sat in darkness.

After leaving Jerusalem and before Paul became the leading spirit among the gentile Christian churches, Peter traveled extensively, visiting all the churches from Babylon to Corinth. He even visited and ministered to many of the churches which had been raised up by Paul. Although Peter and Paul differed much in temperament and education, even in theology, they worked together harmoniously for the upbuilding of the churches during their later years.

Something of Peter's style and teaching is shown in the sermons partially recorded by Luke and in the Gospel of Mark. His vigorous style was better shown in his letter known as the First Epistle of Peter; at least this was true before it was subsequently altered by a disciple of Paul.

snažnoj odanosti, bio je tako nestabilan i nedosljedan da je dopustio da ga služavka zadirkivanjem navede da se odrekne svog Gospodina i Učitelja. Dok se znao oduprijeti progonu i svakom drugom obliku direktnog napada, Petar bi ustuknuo i usahnuo pred podsmijehom. Bio je hrabri vojnik pred izravnim napadom, ali puzavna kukavica pri iznenadnom napadu otraga.


Od svih Isusovih apostola Petar je bio prvi koji se zauzeo za obranu Filipovog rada među samarićanima i Pavlovih aktivnosti među nežidovima; ali djelovao je upravo suprotno kad se kasnije u Antiohiji našao pred podsmijehom požidovljenika, privremeno ustuknuvši od nežidova i tako postavši predmetom Pavlove neustrašive osude.



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