The yellow pages (2011-2012 everything you always wanted to know about ap english III, but were afraid to ask!)



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THE YELLOW PAGES


(2011-2012 - everything you always wanted to know about AP English III, but were afraid to ask!)
Table of Contents

Topic Page

Tone: Positive (happiness, pleasure, friendliness/courtesy, animation, romance, tranquility




Tone: Neutral (general, rational/logical, self-control, apathy)




Tone: Humor/Irony/Sarcasm




Tone: Negative (general, sadness, pain, unfriendliness, anger, passion, arrogance/ self-importance, sorrow/fear/worry




Tone: Negative (submission/timidity)




Verbs: for literary analysis




Verbs: to use instead of exemplifies




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the author




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the style/content




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the diction




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the syntax




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the organization/structure/point of view




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the imagery




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the characters (physical qualities)




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the characters (mental qualities)




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the characters (moral qualities)




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the characters (spiritual qualities)




Adjectives for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion: Describing the characters (social qualities)




Nouns for Use in Literary/Rhetorical Discussion (analyzing characters, structure/organization/point of view, syntax, genre/purpose, sound devices)



The Language of Argument





Transition Words




Theme (vocabulary and identifying theme)










How to Connect Rhetorical Choices to Meaning (diction, syntax, imagery)




How to Connect Rhetorical Choices to Meaning (metaphor, simile, personification)




How to Connect Rhetorical Choices to Meaning (hyperbole, symbol)




How to Connect Rhetorical Choices to Meaning (detail, allusion)





























































































A VOCABULARY FOR DESCRIBING LANGUAGE 2009-2010

TONE

TONE (POSITIVE)

Happiness

amiable* cheery contented* ecstatic elevated*

elevated* enthusiastic exuberant* joyful jubilant*

sprightly*


Pleasure

cheerful enraptured* peaceful playful pleasant

satisfied amused appreciative whimsical*
Friendliness, Courtesy

accommodating* approving caressing comforting compassionate

confiding cordial* courteous forgiving gracious*

helpful indulgent* kindly obliging* pitying

polite sociable solicitous* soothing sympathetic

tender tolerant trusting


Animation

ardent* breathless brisk crisp eager

excited earnest* ecstatic energetic exalted*

feverish* hasty hearty hopeful inspired

lively passionate rapturous* vigorous* impassioned*
Romance

affectionate amorous* erotic* fanciful* ideal*

lustful sensual* tender
Tranquility

calm hopeful meditative* optimistic serene

relaxed soothing spiritual dreamy

TONE (NEUTRAL)

General

authoritative* baffled* ceremonial clinical* detached*

disbelieving factual formal informative learned

matter-of-fact nostalgic* objective* questioning reminiscent*

restrained* sentimental* shocked urgent

Rational/Logical

admonitory* argumentative candid* coaxing critical

curious deliberate didactic* doubting explanatory

frank* incredulous* indignant* innocent insinuating*

instructive oracular* pensive* persuasive pleading

preoccupied* puzzled sincere studied* thoughtful

uncertain unequivocal* probing*
Self-Control

solemn* serious serene simple mild

gentle temperate* imperturbable* nonchalant* cool

wary* cautious prudent*


Apathy

blasé* bored colorless defeated dispassionate*

dry* dull feeble* helpless hopeless

indifferent* inert* languid* monotonous* resigned*

sluggish* stoical* sophisticated* vacant*

TONE (HUMOR/IRONY/SARCASM)

amused bantering* bitter caustic* comical

condescending* contemptuous* cynical* disdainful* droll*

facetious* flippant* giddy* humorous insolent*

ironic* irreverent* joking malicious* mock-heroic*

mocking mock-serious* patronizing* pompous* quizzical*

ribald* ridiculing sarcastic sardonic* satiric*

scornful* sharp silly taunting teasing

whimsical* wry* belittling haughty* insulting

playful hilarious uproarious


TONE(NEGATIVE)

General

accusing aggravated* agitated* angry arrogant

artificial audacious* belligerent* bitter brash*

childish choleric* coarse* cold condemnatory

condescending contradictory critical desperate disappointed

disgruntled* disgusted disinterested passive furious

harsh hateful hurtful indignant* inflammatory*

insulting irritated manipulative* obnoxious* quarrelsome shameful superficial surly* testy*

threatening uninterested

Sadness

despairing despondent* foreboding* gloomy bleak

melancholy* maudlin* regretful tragic

Pain

annoyed biter bored crushed disappointed

disgusted dismal* fretful* irritable miserable

mournful pathetic plaintive* querulous* sore

sorrowful sour sulky sullen” troubled

uneasy* vexed* worried


Unfriendliness

accusing belittling boorish* cutting derisive*

disparaging* impudent* pitiless reproving* scolding

severe spiteful suspicious unsociable reproachful*


Anger

belligerent* furious livid* wrathful* savage

indignant* enraged
Passion

fierce frantic* greedy voracious* hysterical

insane impetuous* impulsive* jealous nervous

reckless wild


Arrogance/Self-Importance

boastful bold condescending contemptuous pretentious*

pompous* supercilious* pedantic* didactic* bombastic*

self-righteous* assured confident defiant dignified

domineering egotistical imperious* impressive smug*

knowing lofty peremptory* profound* proud

resolute* sententious* stiff saucy*
Sorrow/Fear/Worry

aggravated anxious apologetic* apprehensive* concerned

confused depressed disturbed embarrassing fearful

grave* hollow* morose* nervous numb

ominous* paranoid* pessimistic poignant* remorseful*

serious staid* enigmatic*


Submission/Timidity

aghast* alarmed ashamed astonished astounded

awed contrite* self-deprecatory* docile* fawning*

groveling* ingratiating* meek* modest* obedient]

obsequious* resigned respectful reverent* servile*

shy submissive* surprised sycophantic* terrified

timid tremulous* unpretentious* willing

VERBS

These verbs will be especially effective when the subject is the author or a character. They are excellent replacements for “be” verbs and instrumental in the formulation of thesis and theme statements. Careful use of these verbs can result in precise identification of an author’s purpose. Follow your teacher’s directions to categorize the verbs as transitive, intransitive, positive, negative, or neutral.


VERBS FOR LITERARY ANALYSIS

accentuates accepts achieves adopts advocates*

affects alleviates allows alludes* alters*

analyzes approaches argues ascertains* assesses*

assumes attacks attempts attributes* avoids

bases believes challenges changes characterizes

chooses chronicles claims comments compares

compels* completes concerns concludes condescends

conducts conforms confronts* considers contends*

contests* contrasts contributes conveys convinces

defines defies demonstrates depicts* describes

delineates* despises details determines develops

deviates* differentiates* differs directs disappoints

discovers discusses displays disputes disrupts*

distinguishes distorts* downplays dramatizes elevates

elicits* emphasizes encounters enhances enriches

enumerates* envisions evokes excludes expands

experiences explains expresses extends extrapolates*

fantasizes focuses forces foreshadows functions

generalizes* guides heightens highlights hints

holds honors identifies illustrates illuminates

imagines impels* implies* includes indicates

infers* inspires intends interprets interrupts

inundates* justifies juxtaposes* lambasts” laments*

lampoons* lists maintains makes manages

manipulates minimizes moralizes* muses* notes

observes opposes organizes overstates outlines

patronizes* performs permits personifies* persuades

ponders* portrays postulates* prepares presents

presumes produces projects promotes proposes

provides qualifies* questions rationalizes reasons

recalls recites recollects records recounts

reflects refers regards regrets rejects

represents results reveals ridicules satirizes*

seems sees selects specifies speculates*

states strives* suggests summarizes supplies

supports suppresses* symbolizes sympathizes traces

understands vacillates* values verifies*


VERBS TO USE INSTEAD OF EXEMPLIFIES

appears asserts attests to certifies confirms

connotes* corroborates* defines demonstrates denotes*

depicts discloses* elucidates* endorses* establishes

evinces* exhibits expounds* exposes intimates*

manifests* points to proves ratifies* relates

shows substantiates* suggests typifies* upholds

validates*


ADJECTIVES FOR USE IN LITERARY/RHETORICAL DISCUSSION

DESCRIBING THE AUTHOR

cultured intellectual erudite* well-read sagacious*

sensible rational philosophic* analytical imaginative

perceptive visionary* prophetic* optimistic broad-minded*

idealistic* spiritual orthodox* unorthodox* sympathetic

sophisticated* original whimsical* humorous conservative*

liberal* progressive* radical* reactionary* unprejudiced

realistic* romantic* shallow superficial bigoted

opinionated* intolerant hypocritical* fanatical* provincial*

narrow-minded* sentimental skeptical* cynical*


DESCRIBING STYLE/CONTENT

lucid* graphic* intelligible* explicit* precise

exact concise* succinct* condensed* pithy*

piquant* aphoristic* syllogistic* allusive* metaphorical

poetic prosaic* plain simple homespun*

pure vigorous* forceful eloquent* sonorous*

fluent glib* natural restrained* smooth

polished* classical artistic bombastic* extravagant

rhetorical* turgid* pompous* grandiose* obscure*

vague diffuse* verbose* pedantic* ponderous*

ungraceful harsh abrupt* labored* awkward

unpolished crude* vulgar* formal artificial

utilitarian* humanistic* pragmatic* naturalistic* impressionistic*

subjective* melodramatic* fanciful* authentic* plausible*

credible* recondite* controversial mystical* improbable*

absurd trivial commonplace heretical*

DESCRIBING DICTION

high or formal low or informal neutral precise exact

concrete abstract* plain simple homespun

esoteric* learned cultured literal* figurative*

connotative* symbolic picturesque* sensuous* literary

provincial* colloquial* slang* idiomatic* neologistic*

inexact euphemistic* trite* obscure* pedantic*

bombastic* grotesque vulgar* jargon* emotional

obtuse* moralistic* ordinary scholarly insipid*

proper pretentious* old-fashioned

DESCRIBING SYNTAX

loose sentence periodic* balanced* interrupted simple*

compound* complex* compound-complex* declarative* interrogative*

imperative* exclamatory* telegraphic* antithetic* inverted*

euphonic* rhythmical epigrammatic* emphatic incoherent

rambling tortuous jerky cacophonic* monotonous

spare austere* unadorned* jumbled chaotic

obfuscating* journalistic* terse* laconic* mellifluous*

musical lilting* lyrical* elegant solid

DESCRIBING ORGANIZATION/STRUCTURE/POINT OF VIEW

spatial* chronological flashback flash forward* in media res*

step-by-step objective* subjective* nostalgic* reminiscent

contemplative* reflective* clinical* impersonal* dramatic*

omniscient* limited*
DESCRIBING IMAGERY (Substitute these precise adjectives for less precise ones such as vivid, colorful, and powerful.)

bucolic* pastoral* gustatory* olfactory* tactile*

kinetic* kinesthetic* sensual* sacred sexual

auditory* religious animal war/military chaotic



DESCRIBING CHARACTERS (Great substitutions for pretty and ugly!)

Physical Qualities

manly virile* robust* hardy* sturdy

strapping* stalwart* muscular brawny* lovely

fair comely* handsome dainty delicate

graceful elegant shapely attractive winsome*

ravishing* dapper* immaculate adroit* dexterous*

adept* skillful agile* nimble* active

lively spirited* vivacious* weak feeble*

sickly frail decrepit* emaciated* cadaverous*

effeminate* unwomanly hideous homely* course*

unkempt* slovenly* awkward clumsy ungainly*

graceless bizarre* grotesque incongruous* ghastly

repellent* repugnant* repulsive odious* invidious*

loathsome*

Mental Qualities (Great substitutions for smart and stupid! Which comments would you like to see on your papers?)

educated erudite* scholarly wise astute*

intellectual precocious* capable competent gifted

apt* rational reasonable sensible shrewd*

prudent* observant clever ingenious* inventive

subtle* cunning* crafty* wily* unintelligent

unschooled* unlettered* ignorant illiterate* inane*

irrational puerile* foolish fatuous* vacuous*

simple thick-skulled* idiotic imbecilic* witless*

deranged* demented* articulate* eloquent*

Moral Qualities (Great substitutions for good and bad!)

idealistic* innocent virtuous* faultless righteous*

guileless* upright* exemplary chaste* pure

undefiled* temperate* abstentious* austere* ascetic*

puritanical* truthful honorable trustworthy straightforward*

decent respectable wicked corrupt* degenerate*

notorious* vicious incorrigible* dissembling* infamous*

immoral* unprincipled* reprobate* depraved* indecent*

ribald* vulgar* intemperate* sensual* dissolute*

deceitful dishonest unscrupulous* dishonorable* base*

vile* foul* recalcitrant* philandering* opportunistic*
Spiritual Qualities (More great substitutions for good and bad!)

religious reverent pious* devout* faithful

regenerate* holy saintly angelic skeptical*

agnostic* atheistic* irreligious* impious* irreverent*

profane* sacrilegious* materialistic carnal* godless

diabolic* fiendlike* blasphemous* unregenerate* altruistic*

charitable

Social Qualities (Terrific substitutions for nice and mean!)

civil* amicable* contentious* unpolished* sullen*

tactful* courteous cooperative genial* affable*

hospitable* gracious* amiable* cordial* congenial*

convivial* jovial* jolly urbane* suave*

anti-social* acrimonious* quarrelsome antagonistic* misanthropic*

discourteous impudent* impolite insolent* ill-bred

ill-mannered unrefined rustic* provincial* boorish*

brusque* churlish* fawning* obsequious* sniveling*

grumpy fractious* crusty* peevish* petulant*

waspish* taciturn* reticent* gregarious* garrulous*
NOUNS FOR USE IN LITERARY/RHETORICAL DISCUSSION

ANALYZING CHARACTERS

foil* nemesis* adversary* protagonist* antagonist*

confidante* doppelganger* narrator (unknown, reliable, naïve)

ANALYZING STRUCTURE/ORGANIZATION/POINT OF VIEW

foreshadowing epiphany* analogy* extended metaphor* shifts

parallel structure comparison/contrast transition sequence definition

juxtaposition* anecdote* frame story* arrangement classification

categorization placement person (first, second, third)*

perspective (chronological, geographic, emotional, political)*


ANALYZING SYNTAX

repetition parallelism anaphora* asyndeton* polysyndeton*

subject* predicate* object* direct object* indirect object*

phrase* clause* infinitive* participle* gerund*

modifier* dependent clause* independent clause* subordinate clause* preposition*

conjunction* interjection* deliberate fragment* appositive* emphatic appositive* semicolon* colon* rhetorical question* noun*

comma pronoun* proper noun* common noun* collective noun*

abstract noun* concrete noun* dialogue* apostrophe* chiasmus*

parenthetical expression footnote capitalization for effect inversion* antecedent*

hyphen* dash* active voice* passive voice* tense

catalogue* compound nouns/adjectives
IDENTIFYING GENRE/PURPOSE

novel novella* autobiography* memoir* biography

letter sermon speech treatise* abstract*

précis* synopsis critique* personal narrative journey

travelogue essay* diatribe* polemic* commentary*

farce* conceit* editorial* tirade* review

assessment eulogy* elegy* parody* allegory*

apology soliloquy* monologue* portrayal archetype*

fable* argument verse
IDENTIFYING SOUND DEVICES

alliteration* assonance* consonance* repetition* rhyme*

end rhyme* feminine rhyme* masculine rhyme* meter* slant rhyme* incremental rhyme*
THE LANGUAGE OF ARGUMENT

VERBS

attack charge claim propose defend

challenge qualify counter repudiate* allege*

validate confirm affirm* argue assume

answer agree/disagree verify resolve concede*

grant* generalize specify debate dispute

assert

NOUNS

warrant validity plausibility* practicality proposal

solution resolution bias credibility accountability

vested interest conflict of interests enthymeme* pathos* ethos*

logos* counterargument premise* syllogism* deduction*

induction* fallacy* ad hominem exigence* speaker

audience purpose message precedent* testimonial*

rebuttal* antithesis* non sequitur* circular reasoning* bandwagon*

refutation slippery slope* anecdote* advocacy* rhetoric*

invective* proponent* assertion adherent * red herring*

qualifier* begging the question* justification cause/effect
TRANSITION WORDS


Time

Place

Idea

Extending elaboration by comparing

Extending elaboration by contrasting

Extending elaboration by emphasizing/clarifying

Extending elaboration by adding another example

after, afterward,

at first, as before, finally, immediately, later, next, now, previously, soon, then



above, ahead, among, beyond, down, elsewhere, farther, here, in front of, in the background, near, nearby, next to, there

first, second, third,

similarly, as, in the same way, for instance, likewise, however



as, at the same time, by comparison, equally, in the same manner, likewise, similarly

although, and yet, as, as though, at the same time, but, in contrast, conversely, even so, unlike, even though, however, in spite of, instead of, neither, nevertheless, on the one hand, on the other hand, provided that, though, unfortunately, whereas, yet


especially, for instance, in fact, indeed, that is, in other words

moreover,

most important, now, so , additionally, again, also, especially, in addition, in fact, last, again, also, besides, equally important, furthermore, similarly, in contrast



Transition list from Crafting Expository Argument by Michael Degen



THEME VOCABULARY
Brendan Kenny’s List of Abstract Ideas for Forming Theme Statements:


alienation

ambition

appearance v. reality

betrayal

bureaucracy

chance/fate/luck

children

courage/cowardice

cruelty/violence

custom/tradition

defeat/failure

despair/discontent/disillusionment

domination/suppression

dreams/fantasies



duty

education

escape

exile


faith/loss of faith

falsity/pretence

family/parenthood

free will/willpower

game/contests/sports

greed


guilt

heart v. reason

heaven/paradise/Utopia

home


identity

illusion/innocence

initiation

instinct

journey (literal or

psychological)

law/justice

loneliness/solitude

loyalty/disloyalty

materialism

memory/the past

mob psychology

music/dance

patriotism



persistence/perseverance

poverty


prejudice

prophecy

repentance

revenge/retribution

ritual/ceremony

scapegoat/victim

social status (class)

the supernatural

time/eternity

war


women/feminism


IDENTIFYING THEME

Method A (sample from Writing Essays about Literature by Kelley Griffith):
Subject

1. What is the work about? Provide a one to three word answer. See “Theme Vocabulary” above.


Theme

2. What is the author’s message with regard to #1 as it pertains to the human condition? In other words, what comment does the work make on human nature, the human condition, human motivation, or human ambition?

3. In identifying and stating theme, be sure that the observation

(a) is not too terse to express the complexity of the human experience

(b) avoids moralizing words such as should and ought

(c) avoids specific reference to plot and characters

(d) avoids absolute words such as anyone, all, none, everything, and everyone

4. Using both dependent and independent clauses, write a complex sentence which fulfills the requirements above and which explains one of the major themes of the work.


Sample for Anna Karenina:
Subject: sacred versus profane love
Theme: Although people can, through no fault of their own, become entrapped in long-lasting and destructive relationships, “sacred” commitments, like marriage and parenthood, take precedence over extramarital “loves,” no matter how passionate and deeply felt they may be.



How to Connect Rhetorical Choices to Meaning
Diction
  • Identify the grammatical unit (phrase, noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.) and provide the context in which it appears in the text. Consider connotation as well as denotation. Do NOT write: The writer uses diction. That’s like saying: The writer uses words.


  • Connect the diction to the meaning of this text. Avoid generic commentary. Provide an original insight. Pay attention to your own diction. It enhances your analysis.

Model:
The phrase* ____________________________ used to describe/identify__________________________________ conveys _______________________ since / because / in that ___________________________________________ ______________. This is significant because _______________________________________________________.



* or the noun, verb, adjective, adverb

Example (first half only):


The phrase, “a thin beard of ivy,” used to describe Gatsby’s mansion conveys a sense of _____________________.

Syntax

  • Identify the syntactical choice the author has made and provide the context in which it appears in the text. Do NOT write: The writer uses syntax. Since syntax refers to the order and structure of words, phrases, etc, it always exists – even if you do not find it noteworthy.

  • Connect the syntax to the meaning of this text. Avoid generic commentary. Provide an original insight. Pay attention to your own diction. It enhances your analysis.

Model:
The ________________________________ function(s) to ____________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________________.

Example:

Gatsby’s interrupted sentences dramatize his nervousness and hesitation as he discusses his upcoming meeting with Daisy at Nick’s bungalow. Gatsby says “Why, I thought – why, look here, old sport, you don’t make very much money, do you?”

Helpful hint:

Some other examples of purposeful syntactical choices an author might make: parallelism, anaphora, rhetorical question, appositives, polysyndeton, asyndeton, prepositional phrases, etc. According to Jeff Sommers and Max Morenberg, authors of The Writer’s Options, appositives define, summarize, and clarify. Prepositional phrases may elaborate and clarify by indicating how, where, when, why.

Imagery (word pictures appealing to one of the 5 senses – if you can’t identify which one, it isn’t a valid example of imagery)


  • Identify the image and provide the context in which it appears in the text.

  • Connect the image to the meaning of this text. Avoid generic commentary. Provide an original insight. Pay attention to your own diction. It enhances your analysis.

Model:


The image of ______________________________ depicts a (picture, sense, state, etc.) of __________ _____________________________ because the reader (sees, envisions, realizes) that ______________ ___________________________________________________________________________________.

Example:
The image (40) of an “argument . . . pull[ing]” Nick back to the party “as if with ropes” conveys his helpless struggle to get away from the gathering in Tom and Myrtle’s apartment at the same time that it dramatizes his fascination with the events that are occurring.




Figurative Language: Metaphor or Simile

  • Identify the metaphor or simile and provide the context in which it appears in the text.

  • Connect the metaphor or simile to the meaning of this text. Avoid generic commentary. Provide an original insight. Pay attention to your own diction. It enhances your analysis.

Model:
The subject of (x) __________________________ is compared to (y) _________________________. This is fitting because (x) __________________________ and (y) ___________________________ share these characteristics: (a) ______________________________________________________ and (b) ____________________________________________________.


Example:

In his “I Have a Dream” speech, Martin Luther King, Jr. compares the condition of poverty to a “lonely island.” This is a fitting comparison because poverty and a lonely island share these characteristics: (a)

isolation and alienation from the “vast ocean of material prosperity” which surrounds them and (b) both are small, singled out, vulnerable, and surrounded by something they don’t possess.

Figurative Language: Personification (a figure of speech in which animals, abstract ideas, or inanimate things are referred to as if they were human)


  • Identify the animal, abstract idea, or inanimate thing and provide the context in which it appears in the text. Identify the human characteristic that is ascribed to it.

  • Connect the effect of the personification to the meaning of this text. Avoid generic commentary. Provide an original insight. Pay attention to your own diction. It enhances your analysis.

Model:


In _______________________________, ___________________is personified as possessing the human

characteristic(s) of ___________________________________________ . The author employs

personification in order to___________________________________________________________.

Example:


"Today, we begin a new chapter in the history of Louisiana. I've said throughout the campaign that there are two entities that have the most to fear from us winning this election. One is corruption and the other is incompetence. If you happen to see either of them, let them know the party is over."

-- Bobby Jindal, Louisiana Governor-Elect victory Speech (as posted on americanrhetoric.com)

In Bobby Jindal’s victory speech, the abstract ideas of corruption and incompetence are personified as possessing human form and consciousness. The governor-elect suggests that members of his audience might encounter or “see” them and should inform them that their good times (“party”) are over. Jindal employs personification in order to assure his audience that he will not tolerate corruption or incompetence in his administration.

Figurative Language: Hyperbole (deliberate exaggeration used to heighten effect or create humor – remember that this is a figure of speech not meant to be interpreted literally – e.g., I’m so hungry I could eat a horse.)


  • Identify what is being exaggerated and provide the context in which it appears in the text. Identify

  • Connect the effect of the hyperbole to the meaning of this text. Avoid generic commentary. Provide an original insight. Pay attention to your own diction. It enhances your analysis.

Model:


The speaker uses the deliberate exaggeration of _________________________________ to express

_________________________________________________________________________________.


Example:

From Robert Frost’s poem, “After Apple-Picking”

For I have had too much

Of apple-picking: I am overtired

Of the great harvest I myself desired.

There were ten thousand fruit to touch,

Cherish in hand, lift sown, and not let fall.
The speaker uses the deliberate exaggeration of “ten thousand” to express his extreme weariness of both body and spirit.

[Example taken from A Contemporary Guide to Literary Terms by Edwin J. Barton and Glenda A. Hudson (Houghton Mifflin, 2004)]



Symbol

  • Identify both the concrete and abstract meanings of the symbol and provide the context in which it appears in the text.

  • Connect the symbol to specific characters in this text. Avoid generic commentary. Provide an original insight. Pay attention to your own diction. It enhances your analysis.

Model:


The ________________________________ symbolizes ________________________________

concrete abstract

for _______________________________ because it represents __________________________

______________________________________________________________________________.

Example:

The pearls Daisy Buchanan rescues from the trash and subsequently wears “around her neck” symbolize her ultimate choice of money over love because they represent Tom’s vast wealth (they were “valued at three hundred and fifty thousand dollars”) in contrast to Gatsby’s avowal of love, symbolized by the letter she “wouldn’t let go of.”



Detail


  • Identify the detail and provide the context in which it appears in the text.

  • Describe the function of the inclusion of that detail in this text. Avoid generic commentary. Provide an original insight. Pay attention to your own diction. It enhances your analysis.

Model:
The detail of _____________________________________________ conveys _____________________ ___________________. The author wants the reader to see ____________________________________.


Example:

The detail of the string of polo ponies Tom Buchanan brought east with him from Chicago conveys his vast wealth and hedonism. Fitzgerald wants the reader to see Tom as spoiled and self-indulgent.


Allusion

  • Identify the allusion (indirect reference by an author to another text, historical occurrence, or to myths and legends) and provide the context in which it appears in the text.

  • Describe the function of the allusion in this text. Avoid generic commentary. Provide an original insight. Pay attention to your own diction. It enhances your analysis.

Model:

The author or speaker alludes to ________________________________________ in order to

________________________________________________________________________________.
Example:

Hamlet alludes to Hyperion, in his first soliloquy, comparing his dead father to the mythological sun god in order to emphasize his father’s nobility and goodness in contrast to the morally inferior character Claudius who has usurped the throne.


Examples of “generic” commentary: gets the reader’s attention, draws the reader in, etc.

Grading Scale Guidelines

pre-AP and AP Timed Writings




Spring

Freshmen /

Fall

Sophomores

Spring

Sophomores /

Fall

Juniors

Spring

Juniors /

Fall

Seniors



Spring

Seniors
















9

100

100

100

100































8

98

96

95

94





























7

95

93

90

88































6

90

88

85

82































5

88

85

80

76





























4

85

80

75

70































3

80

75

70

67































2

75

70

65

64































1

65

60

60

60



















RUBRIC (GENERIC) FOR AP ASSIGNMENTS
9: Papers earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for 8 papers and, in addition, are especially full or apt in their analysis, sophisticated in their explanation and argument, or impressive in their control of language.
8: Papers earning a score of 8 respond to the prompt effectively, answering all parts of the question completely and demonstrating clear understanding of the passage; recognizes complexities of attitude or tone; demonstrates stylistic maturity through an effective command of sentence structure, diction, and organization; insightful thesis clearly linked to the evidence or assertions presented; seamless incorporation of quotations; consistent focus
7: Papers earning a score of 7 fit the description of 6 papers, but provide a more complete analysis, explanation, or argument OR demonstrate a more mature prose style.

6: Papers earning a score of 6 respond to the prompt adequately, accurately answering all parts of the question and using appropriate evidence, but they are less fully or effectively developed than essays in the top range;. discussion of techniques used in a passage may be less thorough and less specific; well-written in an appropriate style, but with less maturity than the top papers; demonstrates sufficient control over the elements of writing to present the writer’s ideas clearly; clear, accurate thesis

5: Papers earning a score of 5 analyze, explain, or argue in response to the prompt, but do so unevenly, inconsistently, or insufficiently. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the writer’s ideas. May be simplistic, imprecise, overly general or vague. Organization is attempted, but not fully realized.

4: Papers earning a score of 4 respond to the prompt inadequately. They may analyze or explain incorrectly, merely paraphrase, or offer little discussion. The prose generally conveys the writer’s ideas but may suggest immature control of writing. The writer attempts to answer the question, but does so either inaccurately or without the support of specific, persuasive evidence; may misinterpret or misrepresent the passage.
3: Papers earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for a score of 4, but demonstrate less success in analyzing, explaining, arguing, or providing specific textual evidence. They are less consistent in controlling the elements of writing.
2: Papers earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in analyzing, explaining, or arguing. They may misunderstand the prompt or the passage, offer vague generalizations, substitute simpler tasks such as summarizing the passage or simple listing rhetorical strategies. The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in writing.

may be unacceptably brief or poorly written on several counts; response lacks clarity


1: Papers earning a score of 1 meet the criteria for a 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation and /or argument, or weak in their control of language.
0: Indicates an on-topic response that receives no credit, such as one that merely repeats the prompt.

_: Indicates a blank response or one that is completely off-topic.

8: Demonstrates competence 9 = an enhanced eight

6: Suggests competence 7 = an enhanced six

4: Suggests incompetence 3 = a diminished four

2: Demonstrates incompetence 1 = a diminished 2

5: Goes in and out like static when you’re trying to tune in a radio station

UPPER HALF PAPERS employ an “enriched” vocabulary. The writer “does the work” of guiding the reader through effective organization and fluid syntax.

LOWER HALF PAPERS demonstrate an “impoverished” vocabulary. The reader “does the work” trying to make sense out of what the writer has written.



POETRY FOCUS STATEMENT

DEFINITION:
A ONE TO TWO-SENTENCE SUMMARY OF THE NARRATIVE SITUATION, THEME AND TONE OF A POEM.

USE:

AS A POTENTIAL THESIS FOR A FREE-RESPONSE POETRY QUESTION ON THE AP LIT EXAM

CRITICAL ATTRIBUTES

  1. INCLUDES THE TITLE OF THE POEM AND THE NAME OF THE POET

  2. IS WRITTEN IN “LITERARY PRESENT TENSE”

  3. SPECIFIES THE NARRATIVE SITUATION OF THE POEM

  4. INCLUDES A THOUGHTFUL, BUT CONCISE INDICATION OF THEME

  5. IDENTIFIES THE TONE(S) OF THE POEM. THESE MAY BE DIFFERING BUT COMPLEMENTARY. SHIFTS IN TONE MAY BE IDENTIFIED AS WELL.


DIRECTIONS:

  1. THE SYNTAX OF POETRY FOCUS STATEMENTS IS COMPOUND OR COMPLEX BECAUSE YOU ARE ADDRESSING BOTH THE LITERAL (THE NARRATIVE SITUATION) AND THE THEMATIC.

  2. DRAW A STRAIGHT LINE UNDER THE LITERAL PART OF THE STATEMENT. IT SHOULD BE SUBORDINATED TO THE THEMATIC. THAT IS, IT SHOULD BE FOUND IN THE DEPENDENT CLAUSE.

  3. DRAW A SQUIGGLY LINE UNDER THE THEMATIC PART OF THE STATEMENT. IT SHOULD BE FOUND IN THE MAIN OR INDEPENDENT CLAUSE.

  4. ARTICULATE YOURSELF IN A SCHOLARLY MANNER. SEE “VERBS FOR LITERARY ANALYSIS” AND “TONE WORDS” IN THE YELLOW PAGES.






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