The university of the witwatersrand school of law & south african journal of human rights johannesburg, south africa


THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND SCHOOL OF LAW



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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WITWATERSRAND SCHOOL OF LAW
& SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN RIGHTS
JOHANNESBURG, SOUTH AFRICA
25 NOVEMBER 2005

JUDICIAL REVIEW IN A TIME OF TERRORISM - BUSINESS AS USUAL

The Hon Justice Michael Kirby AC CMG


* Justice of the High Court of Australia. This essay draws on earlier writings of the author on similar themes.

1 After the Constitutions of the United States of America, Sweden, Canada and Switzerland.

2 The Australian Constitution, substantially created within Australia, was a schedule to the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 (UK), 63 & 64 Victoria, Ch 12.

3 Baxter v Commissioners of Taxation (New South Wales) (1907) 4 CLR 1087 at 1125; James v The Commonwealth (1936) 55 CLR 1 at 43; R v Coldham; Ex parte Australian Social Welfare Union (1983) 153 CLR 297 at 313.

4 Covering cl V. So the Court could not be required to enforce an industrial award going beyond federal constitutional power: O'Toole v Charles David Pty Ltd (1990) 171 CLR 232 at 272, 308.

5 A D Boyer, "Understanding Authority and Will: Sir Edward Coke and the Elizabethan Origins of Judicial Review" 39 Boston College Law Review 43 at 59 (1997).

6 Dr Bonham's Case (1610) 8 Co Rep 1136 at 118a; 77 ER 646 at 652; cf Durham Holdings Pty Ltd v State of New South Wales (2000) 205 CLR 399 at 420 [44].


7 Boyer, n 5, 90. See also now Bruce Ackerman, The Failure of the Founding Fathers - Jefferson, Marshall, and the Rise of Presidential Democracy (Harvard, 2005), 12, 113, 192, 263.

8 (1803) 5 US 137.

9 eg Professors P H Lane and A C Castles. See P H Lane, Lane's Commentary on the Australian Constitution (2nd ed, 1997), 14; A C Castles, "Some Uncertain Foundations of Judicial Review in Australia" (1988) 62 Australian Law Journal 380.

10 (1951) 83 CLR 1. See M Crommelin, "Constitutional Challenges Posed by National Security: An Australian Story" in P O'Brien and B Vaughn, Amongst Friends, 2005, 121.

11 (1951) 83 CLR 1 at 262; cf Crommelin, ibid, 127.

12 Dennis v United States 341 US 494 (1951). By six Justices to two, the Smith Act restricting the American Communist Party and its members was upheld.

13 Suppression of Communism Act 1950 (SAf). See M D Kirby, "Terrorism and the Democratic Response 2004" (2005) 28 University of New South Wales Law Journal 221 at 222-223; cf "Nobel author [J M Coetzee] sees parallel in terror law", Australian, 24 October 2005, 1.


14 The referendum failed to pass in accordance with the Australian Constitution, s 128. It failed to gain a majority of the electors voting nationally and in a majority of the States.

15 Australian Communist Party v The Commonwealth (1951) 81 CLR 1 at 187.

16 Migration Act 1958 (Cth), s 474(1).

17 Plaintiff S 157/2002 v The Commonwealth (2002) 211 CLR 476 at 513-514 [104].

18 Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs v Eshetu (1999) 197 CLR 611; Enfield Corporation v Development Aid Commission (2000) 199 CLR 135.

19 M Gani and G Urbas, "Alert or Alarmed? Recent Legislative Reforms Directed at Terrorist Organisations and Persons Supporting or Assisting Terrorist Acts" (2004) 8 Newcastle Law Review 23 at 25 n 5. Note that State counterpart laws were enacted throughout Australia such as the Terrorism (Police Powers) Act 2002 (NSW) and the Terrorism Legislation Amendment (Warrants) Act 2005 (NSW).

20 Gani and Urbas, above n 19, 25.

21 Ibid, 26. See also National Security Information (Criminal and Civil Proceedings Act 2004 (Cth).

22 Ibid, 28.


23 Anti-Terrorism Bill (No 2) 2005 (Cth), see esp cll 105.51(2), (3), (4), 105.52(4).

24 Williams v The Queen (1986) 161 CLR 278 at 283.

25 N James, "Security Laws Will Not End the World: Memo to Civil Libertarians - Islamist Terrorists Want to Attack Our Democracy", Australian, 18 October 2005, 12; Editorial "A Map of Madness", Australian, 29 October 2005, 11; J Albrechtsen, "This level of hysteria suggests anti-terror laws are sound", Australian, 2 November 2005, 12; Editorial, "The Terror Beat", Australian, 10 November 2005, 13.

26 L Oakes, "Skittling the Lickspittles", Bulletin, 25 October 2005, 15; "The Public Has a Right to Know", Canberra Times, 26 October 2005, 14; N Roxon (Shadow Attorney-General), "Terror Laws Need Public Scrutiny", Media Release, 26 October 2005, 17; "Government 'bypassing public'", Canberra Times, 15 November 2005, 20.

27 "States Give Terror Laws the Green Light", Australian, 28 October 2005, 6.

28 "Whitlam and Jurists Condemn Legislation", The Age, 25 October 2005, 4; "Whitlam Laments Labor Silence on New Laws", Sydney Morning Herald, 25 October 2005, 6; "Time to be Alarmed - Malcolm Fraser's Warning", Sydney Morning Herald, 21 October 2005, 14; T Sweetman, "Where has all the good sense gone?", Sunday Mail, 23 October 2005, 63.


29 Such as Sir Anthony Mason, noted Sydney Morning Herald, 8 October 2005, 8; and another former Chief Justice of Australia, Sir Gerard Brennan, noted Sydney Morning Herald 25 October 2005, 1; former Chief Justice of the Family Court, A B Nicholson, noted The Age, 12 October 2005, 4; and "Laws the greatest attack on freedom says former judge" [A B Nicholson], The Age, 5 November 2005, 4; Chief Justice of the Australian Capital Territory, Terence Higgins, noted Canberra Times, 14 October 2005;

30 "Law Council Sees Dangers", noted Northern Territory News, 3 November 2005, 4. See also "Lawyers Ask for Terror Bill Boycott", Australian, 27 October 2005, 6 and "Anti-Terror Orders a 'Legal Minefield'", The Age, 25 October 2005, 4.

31 I Barker and R Toner, "Ruddock Lowers the bar on Legal Terror Tactics", Sydney Morning Herald, 1 November 2005, 11; G Carne, "A Betrayal of the Values of Democracy", Canberra Times, 27 October 2005, 17; D Neal, "Anti-Terrorism Bill Ignores Basics of Due Process", Australian, 28 October 2005, 25. See also I Barker, "Human rights in the Age of Counter- Terrorism" (2005) 26 Australian Bar Review 267.

32 G Williams, "Essential Liberties are Lost in Imitation", Sydney Morning Herald, 27 October 2005, 13; D Rothwell, "Expert Says States could be Sidelined on Terror Laws", ABC PM Programme, 25 October 2005; P Keyzer, "States Shut the Door on Civil Liberties", Sydney Morning Herald, 2 November 2005, 15.


33 "Costello Fuels Doubts on Law Changes", The Age, 27 October 2005, 6; "ACT First to Reject Anti-Terror Legislation", Canberra Times, 27 October 2005, 1. See also J Morrow, "the Conservative Case Against the Anti-Terrorism Laws", Australian, 7 November 2005, 8.

34 Australian Communist Party v The Commonwealth (1951) 83 CLR 1 at 141.

35 (1951) 83 CLR 1 at 141-142.

36 (1951) 83 CLR 1 at 193.

37 See eg Al-Kateb v Godwin (2004) 78 ALJR 1099; 208 ALR 124.

38 Baker v The Queen (2004) 78 ALJR 1483, 210 ALR 1; Fardon v Attorney-General (Q) (2004) 78 ALJR 1519, 210 ALR 50.

39 Re Colonel Aird; Ex parte Alpert (2004) 78 ALJR 1451, 209 ALR 311.

40 Muir v The Queen (2004) 78 ALJR 780, 206 ALR 189.

41 N Roxon, "Don't Look to the Courts to Guard Terror Laws", Canberra Times, 26 October 2005, 15.

42(2001) 3 SA 893.

43S v Makwanyane (1995) 3 SA 391.

44Mohamed v President of the Republic of South Africa (2001) 3 SA 893, 923.


45 Kaunda and others v President of the Republic of South Africa (CCT 23/04) [2004] ZACC 5.

46277 US 438, 485 (1928).

47(2000) 3 SA 893, 921.

48Ibid.

49542 US 1 (2004).

50See Authorisation for the Use of Military Force, Pub L No 107243, 116 Stat 1498, 1500 (2001).

51Johnson v Eisentrager, 339 US 763 (1950).

52124 SCt 2711, 2735 (2004). In this case, Stevens J dissented on the availability of habeas corpus in the circumstances.

53Rasul v Bush, 542 US 1, 14 (2004) (Stevens J).

54King v Cowle (1759) 97 ER 587, 598–9.

55Ex parte Mwenya [1960] 1 QB 241, 303 (Lord Evershed MR).

56Lord Steyn, ‘Guantanamo Bay: The Legal Black Hole’ (2004) 53 International & Comparative Law Quarterly 1.

57Lord Goldsmith, ‘Terrorism and Individual Liberty: The Response of the State’ (2003) 57(4) International Bar News 8 (edited version of an address at the ABA conference 2003 at San Francisco).


58F G, ‘Australia and the Rule of Law’ (2003) Australian International Law Journal 1, 2–8.

59R (Abbasi) v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs [2002] EWCA Civ. 1598, [66].

60Goldsmith, above n 55, 11.

61Subsequently, the International Court of Justice, in response to a request for an advisory opinion from the General Assembly of the United Nations, held that the construction of the wall or ‘fence’ on Palestinian land was contrary to international law. See Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory (Advisory Opinion), [2004] ICJ Rep 1. In the result, the General Assembly of the United Nations voted to condemn the building of the wall. Only five states voted against the resolution, including the United States, Israel and Australia: GA Res, 27th Sess, UN Doc A/ES-10L18/Rev.1 (2004).

62Including, eg, Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service 1933 (Germ) and the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honour 1935 (Germ). See discussion in Kartinyeri v Commonwealth (1998) 195 CLR 337, 415–17. Note the hortatory titles of these German laws: a practice that has spread. The Patriot Act in the United States is an example.

63Beit Sourik Village Council v Government of Israel (Unreported, Supreme Court of Israel sitting as the Israeli High Court of Justice, Barak P, Mazza VP, Cheshin J, 2 May 2004) 44–5.


64For a collection of jurisprudence of Israeli cases on terrorism-related issues, see Israel Supreme Court, Judgments of the Israel Supreme Court: Fighting Terrorism within the Law (2005) Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

65For an English summary with extensive extracts from the judgment, see Simon Butt and David Hansell, ‘Casenote: The Masykur Abdul Kadir Case: Indonesian Constitutional Court Decision No 013/PUU-I/203’ (2004) 6 Australian Journal of Asian Law 176, 185. See also Ross Clarke, ‘Retrospectivity and the Constitutional Validity of the Bali Bombing and East Timor Trials’ (2003) 5 Australian Journal of Asian Law 2.

66Bali Bombers’ Convictions Ruled Illegal’, Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney), 24 July 2004, 1.

67See, eg, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, opened for signature 16 December 1966, 999 UNTS 171, art 15 (entered into force 23 March 1976); European Convention on Human Rights, opened for signature 4 November 1950, 213 UNTS 222, art 7(1) (entered into force 3 September 1953). The sub-article is not derogable under the European Convention: see art 15(2).

68European Convention, opened for signature 4 November 1950, 213 UNTS 222, art 7(2) (entered into force 3 September 1953).

69Art 38. See Lord Lester and D Pannick, Human Rights: Law and Practice (2nd ed, 2004), 260 par [4.7.7].


70See D Kerr, "Australia's Legislative Response to Terrorism" (2004) 29 Alternative Law Journal 131 at 134.

71Adelaide Company of Jehovah’s Witnesses Inc v Commonwealth (1943) 67 CLR 116, 124.

72Editorial, ‘One Step Back Over Bali’, Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney), 27 July 2004, 10.

73[2004] 2 All ER 863 at 879 [13].

74Chahal v United Kingdom (1996) 23 Eur Court HR 413. See Lord Lester of Herne Hill and David Pannick, Human Rights Law and Practice (2nd ed, 2004) 182.

75Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 (UK) s 21(1).

76[2004] EWCA Civ 324, [13].

77[2004] EWCA Civ 324, [34].

78[2005] 2 AC 68 (HL).

79[2003] QB 728, [27].

80[2005] 2 AC 68 at 109-110 [41].

81[2005] 2 AC 68 at 127.

82[2005] 2 AC 68 at 132.

83[2005] 2 AC 174-175.

84James Kirkup, ‘Blair’s Olive Branch Ends Struggle Over Terrorism Bill’, The Scotsman (Edinburgh), 12 March 2005, 1.


85 N Neligan, "The Gunpowder Plot: The First Act of Modern Terrorism" (2002) 7(4) Bar Review 27.

86 D Carswell (ed), Trial of Guy Fawkes and Others (The Gunpowder Plot) (1995), 40.

87 See eg Amnesty International, Guantánamo: An Icon of Lawlessness (2005); Human Rights Watch, Guantanamo: Three Years of Lawlessness (2005).

88 116 Harvard Law Review 19, 151-152 (2002).

89 Ibid, 156-157.

90 Ibid, 158-159.

91 Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Online, "Couple win payout over ASIO, AFP raid", 1 November 2005.




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