Toefl iBT対策講座 Writing Handout Day 3



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             東京大学 TOEFL iBT 対策講座 Writing Day 3


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東京大学スペシャル・イングリッシュ・レッスン

TOEFL iBT対策講座




Writing Handout Day 3


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Class / Homework予定表

Lesson

Manual

Q Types

Key features

Homework

1

6/12 or 6/13

Independent

  • Preference Q

  • Value Judgment Q

(Manual Section 1&2)

  • お試しエッセイ

  • Independent攻略法紹介

  • エッセイ構造

  • 3S演習+ブレスト

随時指示

2

6/19 or 6/20


  • Factual Q

(Manual Section 2&3)

  • Topic Sentence演習

  • 事例作成のポイント+演習

  • 減点されるミス

  • 4.0-5.0への道

3

6/26 or 6/27

Independent

&

Integrated

Integrated

  • Factual Q

(Manual Section 3

  • Opposeタイプ

(Manual Section 1

[Independent]

  • 4.0-5.0への道

  • Brainstorming

[Integrated]

  • お試しエッセイ

  • Integrated攻略法紹介

  • RBT暗記

  • パラフレーズ演習

4

7/3 or 7/4

  • Opposeタイプ

(Manual Section 2&3)

  • パラフレーズ演習

  • Passage攻略

  • Lecture攻略

  • 仕上げ

5

7/10 or 7/11

Independent

&

Integrated

総合演習

注意事項

  1. 上記スケジュールは授業の進度により変更することがあります。
  2. 各回の授業内容・配布物はWeb上の授業内容履歴でご確認ください。



[Independent Task: Manual Section 3]

1. 間違いやすい表現

Direction:Handout Day 3 pp.12-13で間違いやすい表現を確認しましょう。


2. 4.0-5.0への道

Direction:Handout Day 3 pp. 14-22で4.0と4.0未満の違いについて確認しましょう。


3. Brainstorming

Direction:Handout Day 3 p. 23-27でブレストのコツなどを確認しましょう。


4. 課題分析

Direction:「Quiz #2 Review」で課題を分析しましょう。


[Integrated Task: Manual Section 1]

1. スコアアップのために

  (1) Integrated Writingでは何をするのか?

  (2) Integrated Writingでは何が問われているのか?

  (3) Readingを攻略するためには何をしなければならないか?

  (4) Writingを攻略するためには何をしなければならないか?

  (5) Listeningを攻略するためには何をしなければならないか?

  (6) 代表的な基礎ミスとはいかなるものか?

  (7) 4.0未満と4.0以上では何が違うのか?

  (8) 4.0と4.5以上では何が違うのか?
  *「自分の問題点は何か」「その問題点を克服するために何をしなければならないか」を考えながら授業に参加しましょう。
2. Integrated Task 概要 (Manual p. 17, p. 20 一部変更)

Direction:Integrated Taskの解法プロセスを整理しましょう。



[解法プロセス]

      1. Reading: Passage( 語を 分)を読む

      2. Listening: その内容に関連したLecture( 語で約 分)を聞く

      3. Reading: ①で読んだPassageが画面左横に表示される
      4. Writing: Directionに従ってエッセイを書き出す(20分で 語)


DirectionQuestionの確認】

Directions:

You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and the relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.


Question:

パターン1

Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on the contents of the reading. You may refer to the passage as you write.


パターン2

Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, being sure to specifically explain how they support the explanations in the reading passage. You may refer to the passage as you write.


例– Oppose Type>

・Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how

they oppose specific points made in the reading passage.
・Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, being sure to

specifically explain how they cast doubt on points made in the reading.


・Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how

they cast doubt on points made in the reading.

・Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how

they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.

・Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how

they challenge specific claims/arguments made in the reading passage.


・Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain

how they answer the problems raised in the reading passage.


例 – Support Type>

・Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically

explain how they support the explanations in the reading passage.
・Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically

explain how they strengthen specific points made in the reading passage.



3. お試しエッセイ (Manual pp. 18-19)

*現時点での実力を知り、課題を発見しましょう。

Direction 1:Manual pp. 18-19の指示に従い、本試験のつもりで頑張りましょう。

(Handout Day 3 pp. 28-29エッセイ用紙に手書きで作成)


Direction 2:Pre-Test終了後、以下の問題分析を行いましょう。

<問題点分析> (YesかNoかでお答えください)

(1) 3分で230~300語の文章を読めたか?

(2) 2分で230~300語の文章を聞いて理解できたか?

(3) 聞く時に、既に読んだ文章の内容を生かせたか?

(4) 20分で150~225語のまとめ文が書けたか?

  

*授業を通じて、問題点を克服していきましょう!!


4.  Reading 攻略法  (Manual pp. 24-25 一部変更)
(1) Passageを読む目的 (最初の3分間)

Passageの要旨を掴む

Lectureの内容理解を助ける

  *Passageは3分間+20分間、見ることができることを忘れずに!!


(2) 3分間ですべきこと

メインテーマ(何の何に関する話か)=結論(筆者が読者に最も訴えたいこと)を1つ、


ポイント(メインテーマを支えるために筆者が提示する根拠)3つを確認する

E-memoをとり、Lecture内容を予測する

(1) ReadingのMain Theme 1つとPoint 3つを英単語レベルでメモ

(2) Readingの内容に反論するポイントをListeningから英単語レベルでメモ

(3) 関係性(因果、抽象→具体、対比)が分かるようにメモ



[Pre-Test Reading Passage] (Manual p. 34-35 一部変更)

Exercise 1: 以下のパッセージの中から、Main Themeを1つ、Pointsを3つ探しましょう。

1パラ

There are several reasons that Earth is the only body in the solar system with the potential for supporting life. One is the content of its atmosphere. Earth is the only planet to have an atmosphere that contains the building blocks for living things. It is mostly made up of nitrogen but also contains molecules called hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are chemicals made up of hydrogen and carbon, and some can combine with nitrogen to form amino acids. The proteins of which living things are composed are made up of amino acids.

[Main Theme]
[Point #1]

2パラ

A second reason is Earth’s distance from the sun, which allows it to maintain surface temperatures within a narrow range that ideally suits life. Water, another of the building blocks for living things, naturally exists on Earth in vapor, liquid, and solid form. The planet Venus, for example, orbits close to Earth and is similar in size. It is often considered Earth’s twin. However, at its average surface temperature of 480°C (896°F), water exists only in suffocating vapor form. By contrast, Pluto, which is farthest from the sun of the nine known planets, has an average surface temperature of -230°C (-382°F). It is so cold that even the hydrocarbon methane is frozen on its surface.


[Point #2]

3パラ

Additionally, organisms need sunlight for energy. Earth is relatively near the Sun, so it receives (and its atmosphere traps) a great deal of sunlight. Most bodies in the solar system are much farther from the Sun and receive low levels of sunlight.

[Point #3]

Exercise 2Handout Day 3 p. 5のExercise 1を参考に、E-memoをとりましょう。



MAIN THEME



 ×









































5. Writing 攻略法  

(1) 基本構造: Reading-Based Template (RBT)  (Manual p. 29)

Direction 1:以下のRBT (Standard Version or Advanced Version) をタイピング練習をして、確実に覚えましょう。

Standard Version (Manual p. 50)


Summary







Para 1

R →
L →

The main point made in the reading passage is that … (A)

  (ReadingのMain Pointの「言い換え」と「まとめ」)



However, the professor argues that … (B)

  (Lectureのスタンス=ReadingのMain Pointへの「反論」)



10 words
5 words


Point 1







Para 2

R →
L →
シメ →

First, the reading says that … (C)

  (Readingの1つめのPoint(理由・根拠)の「言い換え」と「まとめ」)



On the other hand, the speaker states in his lecture that … (D)

  (Lectureのスタンス=Readingの1つめのPointへの「反論」)



This contradicts what the passage indicates.

5 words
11 words
6 words


Point 2







Para 3

R →

L →
シメ →


Second, the passage mentions that … (E)
However, the lecturer claims that … (F)
, which the author of the reading might not have predicted.

5 words
5 words
10 words


Point 3







Para 4

R →
L →
シメ →

Third, the reading states that … (G)
By contrast, the lecture says that … (H)
This is another part that contradicts what the reading says.

5 words
6 words
10 words


Closing







Para 5

定型 →

Therefore, the main points made by the professor in the lecture cast doubt on the points made in the reading passage.

21 words


100 words

Advanced Version (Manual p. 51)


Summary





Para 1


R →
L →

The primary position that is taken in the reading passage is that ... (A)

  (ReadingのMain Pointの「言い換え」と「まとめ」)



On the other hand, in the lecture, the professor argues that ... (B)

  (Lectureのスタンス=ReadingのMain Pointへの「反論」)



12 words
11 words


Point 1







Para 2

R →
L →
シメ →

First, in the reading passage, the author states that ... (C)

  (Readingの1つめのPoint(理由・根拠)の「言い換え」と「まとめ」)



However, in the lecture, it is argued that ... (D)

  (Lectureのスタンス=Readingの1つめのPointへの「反論」)



This is in (direct) contradiction to what is indicated in the reading passage.

9 words
8 words
13 words


Point 2







Para 3

R →
L →
シメ →

It is also mentioned in the passage that ... (E)
Yet, in the lecture, the professor takes the position that ... (F)
... and this is an important point that was not considered by the author of the reading passage.

8 words
10 words
17 words


Point 3








Para 4

R →
L →
シメ →

In addition, the author of the reading argues that ... (G)
In comparison, in the lecture, the professor claims that ... (H)
This is yet another example of how the professor and the author of the reading passage contradict one another.

9 words
9 words
19 words


Closing







Para 5

定型 →

In conclusion, the main arguments put forth by the professor in the lecture make the claims of the author of the reading passage more doubtful.

25 words


150 words

模範解答例におけるRBTの割合(参考)

Sample

The main point made in the reading passage is that sunlight is good for people’s skin. However, the professor argues that there are many ways in which sunlight is not good for people’s skin.

First, the reading says that exposure to sunlight prevents some cancer and could lower overall cancer rates. On the other hand, the speaker states in his lecture that sunbathing causes skin cancers, which are more common than any other types of cancer. This contradicts what the passage indicates.

Second, the passage mentions that sunlight helps increase vitamin D production. However, the lecturer claims that people only need 15 minutes of sunlight per week to make enough vitamin D and they can also eat foods with vitamin D, which the author of the reading might not have predicted.
Third, the reading states that suntans are associated with health, fitness, and attractiveness. By contrast, the lecture says that too much sun makes people look older than they are because of wrinkles and brown spots. This is another contradicts what the reading says.
Therefore, the main points made by the professor in the lecture cast doubt on the points made in the passage. (195 words)

Direction 2:以下のエッセイ構造の中で、満点(5.0)が出せる構造はどれでしょう?




Pattern A




Pattern B




Pattern C




Pattern D




Pattern E

R

L

R


L+R

L

R+L



L

L+R


L

L

L+R






R

L




















R




R

L


R

L













L




R

L











R

L













L

R

L














C


(2) Reading Passageの内容は、Paraphrase しなければならない (Manual pp. 30-31)

(passageの表現をそのまま使うとplagiarismになり、減点の対象となる)


<基本アプローチ>

*基本方針:はじめから全部変えようとしない。以下の切り口で使えそうなものを選んで、

一部(頑張って最低2つ)を変えることから始めるよう。

① 思いついた類義語から攻める:「ふけどめ」(品詞書き換えを含めて)のどれかを置き換える

ex.) The professor has many cars. → The teacher has a lot of automobiles.

け(形容詞):many → a lot of

ど(動詞):has → owns

め(名詞):professor → teacher

め(名詞):cars → automobiles
ふ(副詞):strongly believe → absolutely believe

品詞書き換え:possibility (名詞)→ possible (形容詞)


② シフト:単語や語句の順番(主語や接続詞の位置など)を入れ換えることにより、構造が変化する

ex. 1) The professor has many cars. → Many cars are owned by the professor.

→ A lot of cars are owned by the teacher.

ex. 2) Oxygen and hydrogen are found in water. → Water consists of oxygen and hydrogen.

ex. 3) I went to bed early last night because I was very tired.

→ Because I was very tired, I went to bed early last night.

→ Since I was very tired, I went to bed early last night.

③ ブラス・マイナス:単語を新しく加えたり、とったりする

ex. 2) Sunlight also helps promote the production of vitamin D within the body. 

→ マイナス:Sunlight helps produce vitamin D within the body.

ex 3.) Good teachers are patient. → プラス:Good teachers need to be patient.

                          → さらにプラス:It is necessary for good teachers to be patient.

Exercise 1:Manual pp. 30-31でparaphraseを演習しましょう。

6. Quiz #3

Direction:Quiz #3 (Paraphrase演習) を行いましょう。



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