Tips for Reading a play



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A Christmas Carol:

Scrooge and Marley

by Israel Horovitz
from A Christmas Carol

by Charles Dickens




7th Grade Reading

Mrs. Show

Name________________________________ Homeroom_______


Tips for Reading A Play


  • The reader must visualize the characters and action.




  • The reader should create each scene in his or her mind




  • The reader must read and incorporate the stage directions to help visualize the characters, hear the voices, and see the gestures.




  • The reader should question character’s words and actions and ask, “Why is a character behaving a certain way?”


Focus for this play:


  • Understanding "drama"




  • Characterization, Plot, Theme


A Christmas Carol: Scrooge and Marley Act I
Write one sentence explaining the following terms.


  1. Dialogue


  1. Stage Directions


  1. Sets


  1. Props


  1. Acts

6. Scenes



Act I, Scene 1

covetous (264) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

gait (264) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

implore (265) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What characters were introduced in scene 1?

List three main events from scene 1.














Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 1 (What would you say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why)



Plot





The plot is the sequence of events that happen in a story. It shows how characters meet and resolve a conflict—a problem or struggle. Every plot is made up of a series of causes and effects.

A plot is like a long line of dominoes. When a finger tips the first domino, the first domino causes the second domino to fall, the second domino causes the third domino to fall, and so forth. The finger has caused a sequence of events. Similarly, every event that happens in a story causes another event to happen.



The plot of a play is the sequence of its incidents and events. The first part of the plot is called the exposition. Here the opening situation is established, major characters are introduced, and earlier events are revealed.

Once the opening situation is established, the central problem is made clear, and the plot of the play develops until the climax is reached. The part of the play that builds up to the climax is called the rising action.


  1. Describe the situation established in Scene 1 of A Christmas Carol: Scrooge and Marley.


  1. What earlier events are disclosed here?

  1. What problem does Scrooge have?



Act I, Scene 2
replenish (266) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

morose (266) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

resolute (267) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

destitute (268) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

misanthrope POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What new characters were introduced in scene 2?


List three main events from scene 2.
















Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 2 (What would you

say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why)




Act I, Scene 3
ponderous (272) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

procure (272) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

shun (272) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What new characters were introduced in scene 3?


List three main events from scene 3.












Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 3 (What would you say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why)

Context Clues

One key to being a good reader is being able to understand the words you read. Sometimes, you might not be able to understand some vocabulary words the author uses. When this happens, it helps if you can at least understand the other words in the paragraph you are reading. The information in the paragraph can be a clue to help you understand the words you don't know. This is called a context clue. Context clues are the words around the unknown word. It is also the information that makes up the rest of the paragraph.

These are some things to look for when using context clues:



  • Punctuation marks - a comma or dash may show you something about the unknown words. They can also give a clue to the new word's definition.

    Example: The urbane features, the classy paintings and chic architecture, made me feel out of place.





  • Key words, such as "or" and "that is," may give you a hint to a definition.

    Example: Timothy thought the movie's plot was too convoluted, that is it was too hard and complex to follow.





  • Make sure to read the entire passage. An unknown word may make more sense after you read the entire paragraph or passage.



  1. “Nobody has ever stopped him in the street to say, with gladsome looks, ‘My dear Scrooge, how are you? When will you come see me?’ No beggars implored him to bestow a trifle, no children ever ask him what is o’clock…”

Based on the clues in the passage, implored most likely means:



    1. Hated or distrusted

    2. asked or begged earnestly

    3. looked at longingly

    4. understand fully



  1. “Come then, what right have you to be dismal? What reason have you to be morose? You’re rich enough.”

Based on the clues in the passage, morose most likely means:



    1. gloomy, ill-tempered

    2. happy, excited

    3. sad, devastated

    4. caring, loving




  1. “No light at all…no moon…that is what is at the center of a Christmas Eve: dead black: void…”

Based on the clues in the passage, void most likely means:



    1. filled with people

    2. happiness

    3. sadness

    4. total emptiness

4. Scrooge’s sounds and movements will define him in contrast from all other people who cross the stage: he is the misanthrope, the malcontent, the miser. He is Scrooge.


Based on the clues in the passage, misanthrope most likely means:

  1. a person who hates or distrusts everyone

  2. a person who loves everyone

  3. a person who is apathetic

  4. a person who is educated

5. “Or would you know, you, Scrooge, the weight and length of the strong coil you bear yourself? It was full as heavy and long as this, seven Christmas Eves ago. You have labored on it, since. It is a ponderous chain.”


Based on the clues in the passage, ponderous most likely means:

  1. light

  2. durable

  3. thin
  4. very heavy



Act I, Scene 4
miser (272) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

obliged (274) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What new characters were introduced in scene 4?

List three main events from scene 4.















Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 4 (What would you say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why)



Act I, Scene 5
aspiration (279) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

repentance (280) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What new characters were introduced in scene 5?

List three main events from scene 5.















Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 5 (What would you say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why)

Name________________________ Period__________

Comprehension Questions – Act I

A Christmas Carol: Scrooge and Marley



  1. What relationship did Scrooge and Marley have in the past?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


  1. For what two reasons does Scrooge’s nephew Fred come to see Scrooge?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


  1. What favorite [and famous] expression of Scrooge’s sums up his attitude toward Christmas? Why?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


  1. How does Scrooge answer the Thin Man’s and the Portly Man’s request for money?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


  1. Crachit asks for Christmas Day off. What does Scrooge decide?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


  1. What four scenes of Scrooge’s past life are revealed by the Ghost of Christmas Past?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________
over (more questions on the back)

  1. How does Scrooge act when he sees these scenes from his past?


_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________




  1. How has Scrooge changed from his early days (as a boy, and as an apprentice)?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


Setting

Setting is a very important part of a story. The setting tells when and where the story happens. It is the time period and place in which a story occurs.

The setting of The Little Mermaid is the sea. Sometimes, the setting can cover many different times and places. For example, a science fiction story about time travel may take place across the deserts of the old West, in jungles filled with dinosaurs, and on a space station circling the earth—all in one story!



You choose a book with this picture on the cover. What can you guess the setting of the story is?



It is important to know the ways in which the setting and the plot of a story are related.

Sometimes, the setting provides details about the mood and tone of the story. For example, a story set in a haunted house would probably be filled with suspense and horror. A story could also be set in a historical time period. How might a story set in the 1800s have a different plot than one set in the 2000s?

Other times, the setting may actually be part of the conflict in the story. This is common in adventure stories in which characters become trapped or lost in forests, avalanches, etc. The setting may also provide the way in which the conflict is resolved. In such instances, a character uses a feature of the setting to his/her advantage.

The setting of the story can also determine who the antagonists (characters that oppose the main character) of the story will be. For example, if the story is set during a war, the antagonists would probably be the enemy soldiers.





  1. What is the setting of this drama (time and place)?




  1. Describe the setting using two examples of imagery (remember your five senses).



  1. Describe the setting using five vivid adjectives. Highlight or underline your adjectives.




  1. What mood does the setting create?


  1. Why? Give two specific lines from the play to support your answer.



Character


Characters are one of the most important parts of a story. There are several things to look at when studying characters. Below is a list of things to think about when you are learning about a character in a story.




Trait -

 an interesting thing about a character. A trait is what makes a character different from other characters.

Examples:

hair color, eye color, height, weight, age, beliefs, likes, dislikes, opinions, actions

"Andrew is a nice boy of medium height with brown hair and eyes. He loves to read."



Motivation -

 something that causes one to act in a certain way. It can be an emotion or something a person wants or needs. A motivation is simply the reason why a character does something.


Example:

You eat food because you are hungry.




Conflict -

 a disagreement, fight, or struggle between two people or groups.



Example:

An example of a conflict is when you want to eat ice cream before dinner but your mom will not let you. You and your mom disagree about when you should be able to eat ice cream.




Point of View -

 the view of the person telling the story.



Example:

"Because Tina told the teacher her version of the story first, I got punished even though it really wasn't my fault."




Relationships -

 the connection of people through friendship, family, work, school, or other activities.

Examples:

mother, sister, friend, teacher, neighbor, father, boss, etc.






Think about how all these things affect the story. A character's traits or relationships might affect his or her point of view. Motivation affects action and changes. When we understand all of these elements, a character becomes easy to understand. When writing your own characters, think about all these things. You'll be on your way to creating an interesting and deep character!

Scrooge’s_personality_and_how_it_changes.'>Complete the chart by listing specific details that reveal Scrooge’s personality and how it changes.



Method of Characterization

Act I

Act II Scene 5

His physical appearance







His actions







What he says







What he thinks







How others react to him









Act II, Scene 1

astonish (283) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

scabbard (284) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

sheath (284) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

compulsion (285) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What characters were introduced in scene 1?

List three main events from scene 1.











Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 1 (What would you say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why)


Act II, Scene 2

revelers (285)) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

severe (285 POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What new characters were introduced in scene 2?


List three main events from scene 2.















Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 2 (What would you say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why)



Act II, Scene 3

meager (286) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

threadbare (287) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

unaltered (287) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

odious (288) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What new characters were introduced in scene 3?

List three main events from scene 3.











Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 3 (What would you say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why)


Act II, Scene 4

wizened (290) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

rail (290) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

audible (291) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

gnarled (291) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What new characters were introduced in scene 4?

List three main events from scene 4.













Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 4 (What would you say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why, how.)



Act II, Scene 5

dispelled (297) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

endeavor (301) POS______

definition:

your sentence:

What new characters were introduced in scene 5?


List three main events from scene 5.













Write a ONE sentence summary of scene 5 (What would you say to someone who did not read the scene? Think who, what, when, where, why, how)

Name__________________________ Period________
Comprehension Questions – Act II

A Christmas Carol: Scrooge and Marley




  1. How does Cratchit's toast to Scrooge differ from his wife's toast?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________




  1. In Scene 3, what does the Ghost of Christmas Present foretell for Tiny Tim?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________




  1. In scene 4, what does Scrooge ask of the Ghost of Christmas Present while observing Fred and his wife?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________




  1. What promise does Scrooge make to the Ghost of Christmas Future at the end of Scene 4?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________



  1. How does Scrooge keep his promise in the final scene? Give at least 4 examples.


_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________



Theme

A theme is a central idea or universal truth explored in a piece of writing. It is a message that makes the reader think about life, human nature, or how the world works. Usually the author will not tell the reader what the theme is in a single sentence. The reader must figure it out by looking at what happens in the story.


Here are some common themes found in literature:

  • Man is man’s worst enemy.

  • Good is stronger than evil.

  • A person grows by facing obstacles.

  • Enjoy life now because we all die too soon.

  • Love conquers all.

  • Treat others the way you want to be treated.

Notice that the themes aren’t describing particular events or characters. They are broad ideas that can apply to all people.
Tips for identifying theme:

  • Look closely at the title. Sometimes you will find a clue about the theme.

  • Look for ideas that are repeated more than once.

  • Look for lessons that the character learns.
  • Think about what happens in the story and how it can apply to life. For example, if the main character must survive an approaching tornado, the theme may be “Nature is at war with mankind.”


Theme is the central idea or insight about life revealed in a work of literature. Because the character of Scrooge is of central importance to the play, understanding why he changes will help you understand the theme.


  1. Find three places in Act II where Scrooge’s reactions show him changing for the better.


  1. In general, why does Scrooge change for the better over the course of Act II?


  1. Using your answer to the preceding question, determine the theme of the play.

Figurative Language





Figurative language is a set of literary devices that authors use to bring the reader into the writing. The literary devices use language in such a way that what is being said is different actual literal meaning of the words. Figurative language helps the reader to get a clearer picture of what's happening, and they can also be used to convince the reader of something, or they can be used to simply entertain the reader. Some common types of figurative language are: simile, metaphor, hyperbole, and imagery. Below are some definitions and examples of these types of figurative language.


Simile: A simile is a comparison between two unlike objects using the words "like" or "as."

Example: Angus Scrimm was as tall as a tree.
Metaphor: Metaphor is a type of comparison between two objects that are not thought of to be the same. It's similar to a simile, but is doesn't use the words "like" or "as."

Example: Love is a sad and lonely flower.
Hyperbole: Hyperbole is a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect.

Example: The moon is made of green cheese.

Imagery: Imagery deals with senses. It's language which describes something in detail, but it appeals to the senses.

Example: The wind blew through the window and painted the walls with frost is another way of saying the room was cold. It plays on your sense of touch by describing a feeling in visual terms.
little tree

little tree

little silent Christmas tree

you are so little

you are more like a flower
who found you in the green forest

and were you very sorry to come away?

see i will comfort you

because you smell so sweetly


i will kiss your cool bark

and hug you safe and tight

just as your mother would,

only don't be afraid


look the spangles

that sleep all the year in a dark box

dreaming of being taken out and allowed to shine,

the balls the chains red and gold the fluffy threads,


put up your little arms

and i'll give them all to you to hold

every finger shall have its ring

and there won't a single place dark or unhappy


then when you're quite dressed

you'll stand in the window for everyone to see

and how they'll stare!

oh but you'll be very proud


and my little sister and i will take hands

and looking up at our beautiful tree

we'll dance and sing

"Noel Noel"


-- E. E. Cummings



  1. Give an example of a simile in the poem.

Line #(s)_____________





  1. Give an example of a metaphor in the poem.

Line #(s)_____________



  1. Give an example of personification in the poem.


Line #(s)_____________





  1. Give an example of a hyperbole in the poem.

Line #(s)_____________





  1. Give an example of imagery in the poem.

Line #(s)_____________





  1. Give an example of alliteration in the poem.

Line #(s)_____________

Name__________________________ Period________
"A Christmas Carol"

Literary Elements
Directions: Literary elements are the essential components found in most literature. Identify an example of each of the following list of elements.


  1. Setting – Explain the place and time where the action occurs.

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


  1. Point of View – The perspective, or vantage point, from which a story is told. Explain the point of view from which this play is told:

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


  1. Characterization – The way an author reveals the personality traits of a character. List five (5) traits of Scrooge at the beginning of the play, and three (3) traits at the end.

Beginning:______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

End:___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________


  1. Conflict – A struggle between opposing forces. Conflict is one of the most important elements of stories because it causes the action. Explain 2 major conflicts involving Scrooge from the story. Indicate the type of conflict. (They should be different – man vs. man, man vs. self, man vs. society, man vs. nature)

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________




  1. Climax – The highest point of interest or suspense in the play. The climax is followed by the end or resolution.

Summary of Climax: _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


  1. Resolution – How the conflict turned out or how the problem was solved. …after the climax. …the end of the play.

Summary of resolution:______________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________


  1. Tone – The attitude of the author toward the audience and characters, such as serious or humorous. List 3 different tones of this play?

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________



  1. Voice – The fluency, rhythm, and liveliness in writing that makes it unique to the writer. Pick one of the three tones from above, and select a sentence that express voice.

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________




  1. Theme – The author’s basic message or moral in a fictional work.

Explain one important theme from this play. _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________



_______________________________________________________

A Christmas Carol”

Parts for Act I


Scene 1

Narrator/Stage Directions

Marley

Scrooge

Scene 2

Narrator/Stage Dir. (2)

Scrooge

Nephew

Cratchit

Thin Man

Portly Man

Boy

Scene 3

Narrator (2)

Scrooge

Marley

Scene IV

Narrator

Marley

Scrooge


Christmas Past

Scene V

Narrator

Scrooge

Marley

Christmas Past

Fan

Boy

Schoolmaster

Fezziwig

Dick

Young Scrooge

Woman

Man






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