This man spearheaded the Poor People's Campaign, and, two years previously, this first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was asked to

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SCOP Novice Tournament: Round 6

Tossups


1. This man spearheaded the Poor People's Campaign, and, two years previously, this first president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference was asked to attend a voting rights demonstration in Selma that was broken up by police violence on 1965's "Bloody Sunday.” This author of a "Letter from (*) Birmingham Jail" led a March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom five years before his assassination by James Earl Ray. Name this Civil Rights leader who organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott and gave the "I Have a Dream" speech.

ANSWER: Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.


2. This work's protagonist is asked by the chief clerk why he did not make the early train, and he dreams that his sister will play in the Conservatory. In this novella, the protagonist's sister plays violin to entertain three lodgers, to whom the family rented room to replace the protagonist's income. His father pummels him with (*) apples; after one gets lodged in him and causes an infection, Grete and the rest of his family abandon him. Name this existential novella about Gregor Samsa's life as a giant insect by Franz Kafka.

ANSWER: The Metamorphosis (or Die Verwandlung)

3. The protagonist of this film enrages a Hammerhead Titanothere after poking some flowers. That man replaces his twin brother at the RDA Corporation, and he joins Trudy and Norm in their defiance of Colonel Quaritch, knowing he will not get a cure for his (*) paralyzed legs. Starring Sam Worthington as Jake Sully and also featuring Sigourney Weaver, this film ends without mining the unobtanium beneath the hometree of the blue-skinned Na'vi people on the moon Pandora. Name this 2009 James Cameron epic film, the top-grossing movie of all time.

ANSWER: Avatar [do not accept "Avatar: The Last Airbender"]
4. The first production of this was choreographed by Lev Ivanov after Marius Pepita became ill, and for it the composer had a celeste brought in secret from Germany. Based on a story by E.T.A. Hoffman, it sees a girl dream of characters such as Mother Ginger, the (*) Snow Queen, and Arabian Coffee, who are inspired by food items at a party where that girl, Clara, receives the title gift from Count Drosselmeyer. Featuring the Rat King, name this Tchaikovsky ballet which features the celeste in the "Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy.” 

ANSWER: The Nutcracker


5. The Suzuki coupling reacts an aryl halide with a substituted acid of this element, while another of its acids is considered the safest pesticide, since this element is highly toxic to insects but not mammals. This element's effectiveness at absorbing neutrons makes its carbide an ideal material for nuclear reactor control rods, it forms trivalent compounds that (*) violate the octet rule, and its silicate is used to make Pyrex laboratory glassware. Name this metalloid element with atomic number 5 and symbol B.

ANSWER: Boron

6. In this novel, the main character's wife listens to the protagonist recite "Dover Beach,” after he meets Clarisse McClellan, but she primarily wears a seashell radio and contemplates adding a fourth TV to the wall of her parlor. Captain Beatty's (*) mechanical hound pursues the protagonist, who joins a secret society of book-memorizers. Name this Ray Bradbury novel, in which Guy Montag is a fireman who burns books at the title temperature.

ANSWER: Fahrenheit 451

7. An 1897 book notes that Protestants perform the titular action more frequently than Catholics and men more frequently than women; the work differentiates between the egoistical, fatalistic, altruistic, and anomic types of this action. The title of that Émile (*) Durkheim work, this action was performed by the members of Heaven's Gate in 1997 to herald the arrival of a spaceship. To preserve their honor upon defeat, samurais performed a variety of this called seppuku. Name this sociological phenomenon, the taking of one's own life.

ANSWER: suicide [prompt on equivalents]

8. In the Talmud, a man with this name is the son of Pandeira, and is condemned to death by the Sanhedrin. He is classified in Baha'i as a Manifestation of God, and in Islam, he spoke out as a baby, saying that he would reveal the Injeel. He was raised up to heaven alive, though he will eventually descend to slay the Dajjal. In Christianity, he was killed by the Romans at (*) Calvary. Islam and Christianity agree that he was conceived immaculately by the Virgin Mary. Identify this Abrahamic religious figure, worshiped primarily by Christians as the Messiah.

ANSWER: Jesus Christ [accept either or both parts; accept Isa; accept Yeshua; prompt on Messiah before the end]


9. French intervention in this conflict resulted in victory at Rocroi. This war began with the defeat of Frederick the Winter King at White Mountain after the Defenestration of Prague, and it saw the intervention of Denmark as well as Gustavus Adolphus, who was killed at Lutzen after leading the Swedish army to victory at (*) Breitenfield. Ended by the Peace of Westphalia, name this war between Protestants and Catholics fought largely in Germany, named for its length.
ANSWER: Thirty Years' War

10. This process is promoted by a namesake protein complex that adds ubiquitinin to cyclin, and also includes outward-pointing astral microtubules pulling the poles toward the cell cortex in its B-phase. This phase of mitosis begins just after the so-called "spindle fiber checkpoint" when (*) sister chromatids separate at the metaphase plate. It then sees kinetochore microtubules shortening and pulling the chromosomes toward opposite poles. Identify this phase of mitosis between metaphase and telophase.

ANSWER: anaphase [prompt on mitosis before it is mentioned]

11. This mineral has the lowest crystallization temperature on Bowen's reaction series. This mineral is normally the last to crystallize in magma, so it fills the space between other minerals. It has a conchoidal fracture, and it exhibits the piezoelectric effect when under stress. Although this mineral is usually (*) colorless and transparent, it has many varieties including onyx, milky, and amethyst, all of which have different colors. Name this mineral with chemical formula silicon dioxide, a 7 on Moh's scale of mineral hardness.

ANSWER: Quartz

12. Mount Darwin is the highest peak on its largest island, which lies north of the Drake Passage. The cities of Rio Grande and Ushuaia are possessed by one country, while another controls the island of Cape (*) Horn, the southern tip of this archipelago. Separated from mainland South America by the Strait of Magellan, name this archipelago owned by Argentina and Chile, whose name means "Land of Fire.”
ANSWER: Tierra del Fuego [accept Land of Fire before the end]
13. Artists in this style, such as Alfred Sisley, often apply paint "en plein air" and generally avoid black paint, choosing rather to blend complementary colors. One artist of this school that founded the Salon des Refusés placed a naked woman next to two fully clothed men. Besides (*) Luncheon on the Grass, other works in this style include one of men in top hats eating with women in fancy dresses. Name this French painting style employed by Edouard Manet, Auguste Renoir, and Claude Monet.

ANSWER: Impressionism (Accept other word forms)


14. The Gram-Schmidt process produces a basis that possesses both normality and this property. A matrix possesses this quality if its transpose equals its inverse, and vectors with a dot product of zero possess this property. In the Euclidean plane, two lines will possess this property if one (*) slope is the opposite reciprocal of the other. Name this mathematical property, commonly described as meeting at ninety-degree angles.
ANSWER: orthogonality [accept perpendicularity; accept other logical equivalents, such as "at a right angle"; accept such equivalents involving "meeting at an angle of pi over two radians" or “…90 degrees" before the end]

15. This author wrote about Captain Middleton's wife being kidnapped by Ishmael Bush in The Prairie. This man is accused of committing 114 "Literary Offenses" in a work which sees Wah-ta-Wah and the scalper Tom Hutter kidnapped by the Huron tribe. In his most famous novel, Magua, angry with Colonel Munro, targets Munro's daughters, who are traveling with (*) Chingachgook. Name this author whose Leatherstocking Tales includes novels about Natty Bumppo such as The Last of the Mohicans.

ANSWER: James Fenimore Cooper

16. This man pushed for the federal government to assume state debts after the Revolution in his "Report on Public Credit.” This man helped decide the 1800 election by declaring that one candidate was a "lesser evil,” and his excise tax on whiskey led to the Whiskey Rebellion. Along with (*) Madison and Jay, he authored the Federalist papers. Assassinated by Aaron Burr, name this man who, in recognition of his work as the first Secretary of the Treasury, is depicted on the ten-dollar bill.

ANSWER: Alexander Hamilton


17. This god tricked Alviss into getting petrified. One possession of this god was forged by dwarves Eitri and Brokkr, and has a short handle due to Loki's interference. This god's other possessions include a "power belt" that doubles his strength which, together with iron gloves called Járngreipr (YARN-gri-pir), will help him slay (*) Jormungandr (YORE-mun-gahn-dur) at Ragnarok. Owner of a hammer that returns when thrown, Mjöllnir (ME-yawl-neer), name this Norse god of thunder.

ANSWER: Thor or Donar


18. In His Last Bow, this character retires to a bee farm and, while disguised as Altamont, holds a chloroform-soaked rag up to Von Bork's face. He may have a crush on "the woman" he met in "The Scandal in Bohemia,” (*) Irene Adler, and this character also crusades against the Napoleon of Evil, Professor Moriarty. Name this rational protagonist of the novels A Study in Scarlet and The Hound of the Baskervilles, the detective friend of John H Watson, and brainchild of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle.

ANSWER: Sherlock Holmes

19. This city was supplied by the port of Piraeus, to which it was connected by the Long Walls; that port supplied this city during a conflict which saw its defeat in the Sicilian Expedition. One leader of this leading city of the Delian League was Alcibiades, who served as one of its military leaders, or (*) strategos; another leader of this city with that title was Thucydides. Home to the Acropolis and Parthenon, name this city-state, led by Pericles against Sparta.

ANSWER: Athens
20. The amount by which this quantity decreases after emanating from its source is called its namesake drop. According to Kirchoffs Loop Rule, the sum of this quantity in a circuit is always zero. Also known as electrical (*) potential difference, its drop across a resistor is the product of current and resistance. Symbolized capital V, name this quantity that can lead to an electrical current between two points, named for an Italian.

ANSWER: voltage [accept electrical potential difference before mentioned; do not accept "potential energy"]


Bonuses

1. After breaking parole, he adopts Cosette and passes himself off as factory owner/mayor Monsieur Madeleine. For 10 points each:—

[10] Name this character, pursued by Inspector Javert, who was incarcerated for nineteen years as prisoner number 24601 for stealing a loaf of bread.

ANSWER: Jean Valjean [accept either or both parts]

[10] Jean Valjean is the protagonist of this novel, which features a love triangle between Cosette, the student Marius, and Eponine Thénardier [eh-PO-neen ta'NAR-dee-ay] on the eve of a student rebellion in Paris.

ANSWER: Les Misérables

[10] Les Misérables was written by this nineteenth century French novelist.

ANSWER: Victor-Marie Hugo

2. For a gas, it is defined as the average kinetic energy of the atoms in the gas. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this thermodynamic quantity which can be measured on the Rankine, Kelvin, and Celsius scales.

ANSWER: Temperature

[10] Often symbolized by the letter C, this quantity is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree Kelvin. For liquid water, this quantity is about 4.18 Joules per gram per Kelvin.  

ANSWER: Specific heat capacity

[10] On graphs showing the heating or cooling of a substance over time, the plateaus, where the temperature is constant, indicate that one of these processes is occurring. Melting and freezing are common examples.  

ANSWER: Phase change (accept phase transition)

3. Name some modern architects for 10 points each:

[10] This Chinese-American architect created the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in Cleveland, Ohio, as well as the Bank of China Tower.

ANSWER: Ieoh Ming Pei

[10] Pei designed the glass pyramid in front of this French art museum, the home of the Nike of Samothrace and the Mona Lisa.

ANSWER: Musee du Louvre [or Grand Louvre; or Louvre Museum]

[10] This architect favors twisted metal structures, as evidenced in his designs for the Walt Disney Concert Hall and the Guggenheim Art Museum in Bilbao, Spain.

ANSWER: Frank Gehry

4. It was drawn on a napkin for Jack Kemp by its namesake. For 10 points each:


[10] Usually explained by noting that people work harder and make more money overall, name this economic graph, which shows that decreases in tax rate lead to increases in tax revenue.
ANSWER: Laffer curve
[10] The Laffer curve was a personal favorite of this US President, whose namesake economic plan was labeled "voodoo economics" by a political opponent. He famously broke the 1981 air traffic controller's strike.
ANSWER: Ronald Reagan
[10] John Hinckley's assassination attempt on Ronald Reagan left this man, Reagan's press secretary, partially paralyzed. A 1993 law named for this man requires federal background checks for people attempting to purchase firearms.

ANSWER: Jim Brady (accept Brady Bill, Law, or Act, or Brady Handgun Violence Protection Act)

5. Identify some books of the Old Testament for 10 points each.

[10] This first book of the Bible describes the expulsion of man from the Garden of Eden and the creation of the world.

ANSWER: Genesis [or Bereisheet; or Bereishees]

[10] Also known as Canticum Canticorum, this is a rather erotic book of the Bible. The man in this book compares a woman's breasts to twin fawns of a gazelle.

ANSWER: Song of Songs [or Song of Solomon; or Shir ha-Shirim]

[10] This book that follows Exodus describes a lot of laws and codes that the Jews would follow. The tribe for which the book is named is why much of it is related to priests.

ANSWER: Leviticus [or Vayikra]
6. In it, Hal and his family ignore Thornton's advice not to cross a river made of weak ice. For 10 points each:
[10] Name this novel in which Buck, an Alaskan sled-dog, kills Spitz and eventually gives a yell every year at his master's memorial.
ANSWER: The Call of the Wild
[10] This author of The Call of the Wild and White Fang described the fall of fascism in The Iron Heel.
ANSWER: Jack London
[10] "Hump" van Wyden learns the value of work with Maud Brewster after they escape the psychological brutality of Captain Wolf Larsen in this other London novel.

ANSWER: The Sea-Wolf

7. These entities are roughly 2,000 Kelvin cooler than their surrounding environment, and their frequency greatly decreased during the Maunder Minimum in the late 17th century. For 10 points each:

[10] Name these dark regions on the surface of the Sun.
ANSWER: Sunspots
[10] Another solar phenomenon is this ionized stream of particles ejected from the Sun's corona. 
ANSWER: Solar wind (or stellar wind)
[10] The solar wind interferes with Earth's magnetic field to produce this man's namesake "belts" of radiation around Earth, first confirmed by the Explorer missions.
ANSWER: James Van Allen (accept Van Allen radiation belt)
8. It was the highest grossing animated film until Finding Nemo was released 9 years later. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this Disney movie focusing on the animals in The Pridelands in which Simba defeats his traitorous uncle Scar to become the titular figure.

ANSWER: The Lion King

[10] Simba's father Mufasa was voiced by this famous actor, who also played Vice Admiral James Greer in The Hunt for Red October and Terrance Mann in Field of Dreams.

ANSWER: James Earl Jones

[10] An upbeat moment in the movie is when Timon, Pumbaa, and Simba sing this song. The title phrase which "means no worries" is said to be a "problem-free philosophy.”

ANSWER: "Hakuna Matata"
9. It included skirmishes at Freeman's Farm and Bemis Heights, and is commonly considered the turning point in the war. For 10 points each:
[10] Name this campaign to take New York, with American Revolutionary forces led by Horatio Gates.

ANSWER: Battle(s) of Saratoga

[10] This British playwright and general at the Battle of Saratoga captured Fort Ticonderoga, but his Hessians were defeated at Bennington.
ANSWER: General John Burgoyne
[10] General Gates removed this notable American traitor from the Battle of Saratoga for disobeying orders. He fled to Britain after an unsuccessful plot to surrender West Point.
ANSWER: General Benedict Arnold V

10. Every victim of this event was unarmed, and one victim, Gerald Donaghy, had nail bombs planted on his corpse. For 10 points each:


[10] Name this January 30th, 1972 massacre. In June 2010, the Saville Inquiry announced that the British Army was "unjustified" in their actions in this event.
ANSWER: Bloody Sunday [accept Bogside Massacre]
[10] Bloody Sunday took place in this UK country. Armed conflict known as "The Troubles" between Unionists and Nationalists wracked this nation during the late 20th century.
ANSWER: Northern Ireland
[10] "The Troubles" are said to have ended with a 1998 agreement signed in this capital of Northern Ireland.
ANSWER: Belfast Agreement or Good Friday Agreement
11. {Note to moderator: If you need to read the answer to part two, just say "Bragg's law"; do not read "of diffraction" because that would give away the answer to part three.}

They were discovered by Wilhelm Röntgen ("RENT"-juhn) in a sheet of barium platinocyanide. For 10 points each:

[10] Name this type of wave, which is between ultraviolet rays and gamma rays on the electromagnetic spectrum, and is also commonly used in medical imaging procedures.

ANSWER: X-rays [or X radiation, etc.]

[10] X-rays can be used in crystallography, along with the application of this law. It is named for a father-son pair of physicists and can be written as "n lambda equals 2 d sine theta.”

ANSWER: Bragg's law of diffraction

[10] Bragg's law was formulated using this property of X-rays, the bending of a wave around an obstacle.

ANSWER: diffraction [accept word forms]

12. Identify these British literary pairs for 10 points each:
[10] Married to poet Percy, this author wrote about Victor's creation murdering his wife, Elizabeth, in Frankenstein.
ANSWER: Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley
[10] This poet's husband, Robert, wrote "My Last Duchess" and nicknamed this woman "my little Portuguese,” inspiring her collection of sonnets that includes "How do I love thee? Let me count the ways.”
ANSWER: Elizabeth Barret Browning
[10] Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth collaborated on this collection of poems that includes "Tintern Abbey" and "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner.”
ANSWER: Lyrical Ballads

13. Identify the following Soviet leaders for 10 points each:

[10] This leader took power after the death of Lenin and led the USSR during and after World War II.

ANSWER: Joseph Stalin

[10] Leonid Breshnev led a conspiracy to remove this leader from power. He criticized Stalin's policies in the 1956 Secret Speech, and debated then-US Vice President Nixon in a model kitchen.

ANSWER: Nikita Khrushchev

 [10] This leader's policies, including glasnost and perestroika, led to the end of the Soviet Union. He was famously implored by Reagan to tear down the Berlin Wall.

ANSWER: Mikhail Gorbachev


14. {Note to moderator: do not read the alternate answer to the second part, as doing so would give away the answer to part three.}

Answer the following about some somber works of music by Beethoven for 10 points each:

[10] This piece, in a 3/8 time signature, is properly called Bagatelle in A Minor. It was probably written for either Beethoven's mistress, or Therese Malfatti. It opens with a chromatic E, D-sharp, E, D-sharp, E, B, D, C, A, and then follows with a left hand arpeggio.

ANSWER: Für Elise [or For Elise]

[10] Compared to a cool midnight effect on Lake Lucerne by a critic, this sonata is supposed to be played very softly. Hector Berlioz was a fan of this piece, which Beethoven dubbed "Quasi una Fantasia.”

ANSWER: Moonlight Sonata [or Piano Sonata No. 14]

[10] Those two works, as well as the Hammerklavier Sonata, are works for this instrument, notably produced by Steinway.

ANSWER: pianoforte [or fortepiano; accept specific types]
15. The 3D analogue of this surface is the Klein bottle, and it has only one surface and one edge. For 10 points each:
[10] Name this shape, often constructed by taking a rectangular strip of paper, giving one end a half-twist, and gluing the ends together.
ANSWER: Möbius strip/band
[10] Another somewhat circular figure is this conic section, in which one axis of the circle has been stretched. This figure is the set of all points whose distances to two foci add to the same number.
ANSWER: ellipse
[10] The Cartesian product of two circles is this donut-shaped figure, formed by rotating a circle around an axis coplanar to the circle.
ANSWER: torus [or tori; accept toroid]

16. Televangelists proposed a 9/11 Christian Center to counter recent religious efforts near here. For 10 points each:


[10] Name this site of the destroyed World Trade Center towers in New York City.
ANSWER: Ground Zero
[10] President Obama supported the building of this $100 million 13-story YMCA style Islamic center roughly two blocks away from Ground Zero.
ANSWER: Park 51 (or Cordoba House or Cordoba Initiative; grudgingly prompt on answers like Ground Zero Mosque, even though it's wrong)
[10] This current New York City Mayor replaced Rudolph Giuliani after 9/11 and choked up while speaking out in favor of the moderate Islamic initiative at Park 51.

ANSWER: Michael Bloomberg

17. Heraclitus introduced this term to describe fire as a unifiying principle in the world. For 10 points each: –

[10] Name this Greek word for reason, often contrasted with ethos and pathos.

ANSWER: logos

[10] Philosophy is often divided into eras before and after the life of this hemlock drinker and subject of Plato's Apology.

ANSWER: Socrates

[10] Socrates did not like this school of thought led by Protagoras. They charged big bucks for their rhetoric lessons.

ANSWER: Sophists [accept word forms]
18. Janie marries Logan Killicks and Jody Stark, but finally finds happiness and respect with Tea Cake. For 10 points each:
[10] Name this novel by Zora Neale Hurston, in which Janie relates her story to Phoebe Watson after killing her rabid third husband.
ANSWER: Their Eyes Were Watching God
[10] This African-American author of The Bluest Eye and Song of Solomon wrote about Sethe killing her daughter to keep her from slavery in Beloved.
ANSWER: Toni Morrison [or Chloe Anthony Wofford]
[10] This African-American woman penned the tragic poem "The Mother,” and famously wrote "We / Jazz June. We / Die soon" in "We Real Cool.”

ANSWER: Gwendolyn Elizabeth Brooks

19. Name these things about the work of Gregor Mendel for 10 points each.

[10] Mendel is best known for his experiments with these plants. He observed traits like their purple or white flowers, and it has constricted or full pods.

ANSWER: pea plants [or Pisum sativum]

[10] Mendel determined that during meiosis, each pair of alleles segregates separately. That principle is known as this law.

ANSWER: law of independent assortment [prompt on Mendel's Second Law of Inheritance]

[10] Specifically, independent assortment takes place during this phase of meiosis, in which homologous chromosomes are separated and kinetochore microtubules attach to each one.

ANSWER: metaphase I [do not prompt on partial answer]

20. This mythical creature was born from Medusa's fresh corpse. For 10 points each:
[10] Name this flying horse.
ANSWER: Pegasus
[10] This hero tamed Pegasus with the help of a magic girdle from Athena.
ANSWER: Bellerophon
[10] A snake tips the tale of this firebreathing, lion-bodied, goat-headed monster, whom Bellerophon killed with a lead-enhanced spear.
ANSWER: Chimera [or Chimaera]



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