Toga Radar Science Log camex – Key West, Florida 17 –8 –01 14: 05 utc

:10 UTC: No change. ETA 18:15 UTC

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17:10 UTC: No change. ETA
18:15 UTC: A slight increase in the number of convective cells. Still generally confined from the west to the northeast though with the most intense cell (44 – 50 dBz) located in southwestern Florida near Fort Myers. Cell movement is to the west-northwest. Still running the SURVEILLANCE and the KAMP_FAR tasks. ETA

01:06 UTC: Biggerstaff, Jerry and Neil set up several scanning techniques for future use. Right now we are running KAMP_FAR and SURV_FAR and I will be “tweaking” the SQI to try and get rid of some clutter. Weather wise, we have some persistent and rather strong cells (45-50 dBZ) off the SW coast of FL mainland (330 at 200 km) moving to the NW. Other convective showers in C Cuba and a few small cells due E at about 200 km. KLM
02:12 UTC: Not much change from last time. NW cells appear to be back building somewhat to the S. KLM
02:53 UTC: Storms to the NW still strong and continue to slowly build this way. Am switching from KAMP_FAR to NORTH_FAR sector scan. Nothing terribly interesting in Cuba any more. KLM.
03:08 UTC: Well, it appears that the NORTH_FAR sector scan only reaches the 150km radius. Since the bulk of the storm lies just beyond 150 km, have switched back to KAMP_FAR. If the storm makes its way closer (within 150 km), will ten try NORTH_FAR sector scan. Also may call Biggerstaff to see if they want to try coordinated scans. KLM

05:17 UTC: Well, things have died off considerably. After reaching nearly 60 dBZ in the storms to the NW, they have decreased in reflectivity to their current value of about 35 dBZ. A small cluster of storms remains between 090 and 130. Remaining in SURV_FAR & KAMP_FAR. KLM

06:37 UTC: Nice little cell popping up to our 085 about 5 km away. Switching to KAMP_NEAR but need to tweak SQI for Z and V when scan is done. Scattered convection all quads with most significant cells to the SE at about 120km – max dBZ is about 38. KLM
08:00 UTC: There are a few lingering showers in the E half of the domain max reflectivity is about 34 dBZ. Interestingly, the W half has become quite active as of late. Generally around 285 and beyond 100 km, there are many cells showing low 40 dBZ. Will remain in KAMP_FAR. KLM
10:00 UTC: No significant changes…same as above report. KLM
11:00 UTC: Nothing significant to report at this time. NSD
13:00 UTC: Situation still the same, nothing new to report.
15:14 UTC: Small cells are now starting to develop to the Northwest and the Southeast, about 150 to 300km away from the radar. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 50dBz range. Everything is tracking Northwest. NSD
16:12 UTC: Most of the small cells to the Northwest have dissipated, and there are more small cells forming in the Southwest Reflectivity values remain the same as does the track. Everything is moving Southwest to Northwest. NSD
17:14 UTC: Very isolated small cells in all quadrants. Movement is to the west-northwest. Skies are scattered to broken with CU at about 1500 feet with some CS above. Most of the CU has very little vertical extent while some have moderate vertical extent. ETA

18:52 UTC: Nothing new to report. Just more scattered cells in all quadrants, forming and dissipating, all moving West – Northwest. NSD

19:52 UTC: All conditions remain the same. NSD
20:50 UTC: No organized convection. Most of the isolated cells are over the Florida peninsula and Cuba. ETA
21:48 UTC: No significant changes at this time. NSD
22:51 UTC: No organized convection within 200km of TOGA. There is a cluster of cells 200 – 250km to the north on the west coast of Florida and another 250km to the northeast. Both of these areas show data dropouts in while running the KAMP_FAR task. May need to do some tweaking on the task. ETA
00:22 UTC: Convection to the NE appears to be sputtering out as are most other areas of significant conv. Remaining in KAMP_FAR mode, but experiencing dropped bins (refl. dropouts). Have tried playing with SQI and LOG thresholds with no success in regaining data. Called Nathan and suggested putting default thresholding schemes back in. (currently Z and V are each using “LOG & SQI”). KLM
02:38 UTC: Much quieter night than anticipated. Convection to the NE has died off almost entirely. Cuba seems to be enjoying a rare rain free evening. Everglades, however, remains active with a few cells in the 38 dBZ range. These are all beyond 200 km. As for the “dropout” problem: after talking with Biggerstaff I have brought the SQI down to 0.15 and worked up to its current value of about 0.36. This still produces some 2nd trip echoes but anything higher results in data loss on the RTD. KLM
04:44 UTC: Not much change. A few cells have popped up in the NW sector, a couple with ~55 dBZ. KLM

06:18 UTC: No significant changes. KLM

07:27 UTC: Not much change from above report except a cell has developed at about 215/145 km.
08:24 UTC: Biggerstaff just called asking about conditions for today’s aircraft participation. There may be a little “back building” occurring from the NW cells toward the radar. Shortly after I got off the phone with Biggerstaff, noticed a possible sfc body extending from the Keys to the NW toward the storms. Not entirely confidant that this sfc feature is real as I am still having trouble with filtering the data. Have had to keep SQI filter low to retain the data at the expense of a good amount of 2nd trip noise. KLM
09:48 UTC: Little has changed regarding the weather. A larger cluster of cells has developed to the W with a couple of large cells remaining to the NW. As for the filters, after talking with Biggerstaff, have opted for lower threshold and will edit out noise in post processing. KLM
10:44 UTC: Increased number of convective cells to the SE moving toward the radar, otherwise no significant changes. KLM
11:00 UTC: Fixed filter problem, by installing same settings as the KAMP_NEAR scan. NSD
12:17 UTC: The convective cells have dissipated at this time. There also was a large cell off of the Florida Peninsula, around the St. Petersburg area. That too has dissipated. Everything has moved off to the Northwest. NSD
13:17 UTC: No significant changes to report at this time. NSD

14:37 UTC: Isolated convective cells are developing to the S and SE. These cells are within 150 km of the radar and are moving towards the NW. The convective showers S of Tampa/St. Petersburg are at 200km range and are moving to the NW. DRJ

16:00 UTC: Conditions remain the same, nothing significant to report. NSD
18:20 UTC: Conditions remain the same. There are some convective cells to the SE that may pass over the radar if they do not dissipate. DRJ
18:58 UTC: Convective cells are located to the S at 10 km and 30 km. Other cells are located to the SE at 40km moving towards the radar. DRJ
20:10 UTC: The convective cells near the radar have dissipated. Elsewhere, isolated cells are present over most of the area. These cells are moving towards the WNW. DRJ

21:15 UTC: Conditions remain the same. The only changes are increased convective activity over Cuba and the SW Florida peninsula. DRJ
21:24 UTC: Changed repeat times for the SURV_FAR and KAMP_FAR. Conflicting schedules were kicking off the transmitter and giving us a Device Timeout error message. Set them both on a 12min schedule so these errors wouldn’t happen again. NSD
23:00 UTC: No significant changes to report at this time. NSD
00:35 UTC: Few isolated cells 150 to 200 km west of area. Movement is to the west. Some isolated cells are beginning to fire just south of the Keys. Movement of these cells is to the west-northwest. KLM
02:30 UTC: Few isolated cells southeast moving westward. Otherwise, very quiet weather. KLM
04:30 UTC: No significant changes in the last two hours! KLM

06:30 UTC: No significant changes in the last two hours! KLM

08:30 UTC: Scattered cells northwest and southeast of the Keys. Movement is to the west-northwest. Lightning visible to the southeast in the past few hours. KLM
10:30 UTC: Scattered showers continue to cover most of the radar screen with movement still to the west-northwest. KLM
12:15 UTC: Conditions remain the same. No significant changes to report. DRJ
14:07 UTC: Convective cells to the southeast are beginning to form a line oriented NW-SE. Other isolated cells are located to the east moving towards the WNW. DRJ
15:02 UTC: The line has split into two main segments. The northern cell is within the dual-Doppler baseline. SMART-R and TOGA are monitoring the southern segment for further development and dual-Doppler coordination. Another cell to the SE is approaching the radar. DRJ
15:47 UTC: dual-Doppler coordination with SMART-R for the South_Near task. At this time multiple convective cells are developing to the south of the radar. The echo tops are only around 18 degrees elevation, so we are switching to South_Far task. In addition, convective showers are widespread over the northern two sectors of the radar display. DRJ

17:16 UTC: We have switched to a North_Far task. Most of the convection on the south side of the Keys has dissipated or has moved to the north of the Keys. Convection is taking place over many areas within the northern sectors. TOGA and SMART-R have changed the azimuth limits for the North_Far task to include convection taking place to the west. DRJ

17:26 UTC: The cells directly over the Keys are aligned perpendicular to the Keys. TOGA received light rain for a few minutes. DRJ

18:30 UTC: Both SMART-R and TOGA went back to the original azimuth limits for the North_Far task. At this time, a cluster of cells is to the NW at 30-70 km range. Also, widespread convection is taking place over the SW Florida peninsula. DRJ
20:06 UTC: The coordinated scanning with SMART-R is still going on. Most of the convection is in the northern sector and is moving towards the NW. Most of the convection is getting beyond 100 km, with the exception of one cell to the N at 50 km moving away from the radar. DRJ
20:20 UTC: At 25km range towards the NW, three new convective cells are developing in a line segment. DRJ
20:35 UTC: The cell at 50 km to the north is moving NW and is merging with a cluster of showers at 80km range. In addition, convective showers moving off the Florida peninsula have a more westward component of motion and are merging with this rain area. The line segment forming to the NW at 25km range appears to be back building to the SE as another cell has developed. DRJ
21:35 UTC: The radar echoes are continuing their movement to the NW. Another group of convective cells has developed to the N at 35km range. The North_Far task is still running along with SMART-R. DRJ
21:45 UTC: At this time, the coordinated scanning with SMART-R has stopped. The large echoes of precipitation are beyond 100km range. Smaller groups of convective showers exist to the N and NW. DRJ

00:45 UTC: Scattered showers to the northwest from 270 to 360 degrees. Reflectivity values all below 50 dBZ. Dissipating cells over northern Cuba. CDR

03:03 UTC: Cells to the northwest have dissipated. No significant weather to report. CDR
07:00 UTC: An impressive cell formed at 5 Z 100km out, directly to the northwest. Highest reflectivity at 55 dBZ, 45 km wide on its major axis. It continued to travel northwest, breaking up by 6 Z. Still widely scattered showers to the northwest. CDR
09:27 UTC: Scattered convection widely scattered on the scope. Greatest concentration remains to the NW where the previously mentioned cell has undergone several “up and down” periods of intensity. Max reflectivity on this cell, as well as a cell nearly due west at nearly 200 km, is in the 44 to 50 dBZ range. Considered calling Jerry/Biggerstaff, but each time I do, the cell goes into a “down” phase of intensity. KLM
10:40 UTC: No significant changes. KLM
13:19 UTC: Continued modest convective activity to the Northwest. JRL
16:26 UTC: Modest convection developed somewhat south of due west in addition to convection to the northwest. JRL
18:10 UTC: The convection is restricted to the northwest and is weaker than it was earlier today. JRL
21:25 UTC: Convection developing over land in South Florida and Cuba. JRL
23:18 UTC: Small strong cells over Cuba reflectivity has slightly weakened to 50 dBZ. Showers over the mainland of Florida and scattered to the east. CDR

05:05 UTC: Small strong cells (50 dBZ) 100km due north of the radar off of the FL coast moving east. JKJ

07:09 UTC: Strong cells have dissipated. Widely scattered thunderstorms are developing from northeast to south of the radar and are moving due east. Otherwise, all’s quiet on the western front. JKJ
09:27 UTC: Scattered showers all the way around. Most collected to the southeast. No reflectivity values higher than 40 dBZ. CDR

12:16 UTC: The scattered showers that were all around us have dissipated, and everything out there is dissipating as it moves to the Northwest. There are a few small cells over the Florida Peninsula, also there is one tiny cell about 50km away from the radar, to the Northwest. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 50 dBz range. NSD
13:24 UTC: The cells over Florida have dissipated, other than that, there is nothing else significant to report, at this time. NSD
14:23 UTC: Conditions remain the same. Nothing new to report. NSD
15:26 UTC: Nothing new to report, there is no significant weather, to speak of, out there. NSD
16:34 UTC: Started coordinating with SMART-R on North Sector scans. There still is no significant weather out there to speak of, with the exception of a small cell 125km Northwest of the radar. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 50 dBz range. NSD
17:50 UTC: Still doing coordinated sectors, There are groups of small convective cells developing over the Florida mainland. Reflectivity values are in the 10 to 40 dBz range. Other than that there is no other significant weather at this time. NSD

18:00 UTC: No longer doing coordinated scans with SMART-R, went back to standard SURV_FAR, and KAMP_FAR scans. NSD

18:48 UTC: There is a mid sized cell passing right over us. I’m thinking that it will skirt West of the radar. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 50 dBz range. Also there are scattered cells all around from 100 to 250km away from the radar, reflectivity values are the same. All cells are tracking Northwest. NSD
19:50 UTC: Conditions remain the same, nothing significant to report, except that the cell that I mentioned earlier, has skirted West of us, then dissipated. NSD
20:50 UTC: Strong cells are now forming around the Fort Meyers, and Cape Sable, areas of Florida, in the North, and there are strong cells forming over Cuba in the South. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 55 dBz range. So far there is nothing but scattered stratiform cells all around the radar, although, nothing as strong as the other areas mentioned. The closest of the small cells is 50 to 100km away from the radar in all directions. Everything is tracking Northwest. NSD

21:46 UTC: The cells over Cuba have converged to form one large storm, but haven’t moved North into the ocean yet. There is a small cell just popping up about 10km North of the radar. It too, is moving Northwest. The cells over Florida have now bunched up over the Fort Meyers area. There are still scattered cells all around the radar at 50 to 250km away. Reflectivity values remain the same, as does the track of the mass. NSD
22:45 UTC: Conditions remain the same, nothing significant to report. NSD

02:30 UTC: Strong storms off the western coast of Florida with max at 65dBz but are moving west away from our area. Other storms are developing south and southeast of the Keys along what appears to be an outflow boundary from storms that dissipate over Cuba. Overall motion still to the west at about 15kts/6m s-1. JKJ

03:00 UTC: Storms starting to move within 20 km from TOGA. Max reflectivity values around 50-55 dBz with movement west-northwest at about 15kts. JKJ
03:21 UTC: Switched to KAMP_NEAR with convection ALQDS around TOGA. Strongest storms were located within 20km from TOGA to the Southeast at 55 dBz and another core about 50km to the Northwest at 55 dBz. Movement continues to be west-northwest at 15kts. JKJ-CDR
03:26 UTC: KAMP_NEAR running at a 7 min 30 sec interval while SURV_NEAR is running at a 16 minute interval. Storms still located ALQDS with occasional lightning seen out the windows. Max reflectivity values still around 50 dBz with the strongest cores now to the north-northwest at about 25 km and southeast 10 km. Movement remains north-northwest at 15kts. JKJ-CDR
04:00 UTC: Storm that was heading for TOGA has dissipated, but other activity continues southeast and northwest of the radar. Strongest storms were northwest of the radar at ~50 km with 45-50 dBz cores. Other storms were developing to the Northwest beyond 75km and a large area of storms was moving towards the radar from the southeast, but was over 150 km away. JKJ
04:25 UTC: Switched back to KAMP_FAR. CDR
05:50 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-Radar to set up dual-doppler scan on KAMP_FAR. Most of the convection has weakened or moved out of area that prompted calling everyone. However, another area is starting to move in from the east with areas of 50-55 dBz reflectivity values. JKJ

09:30 UTC: Have been talking to Carrie off and on, he’s at SMART-R and has gotten all of our information in order to coordinate, but still hasn’t called to go dual yet. There’s a nice cluster to the northeast and also to the south-southwest, highest reflectivity between 50-55 dBZ. Most are out of dual-doppler range. CDR

12:16 UTC: Mass of weather to our northwest has persisted for at least three hours now, and although the general motion throughout the entire area is toward the west, this storm system appears to be moving closer toward us rather than away. Reflectivity values in this storm are up to ~50dBz. There are also a few small cells closer in around the 30-50 km range. These cells have very small cores, and their max values are ~45 dBz. It appears that some of these small cells are moving more rapidly to the NW than the large cluster, and thus are being absorbed into the large cluster. Perhaps this is what is making it look like the large cluster is moving towards us. VAC
12:30 UTC: The velocity display on RTD shows that there are some small areas of convergence within the large cluster of weather. These areas of convergence coincide with the strongest reflectivity values found within the system. VAC
13:06 UTC: TOGA and SMART-R (Guynes) begin coordinating NORTH_FAR sector scans. There is a small cell that has just developed right north of TOGA site that seems to be growing fast. Reflectivity values currently max out at ~45dBz. VAC
13:27 UTC: SMART-R and TOGA switch to NORTH_NEAR sector scans because TOGA is not seeing the tops of the cells. VAC
13:30 UTC: SMART-R switches back to NORTH_FAR because it was seeing clear sky at 16deg. SMART-R also doing surveillance scans because it is lapping TOGA on sector scans (TOGA has many more tilts). VAC
13:41 UTC: Tops of these cells close by are at 10 km and have max reflectivity values up to ~45dBz. VAC

14:25 UTC: TOGA switches back to NORTH_FAR. SMART-R is having problems with computer software, so we are no longer coordinating scans. VAC

14:33 UTC: One cell is creeping into the east edge of the sector scan at 60deg and 45 km range. Max reflectivity values are ~45dBz. VAC
15:01 UTC: Switch to KAMP_FAR scan. The large area of weather present earlier this morning is still present, but now it is a large stratiform area rather than a cellular structure. VAC
15:22 UTC: Switch to FULL_FAR scan. Lots of second trip in the northwest quadrant. Small cells are beginning to pop to the east. VAC
16:16 UTC: A cell is forming to the south out about 20km with reflectivity values up to 50-53dBz. A group of very small cells forming in a line to the southeast basically along a radial at 135deg. We are working on coordinating FULL_FAR scans with SMART-R. VAC
16:38 UTC: Started FULL_NEAR scans. The cells in to the southeast have moved in close to us, so when the radar reaches its top tilt at 44deg the cell closest to us still has reflectivity up to 50dBz. VAC
16:55 UTC: It’s raining outside. The cells to the southeast have begun merging so that there are fewer, but larger cells now. Small cells are popping all over Florida and the northeast quadrant. VAC
17:22 UTC: Rain has stopped. Ran a couple RHIs, but put bad angles in them, so did not see anything interesting. VAC
17:54 UTC: The cells that began forming about an hour ago to the northwest have started to merge and become much stronger (max values ~55dBz). Second trip is prevalent in the southeast quadrant. VAC

18:32 UTC: There’s stuff all over the place right now! The system to the northwest has grown more and still has max values around 55dBz. The velocity data shows tiny couplets of inbound and outbound values that correspond with the some of the strongest portions of the system. Tops on this system are above 15 km. VAC

18:46 UTC: Ran RHIs over this system from 280deg to 315deg. Found cells with tops up to 14 km. VAC
18:48 UTC: Switched to KAMP_FAR. VAC
19:25 UTC: Did RHIs over same area. Cells are much weaker now, and tops are less than 10 km throughout much of the area. VAC
19:28 UTC: Switched back to FULL_FAR. Data from FULL_FAR has a lot more noise in it than that from KAMP_FAR because FULL_FAR uses PPP and uses lower filters. KAMP_FAR uses random phase and higher filters. The noise is such that it shouldn’t be hard to edit it later manually though. VAC

19:51 UTC: The system to the northwest is still present, though it has moved further to the northwest and now is ~70 km away from the TOGA site. Right now it seems to be splitting apart a bit, and as a result there are separate reflectivity max’s instead of the one big mass of high reflectivity that existed earlier. This system has developed a tail of high clouds that extends down to the south of the convective area. Cells continue to form over Florida and then move offshore to the west. VAC
20:46 UTC: The northwest system has broken apart, and all that is left are a few small to medium sized cells with max reflectivity values at about 45 dBz. This is down from the values we saw at 20:15, which were up into the low 50’s. There still are a few cells coming off of Florida, though not as much as before. Further up the peninsula there are some larger cells growing that have values up around 56 dBz. However, these are out at a 200-300 km range from here. Motion continues to be toward the west for all weather out there. VAC

21:30 UTC: Only a few small cells are left to the west over the ocean. The majority of the activity is located over Florida and Cuba. There is one cell 150 km out to the southwest that moved off of Cuba recently, and another mass mostly stratiform in nature has moved into the surveillance scan and currently is 250 km away. VAC

22:27 UTC: A cell has fired up to the north. This cell was born around 2145, and now is still fairly small, but strong (values up to ~48 dBz). Another small cell has developed to the southeast out about 70 km. VAC
02:24 UTC: Storms over Cuba have dissipated and have kicked an outflow boundary that is moving north towards the Keys. Storms (max Z values near 45 dBz) are developing along the boundary and are moving north. Other storms are moving off the Florida peninsula into the eastern GOM. JKJ
06:30 UTC: Widely scattered cells are starting to develop to the southeast of the radar. Very small and are moving towards the northwest at about 15kts. JKJ
08:30 UTC: A cell has fired to the east of the radar at about 50km. Occasional lightning is seen out the window to the east with storm motion northwest at about 15kts. Max reflectivity is around 45 dBz. JKJ
11:00 UTC: There is a large group of small cells Northwest of the radar bunching up into one storm about 100 to 210km away. Reflectivity values are in the18 to 50dBz range. There are also some small-scattered cells to the Southeast of the radar. Reflectivity values are the same. All cells are tracking Northwest, coming from the Southeast. NSD

12:50 UTC: The large area of weather to the northwest has persisted and is now located between 150 and 250 km in range. This area has become more stratiform in nature, but still has a few areas of higher reflectivity values imbedded within the system. New cells are forming in the northwest quadrant within a 100km range and moving toward the northwest. The cores of these small cells have reflectivity values up to 50dBz. VAC

13:13 UTC: Rebooted IRIS and took a new noise sample. VAC
14:15 UTC: Small cells are popping all over. There are some to our immediate northwest, one just to the southeast, and a few more small ones to the south. The large area of stratiform precipitation is still alive to the northwest at about a 200 km range. Another larger system has formed to the northwest from cells that began forming and merging at 1145 in the northwest quadrant. This system is 100-150 km in range. A line of cells is forming to the ESE that is oriented in a 60deg direction. VAC
14:56 UTC: Conditions remain virtually the same, the only difference is that the cells that were coming towards the radar are now over us. There is a slight amount of rain falling. Reflectivity values remain the same as does the northwesterly track. NSD
15:35 UTC: Lost the raw data for the FULL_FAR scans for the time between the 1246 scan and the 1439 scan. The FULL_FAR products were not saved into the CAMEX product scheduler, and were not rescheduled until just a few minutes ago. The data before 1439 had already been kicked off of the machine. VAC
17:07 UTC: Cells seem to be initialized over the Keys, develop and move northwestward as if in the general SE to NW flow the passage of air over land results in the triggering of the cells. Made an RHI product of one of them with a 55dBz max at an azimuth of 286. JRL

18:12 UTC: The large cells just Northwest of the radar, have dissipated just that quickly. They are now just remnants of what they were, about 75 to 150km away from the radar in all directions. Reflectivity values are still in the 18 to 50 dBz range, and the track is still to the Northwest. NSD

19:10 UTC: Conditions remain the same, no significant changes to report. NSD
20:15 UTC: Now, all the scattered cells that were in the 75 to 150km range have virtually dissipated. There is only one small cell to the Northwest, about 100km away, that is still present. The reflectivity remains the same as the last entry. More cells are forming over Cuba, and the last large cells over Florida are steadily moving north away from the radar. Other than that, there is no significant activity in our area. NSD

21:30 UTC: The cells that have formed over Cuba are now making their way towards the radar. They are about 75 to 150km away from the radar. Reflectivity values are in the 2 to 37 dBz range. The track has turned more North by Northwest, as opposed to just Northwest. NSD
22:40 UTC: There is a strong cell that has developed right off of Key West, about 40km to the West of the radar. Have coordinated with SMART-R, and am now running the NORTH_NEAR, and SURV_NEAR scans. Reflectivity values are in the 12 to 55 dBz range, and the storm is tracking West. Shall remain in the near mode until further notice. NSD
00:10 UTC: Switched tapes and coordinated with SMART-R to reschedule tasks so they are running nearly at the same times. Still running NORTH_NEAR and SURV_NEAR scans. One good storm northeast of the radar with reflectivity values around 45 dBz, but all other convection has dissipated close to the radar. Other strong storms were located over the northern coast of Cuba and were moving out over the ocean. JKJ

01:45 UTC: Convection in the NORTH_NEAR sector scan has dissipated. New storms developing to the east and southeast of the radar. Coordinated with SMART-R to place SMART-R into standby and switch TOGA into FULL_FAR and SURV_FAR. Other storms outside of 100km to the southeast of the radar and storms due south at about 100 km. Strongest reflectivity values at 50 dBz. JKJ

02:10 UTC: New convection is developing northeast of the radar along the Keys. Coordinated with SMART-R to start volume scans at the same time. Still running FULL_FAR and SURV_FAR. Max reflectivity values on storms northeast of radar ~50 dBz and movement is to the northwest at about 15kts. JKJ
02:55 UTC: Had to switch the radar to FULL_NEAR because strongest storms had tops above highest tilt. Coordinated with SMART-R to set up the volume scan times. Strong storm located within 30 km to the southeast of TOGA with occasional LTG seen out the window. Reflectivity values at the surface are near 45 dBz with 55dBz aloft. Other strong storms located northeast of the radar with max reflectivity values near 55 dBz. JKJ
03:11 UTC: New storm developing right on top of the radar. JKJ
04:00 UTC: Radar stopped with an “Error from call to DSPREAD” at 03:58. Attempted to restart the volume scan but forgot to check the “GO” light on the signal processor. I halted the volume scan after realizing that no data was being collected. Nathan had to turn off the processor and then back on to get it to reset. Ran FULL_NEAR to test and make sure that it was running O.K. JKJ

04:20 UTC: Radar is back up and operational. Restarted with FULL_FAR and SURV_FAR since there were no returns at the highest tilts in the NEAR volume scans. Strongest storms were located southwest of the radar between 50 and 100 km. Highest reflectivity values were around 45 dBz. JKJ

06:30 UTC: Most of the activity has moved off to the northwest from the Keys. A good convective cell was located northwest of the radar around 25-40 km. Reflectivity values range from 30-50 dBz. Storm is in a good location for dual-doppler work. New activity is trying to develop to the southeast of the Keys around 75-100 km away with reflectivity values from 40-45 dBz. JKJ

06:55 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-R to set up the NORTH_NEAR scan for activity northeast of the radar. Other storms continue to move towards the Keys from the southeast. Strongest echo was located northwest of the radar at about 50 km with reflectivity values near 50 dBz. JKJ
08:55 UTC: Activity of interest has moved out of area, while new activity is trying to develop to the southeast of the radar. Other storms are also trying to develop to the southwest of TOGA, but reflectivity values remain low and storms are very isolated. JKJ
09:55 UTC: Widely scattered storms still moving towards the Keys from the southeast. Other storms trying to develop due south of radar. JKJ
10:30 UTC: New cell developed just northeast of the radar site. Occasional lightning seen outside window. Movement was northwest at about 15kts with maximum reflectivity values around 40 dBz. JKJ
11:26 UTC: New cells have popped up in a line to the north. The main part of this line extends up to the north about 25 km. A second leg extends off the bottom of the first leg toward the east about 15km. Doing NORTH_NEAR sector scans with SMART-R. VAC
12:20 UTC: Switched to FULL_NEAR. Not coordinated with SMART-R right now. VAC
13:04 UTC: Coordinating with SMART-R on FULL_NEAR scans. There are little cells popping all around mostly to the southeast and northwest, but nothing is very large right now. The line we were watching earlier has pretty much dissipated. VAC
13:46 UTC: Coordinating with SMART-R on FULL_FAR scans. VAC

14:04 UTC: Line of storms has formed off to the northwest, but most of it is out of range for dual doppler. However, some new convection is firing on the southern end of the line, so perhaps there will be some activity closer in soon. A few clusters have developed to the southeast, but these aren’t very tall yet (~8km) and have max reflectivity values up around 42-45 dBz. VAC

15:00 UTC: Begin FULL_NEAR scans with SMART-R. Changed the speed from 14 deg/s to 15 deg/s which decrease running time by ~30 sec. This allowed us to change the repeat time to 8 min from 9 min. VAC
15:23 UTC: A line has formed to the southeast of the line from earlier, and is well within the doppler lobes (50-100 km range from TOGA). This line is oriented in the same direction as the first line, and there is a small cell forming in between the ends of the two lines – perhaps these two lines will join up into one long line. Max reflectivity values are ~56 dBz. A third cluster of cells has formed to the southeast of the second line, and is within 30 km of TOGA site, toward the northwest. A fourth area of interest is directly to the west, where there is a cluster of cells that was born about 30 min ago, but already has reflectivity values up around 48dBz. The only quadrant that is semi quiet right now is the southeast quadrant. Otherwise, things are very active and moving to the northwest. VAC
16:21 UTC: The storm is putting out some good lightning to the north of here. The two southernmost lines are beginning to join up at their northern most tips to form a horseshoe around TOGA with its open end toward the southeast. Max reflectivity values are found in the round part of the horseshoe where the two lines met (~58dBz). VAC
17:01 UTC: Begin coordinating NORTH_NEAR with SMART-R. Most of the activity is to the northeast right now. System has changed from a horseshoe shape to more of a big blob. This system is occupying most of the northern lobe (yahoooo!) and does not appear to be dissipating any time soon. Max reflectivity values are up to ~52 dBz. VAC

18:12 UTC: Almost entire northwest quadrant covered. The strongest cores are out about 100 km and have max reflectivity values of 54 dBz. To the north there are a few more areas of high reflectivity a little closer in. Otherwise, most of the northwest quadrant is covered with stratiform precipitation. VAC

21:13 UTC: Most activity has moved out to the 75km range and turned stratiform. VAC
22:08 UTC: Stopped coordinating with SMART-R. Things have quieted down a lot. There is a little action to the north, but all else is quiet. VAC


00:00 UTC: The radar screen is almost completely void of weather echoes. Some noise and second trip echoes dominate the lowest few tilts of the FULL_FAR task however. KLM
02:00 UTC: Some isolated cells have begun to fire up over the last half hour east and southeast of the Keys between 50 and 150 km out. The cells are moving generally to the west. KLM
04:00 UTC: Isolated cells dominate the eastern and southern portions of the radar screen. No significant convection to report. The isolated cells are moving to the west-northwest. KLM
06:00 UTC: Isolated cells continue to fire in the southern and western portions of the area as well as over the Keys. Movement of the cells is to the northwest. KLM
06:05 UTC: XPOL was called up due to numerous small cells within 60 km of the XPOL radar site.
08:00 UTC: Scattered showers continue across the region. Cells continue to move off to the northwest. KLM
10:00 UTC: Scattered showers continue across the region. The strongest cells are to the northwest and northeast. Movement is nearly due north now. KLM
11:44 UTC: Conditions remain the same, no significant changes to report at this time. NSD

13:15 UTC: Conditions remain the same, no significant changes to report at this time. NSD

14:15 UTC: There is a large stratiform rain region to the west and Southwest of Tampa. This region is beginning to dissipate. Also, the northwest quadrant has convective elements developing and clustering together at ranges 50-100km. At this time, decisions are being made on what area to fly the aircraft. DRJ
16:00 UTC: The stratiform region near Tampa has dissipated. The convective elements that formed the cluster towards the northwest still exists. There is also a line of cells developing to the east moving to the north. This line is parallel to the Keys. Coordination with SMART-R began ~1550 UTC with a FULL_FAR task. DRJ

17:05 UTC: The stratiform rain region is still persisting to the northwest at 70km range. The line to the east of the radar has broken up and only a few isolated cells remain. Elsewhere, convection is developing over a wide region and is organizing into larger clusters to the south and north near 50km range. DRJ
18:28 UTC: The stratiform rain region is still persisting at 70km range towards the northwest. The aircraft have decided to fly echoes over the Gulf of Mexico, outside the range of TOGA. A line of convective showers has developed over Key West and the line is expanding to the east. Elsewhere, convective cells are developing over a widespread area. DRJ
19:32 UTC: Most of the convective activity is dissipating. All that really remains are weak stratiform regions. The line to the west of TOGA is also dissipating rapidly. Some coordination was done with X-POL doing RHIs. DRJ

21:15 UTC: Now there is only one cell directly West of Key West. The rest of the convection that was present this morning has dissipated with the exception of the large storm over the Florida Peninsula. There are also small cells forming over Cuba. The cell next to Key West is about 50 to 65km away from the island. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 50 dBz range for everything within the radar’s range. All cells seem to be standing still, which is rather peculiar, although I believe that everything is tracking north. NSD

21:57 UTC: Shutdown for generator maintenance. Since there is no weather to speak of in the immediate vacinity. NSD
23:16 UTC: System brought back up. Generator maintenance performed. No problems. NSD
01:37 UTC: A fairly quiet evening with most convective activity confined to the region

beyond the 100 km range ring from the TOGA radar. One very small cell of around 20dBz was observed just east of the radar site. DSS

03:54 UTC: Within the past half-hour an isolated cell developed just to the east of Key

West and moved west. Some other cells with intensities to 45 dBz are located both SE

and NW of the radar at distances of 60 km and beyond. Most of this activity is moving

slowly to the NW. DSS

04:54 UTC: The activity over Key West rapidly diminished, as has much of the activity

within 100 km. The most impressive convection is located about 140 km west of the radar and is displaying a slow northward movement. DSS

06:18 UTC: There is a continued lack of activity within 50 km of the radar site. A couple

of stronger cells to 45dBz are found about 60 km NW of TOGA and about 55 km NE of

the radar. The more widespread convection about 140 km west of the radar has diminished in intensity. DSS

07:28 UTC: Most of the activity is now confined to the NW quadrant with isolated cells to 45dBz at distances exceeding 30 km from the radar and moving generally northwestward. DSS

08:43 UTC: There is a slight intensification in convective activity to the southeast of the radar but at distances exceeding 100 km. The convective area to the NW of the radar has become more elongated and cells have weakened over the last hour. DSS
09:55 UTC: A cluster of cells remains to the west of the radar site with a second weaker area to the north. Both regions of echo are 50 km from the radar with isolated maximum

reflectivity values of 45 dBz. DSS

15:24 UTC: There are three cells to the west and northwest of us with total diameters of about 50Km at a range of 50 to 100 km with maximum dBz of 50. This area has been busy since we arrived at 11Z. JRL
16:06 UTC: Two cells with diameters of 5 to 10 km have been developing at a range of 20 to 25 km north of us with a max dBz of 45.The activity mentioned above to the west and northwest in the 50 to 100km range continues. JRL
17:47 UTC: Convective activity to the west and northwest at a range of 50 to 100km has weakened considerably. A new cell with a 20km radius has developed north of us at a range of 35 to 50km. Convective activity has picked up over the Florida Peninsula especially near Fort Lauderdale. JRL
18:09 UTC: A new cell has developed about 10 to the Northwest of us. It has a diameter of 5 to 10 km. The maximum dBz is 50. There are two additional cells of similar size just to the northwest of Sugar Loaf key. JRL

18:32 UTC: We coordinated dual Doppler with X-pole using North_Near scanning from 265 to 60 on the cell developing to the northwest of us and to the northeast of X-pole. The cell has a 55dBz max. JRL

19:08 UTC: Another bigger cell growing moved in from the SW into the prime dual Doppler region between TOGA and X-pole. We started repeats of dual Doppler between TOGA and X-Pole. JRL

20:32 UTC: The cell described above has dissipated while another, not as large, developed to the northeast and also dissipated. Convection has developed over Florida Bay closer to the mainland. There is also large-scale convection off to the west at 100km moving in toward us. We went back to the earlier routine of SURV_FAR, RHI_XXX_150 and FULL_FAR. We changed the RHI to an azimuth of 75 to look at the convection in Florida Bay. JRL
23:02 UTC: Convection has been developing on the Florida peninsula. A rain band developed closer towards the southeast and then dissipated. JRL
00:08 UTC: New storm trying to develop northeast of the radar at about 100 km with max reflectivity values around 55 dBz and lightning can be seen out the window. Other storms located south of the radar at 50 km with max reflectivity values around 50 dBz. JKJ
01:14 UTC: Called SMART-R and XPOL to let them know about storms that were rapidly developing within 50 km north and south of the radars. Both parties said that they would call back to let us know if they were going operational. Strongest storm was located ~ 25 km NW of the TOGA radar with reflectivity values around 50 dBZ. Other storms were located south of the radar with maximum reflectivity values near 45 dBz. Storms were holding together and moving generally toward the south at about 10 knots. JKJ

01:27 UTC: Switched scans to FULL_NEAR and SURV_NEAR since radar was still not seeing the tops of the storms. JKJ

02:44 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-R to set up dual-doppler scans with the FULL_NEAR and SURV_NEAR sweeps. Strongest storms were located over the SMART-R site with reflectivity values around 50 dBz and movement slowly to the east. Other storms were weakening between the TOGA and SMART radars, with more storms developing about 70 km to the northwest and southeast of the radar. JKJ
03:45 UTC: Strongest activity has developed about 30 km south of SMART-R (40 Southwest of TOGA) and continues to move south at about 15kts. Maximum reflectivity values are around 40 dBz. Other activity is developing about 75km west-northwest of TOGA with reflectivity around 55 dBz but is moving outside of dual-doppler range. Overall activity is showing a general decreasing trend. JKJ
04:53 UTC: Light rain is falling at the TOGA radar site. Almost all convective activity has dissipated into stratiform rain within 75 km from the radar. Other convective cells with reflectivity values near 40 dBz are west-southwest of the radar at almost 100km. JKJ

05:18 UTC: Called SMART-R to see how long they wanted to continue to run. General consensus was that we would wait until the last echoes move beyond 75 km from SMART-R or the storms move into the beam blockage area caused by the cab of the truck. General trend for activity within 100 km continues to be downward. Strongest cells (45 dBz) were still over 100 km away from the radar to the south-southwest. JKJ

05:34 UTC: Switched TOGA to FULL_FAR and SURV_FAR. Most precipitation in dual-doppler lobes has completely dissipated, and strongest echoes were beyond 100 km (still). JKJ

06:34 UTC: General trend continues to show decrease in intensity ALQDS. Strongest storms were south of the radar at 100km moving north at about 15kts. JKJ
08:34 UTC: New showers trying to develop to the east of the radar site over 100 km away. Otherwise, mostly spotty light showers. JKJ
09:35 UTC: More showers developing 150 km to the east of the radar site. Other storms were developing to the south and east of the radar but were small and light. JKJ
10:48 UTC: Some activity trying to develop north of the Keys about halfway to the FL mainland. Other activity was trying to develop southeast of the radar about 100 km out. JKJ.
13:31 UTC: A band of convection has been persistent to the NE along the coast of mainland Florida. Most of the activity has been beyond 50 km from TOGA. There is presently no significant activity in the Keys. The aircraft are scheduled to be in the area after 16 UTC. PAK
14:40 UTC: Talked to Jerry at SMART-R. We are going to reconfigure the system for 2 min repeats in a narrow sector and for 4 min repeats for the far sector and 5 min repeats for the near sector. The convection continues to be focused to the N-NE, but is moving closer during the past hour. PAK
16:23 UTC: The P3 and DC-8 took off at noon to come to make a coordinated fly over of the MIPS site. At the moment there is little convection close in. There is significant convection north of 25N and between 81 and 82W.

16:58 UTC: P3 Passed overhead. No convection over us. Indications have the aircraft moving north to intercept a line of convection centered 75 km due north of TOGA. The line is moving NNE about 20 km/hr. Max dBZ=50 dBZ. Another stronger line is moving SE’ward and is approaching the line moving NE’ward. PAK

17:40 UTC: SMART-R and TOGA was out of synch from 1720-1740. We are back in Synch. Not much activity in DD lobe. Most of the convection is to the NE near the Florida coast. The planes are working the system near the coast. PAK.
19:26 UTC: A large area of convection persists to our NW at 81 35’, 25 35’, which is about 75 km to our NW. There is a leading line of convection orientated W-E on the southern edge, with a broad area of stratiform and embedded convection to the north side of the system. The aircraft (DC8 and P3) are working the system located at the coordinates above. Maximum reflectivity exceeds 50 dBZ in a few convective cores. The system has remained north of the keys in the same general area for the past 3 hours. The general movement is easterly. PAK

21:16 UTC: A large cell near due west moved westward just north of the Keys (within 10 to 20 km). At 20:50 we shifted from NORTH_FAR to NORTH_NEAR. We are doing dual Doppler with SMART-R and X-POLE is doing sector scans over the cell trying to synch with us collecting in the polarimetric mode.
22:00 UTC: The strong cell that was to the West has moved over us. Raining hard at the site. (started about 1 min ago.). The strongest portion of the cell is about 5 km north of us with max reflectivity > 55 dBZ. Nice outflow boundary reaches us about 10 min before. A broad region of stratiform follows the convection to the west for about 75km. XPOL was hit hard. He mentioned that the signal was completely attenuated in the direction of the core, even polarimetric. PAK

23:44 UTC: New convective complex moving in from the west at ~100 km away from TOGA. Still running NORTH_NEAR and SURV_NEAR to stay in sync with SMART-RADAR. Will have to call after changing the tapes over. JKJ

00:14 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-R to continue the NORTH_NEAR and SURV_FAR scans. Strongest storms were located to the west of TOGA at around 100 km with maximum reflectivity values at ~55 dBz. Storms continued to move to the east at about 15kts. JKJ
01:15 UTC: Convective cluster west of the radars continues to move to the east towards us. Reflectivity values have dropped somewhat down to 45 dBz on average. There is a leading edge of convection with a large area of stratiform rain behind it. Otherwise, most of the activity from earlier in the day has moved beyond 100 km to the east. JKJ
01:40 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-R. Sounded like scans were off by about 15 seconds. Decided to let it be as convective activity was moving into dual-doppler north lobe. Line of convection was moving towards the keys at about 15kts, with maximum reflectivity values near 50 dBz. Strongest storm was moving straight for the Keys. JKJ

02:35 UTC: Leading edge of storms (50 dBz) has reached Key West. Lightning activity dropped from frequent IC to nothing within about 10 minutes. Strongest portion of the storm was north of the island itself. Movement continues to be towards the east-northeast at 15kts. JKJ
03:24 UTC: New convective activity developing north of the area closest to the radar and is within the dual-doppler lobe. Highest reflectivity values in new convection are 55dBz with movement now east at about 15kts. However, reflectivity values have been decreasing overall. JKJ

03:50 UTC: Activity in north dual-doppler lobe has totally dissipated. SMART-R called, and decision was made to switch to FULL_FAR and SURV_FAR. Strongest activity was southwest of TOGA at ~100 km with reflectivity around 45 dBz. General trend continues to be decrease in intensity. JKJ

05:15 UTC: Most activity now around 100 km south of TOGA. Other strong storms were located on the western coast of Florida near Tampa Bay. Also appears that there is a low-pressure system located northwest of the Keys based on the movement of the echoes. JKJ
06:30 UTC: A line of storms has developed starting about 30 miles southeast of TOGA and extending southwest from there. The most intense echoes are located on the northern end of the line (~ 50-55 dBz) with the reflectivity values in the line itself around 30-40 dBz. JKJ
07:30 UTC: Line of storms continues to move towards the east at about 10-15 knots. Reflectivity values in the line are dropping, while the northern end of the line continues to have reflectivity values near 55 dBz. The north end is also starting to move more towards the northeast at 15 knots. JKJ
08:30 UTC: Convective line has pretty much dissipated. Northern end continues to move northeast at about 15 knots with strongest reflectivity values northeast of the radar at 40 km. JKJ
10:30 UTC: Only stuff on radar was well to the northwest around 150 km and slowly moving south, with another area of light to moderate rain moving onto the southern tip of Florida. JKJ

12:07 UTC: The large cell that was over Florida is now moving to the Southwest. It is still about 125km Northwest of the radar. The wind seems to have reversed direction. Now it is blowing out of the Northwest, pushing everything to the Southeast. Reflectivity values remain the same, in the 18 to 50dBz range. NSD

13:09 UTC: The large cell mentioned before has moved slightly closer in the last hour, all other conditions remain exactly the same. No other significant facts to report. NSD
14:11 UTC: Conditions remain the same, nothing new to report. NSD
15:13 UTC: Convection to the northwest is moving ESE. Cells aligned 60/240 degrees have developed along the broad area of convection. Two cells within dual Doppler range formed out in front of the aligned cells. JRL
16:11 UTC: The convection to the Northwest is now about 50km away from the radar. There is a huge wall of convection coming straight for us. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 50dBz range. All convection is still tracking East-Southeast. NSD
17:18 UTC: The wall of convection consists of numerous merged cells in the middle with new cells developing at both ends of the line from 70 kilometers west of the Dry Tortugas all the way to north of Fort Lauderdale.
17:44 UTC: The line is about on us. The movie of SURVEY_FAR ending 17:35 shows that the cells are diminishing in strength all along the line.
18:47 UTC: The convective cell is upon us now. The gust front came through, but, the wind is still blowing pretty well here. Reflectivity values remain the same, (18 to 50dBz), as does the track (SSE). We did some coordinated RHIs with SMART_R and now have resumed the NORTH_NEAR, and the SURV_FAR scans. NSD

19:32 UTC: The storm is almost half way through now. Conditions remain the same. We have been doing an RHI, (over MIPS), in place of the SURV_FAR scan, and have been coordinated with SMART_R the whole time. NSD

20:32 UTC: The storm has passed over us and broken up. Scattered cells remain in the Southwest and the Southeast. There is also a large cell directly West of us. Reflectivity remains the same, as does the track. We have switched back to the NORTH_FAR, and are running in conjunction with SMART_R. NSD
21:32 UTC: Conditions remain the same, except that the large cell directly West of us is now tracking East. There is a general counterclockwise circulation in the rainfall pattern centered about 50 km west of Fort Meyers. The NWS at Key West in the hurricane report has been saying conditions are favorable for development off the central-west coast of Florida despite the proximity of the low to land. NSD/JRL

22:32 UTC: The large cell is breaking up now, splitting into scattered large and small cells. The largest of the cells is about 150 to 200km away from the radar directly East of Miami. There is a small gust front Northwest of Key West, and the remainder of the cell is Southwest of the Keys. Also there are small cells forming over Cuba. Reflectivity values are still the same, and the track is still East, with parts heading Northeast. The whole mass is swirling from Northwest to Northeast. NSD
00:05 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-Radar to set up the FULL_FAR scan only. New cells are developing to the south of TOGA and a line is also starting to form extending south of the radar. Maximum reflectivity values have been near 50dBz with occasional 55 dBz echoes. JKJ

01:20 UTC: Storm that was south of TOGA has dissipated while a convective line (average reflectivity values near 50 dBz) has formed to the east of TOGA. This line extended from the western Gulf Coast of Florida down to around Marathon Key, and off to the southeast. The line is moving east at about 15kts, with the stronger storms in the line segment trying to move northeast. Other echoes are starting to move into the western edge of the lowest tilt. JKJ

02:25 UTC: Convective line has started to dissipate some with stratiform rain region developing behind it to the west. Other activity is moving inside the 150km range to the northwest of the radar. Otherwise, nothing of much interest was going on close to TOGA. JKJ
03:00 UTC: New convective development is occurring about 50 km north of TOGA. Line of storms is oriented southwest northeast with reflectivity values around 40-45 dBz. Movement was to the north at about 15kts. JKJ
04:13 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-Radar to run NORTH_FAR and SURV_FAR scans. All rain activity in southern areas has dissipated and most precipitation was now located in the northeastern portion of the sector scan. Reflectivity values were near 45 dBz and movement was north. Other convective activity was about 200 km to the northwest of the radar and was slowly drifting towards the southeast. JKJ
06:30 UTC: New convective activity trying to develop to the west of the radar between 100 – 150 km. Movement was northeast. Also, could see indications of low-pressure center to the northwest of the radar (over 300 km away) based on the motion of the storms. JKJ
07:30 UTC: Storms haven’t held together as they move towards TOGA. Strongest storms were still over 100 km away. JKJ
08:30 UTC: Most activity has remained to the west of TOGA around 100km. Overall, activity has been slowly moving towards the Keys. Strongest returns remain near 45dBz with occasional 50dBz showing up. JKJ

10:00 UTC: No major changes. JKJ

11:43 UTC: The rain band that has been 100km Northwest of the radar has moved to about 50km, and has formed a gust front. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 53dBz range, and the winds are in a circular pattern going from Southwest to Northeast and back again. NSD
12:48 UTC: We have started coordinating scans with SMART_R. TOGA will be doing a NORTH_FAR, and SURV_FAR. SMART_R will be doing a NORTH_NEAR, and A SURV_NEAR. The reason for the different scans is because the rain band is closer to SMART_R than it is to TOGA. Reflectivity values remain the same, as do the wind patterns. The cell has moved to just within 50km of TOGA, but, the tops of the clouds disappear right at 17.2 degrees, thus the reason for the far scan. NSD
13:49 UTC: The rain band hasn’t moved in the last hour, it is still 50km West of the radar. Reflectivity values are still the same, although the height of the clouds has changed. We are still running the same scan strategy, and coordinating with SMART_R. The only thing that has changed, is the Azimuth for the NORTH_FAR is now 240 to 45 degrees. It was changed because of the position of the storm. The wind conditions haven’t changed either. The low-pressure center to the general circulation in the area is to our NW. We made a cross-section perpendicular to the SW-NE line of rain. Looking at the velocities the winds, they were from SE to NW at the bottom of the “rain-band” and NW to SE at the top of the band, circulation on a small scale like that in hurricane, “in a the bottom out at the top”. NSD/JRL

14:47 UTC: The “rain-band” remains in about the same position but the peak in convection has moved southwestward along the band. It appears as if a new band maybe developing just inside the old one. The alignment is more SSW to NNE and intersects the outer band at the region of most intense convection. This characteristic seems similar to what happens to the eye-wall of a hurricane. JRL

15:48 UTC: The convection has shifted to the new band, in the Northwest. Reflectivity values remain the same, in the 18 to 53 dBz range. The wind patterns, and general circulation, also remain the same. The convection remains 50km away from the radar, directly West. NSD

16:45 UTC: We undertook to make a series of RHI_XXX_150 scans from 245 to 360 every 5 degrees. The purpose was to check the wind fields in the “rain-bands”. The outer band was essentially gone and the inner band was barely within our range. From 245 to 280 the winds were towards us on the bottom and away from us on the top. At 280 it was close to neutral. From 285 to 360 the winds were outward from us on the bottom and inward towards us on the top. We resumed the NORTH_FAR and SURVEY_FAR scans back in synch with SMART_R but they shut down because of the breaking news story about terrorist attacks at the Twin Towers in NYC. NSD/JRL
18:17 UTC: TOGA is the only radar still operating at this point, because of the attacks in New York, and Washington D.C., so we have decided to revise our scanning strategy. We will now run a SURV_FAR, a RHI, and a NORTH_FAR, on a 10-min. schedule. We are waiting to see if the times were set up correctly. As far as the weather is concerned, conditions have changed slightly. The whole mass of convection has moved back out to 100km away, with reflectivity values, and general circulation, remaining the same as well. NSD

19:40 UTC: The other rain bands that we have been seeing all day have started to break up and move away from the radar. There is a new band forming right on top of us. Stretching all the way from the Whitewater bay area of Florida, down to Cuba. The reflectivity values seem to be remaining constant, (18 to 53dBz) and have throughout the day. The wind patterns and the general circulation has remained the same all day as well. NSD

20:35 UTC: The rain band is right on top of us right now. We have changed our scans to reflect what the radar is seeing. We are now running: SURV_FAR, and NORTH_FAR. Reflectivity values and general circulation remain the same. We are now coordinating with the SMART_R again. NSD
21:35 UTC: The “rain-band” that was on top of us is less clearly defined. The overall center of the general circulation still seems to be centered off the coast of Florida from Fort Meyers. The circulation across the peninsula, over us, over the ocean east of Miami and south of us is toward the center. The circulation to the northwest of us outside 150 km is away from us. The National Hurricane Center put the center of what is now TD-8 at 25.5N 84.2W which is 290 km WNW of us. It looks to me from the radar that the center is about 170km WNW of us. JRL
22:56 UTC: A rain-band developed over a 20 to30 minute period in between the SMART_R and TOGA. It is aligned NNW or along a heading of 340 and is at least 200km long.
23:25 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-R to set up the NORTH_NEAR and SURV_NEAR scans. Strong convection was moving along the Keys towards TOGA. Maximum reflectivity. JKJ
00:11 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-R to set up the NORTH_FAR and SURV_FAR sweeps after switching the tapes out on TOGA. Strongest activity appears to be around 50 km to the northwest of TOGA, and also to the due west. Movement continues to be more towards the north at about 15kts. JKJ

01:36 UTC: New convective cells getting ready to move over the TOGA radar. Wind has picked up at the site to near 14m s-1 according to the radar. Also, strongest storm is getting ready to move right over the radar site itself. Storm was moving towards the Northwest at about 15kts with lightning observed over the site. I couldn’t get ahold of SMART-R to see about changing scans. JKJ

02:22 UTC: Storms have moved to the north of the radar. There is new convection developing to the northwest of the old convection. It appears that this is part of a convective band into the tropical depression. JKJ
04:20 UTC: Most of the strong convective activity has dissipated leaving behind only scattered areas of stratiform precip. Strongest returns were outside of 100km range from the radar. JKJ
05:30 UTC: New convection starting to develop off to the west of the Keys at about 100 km, but is moving north. JKJ
06:30 UTC: No change. JKJ
08:30 UTC: New convection is firing to the W and NW of the radar. Most of the activity is moving north. JKJ
10:00 UTC: More convection developing now to the southeast of TOGA. Strongest storms however were still to the NW at about 150 – 200 km. Movement of all the storms was to the northwest. Looks like bands are starting to form with the circulation well off to the NW. JKJ
10:50 UTC: Coordinated with SMART-R to run a FULL_FAR scan and a SURV_FAR sweep to catch the new activity developing to the southeast of the Keys. JKJ
12:05 UTC: The convective activity continues to the southeast. To the northwest and west, beyond 150 km, bands of convection are present moving to the north and northwest. To the northeast, convective activity is also present moving to the north. DRJ

13:07 UTC: Conditions remain the same, nothing significant to report. NSD

14:25 UTC: There is nothing to report except the development of a new rain band about 100km Southeast of the radar and tracking directly North. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 50dBz range. Other than that, conditions remain the same. On another note, coordination with SMART_R has stopped due to the wish of the Texas A&M staff. They will be leaving the area to try and arrive at the speculated location of the current tropical depression (#8). They predict it to turn into a hurricane and land somewhere near the Tallahassee area. NSD

15:37 UTC: There are two main precipitation areas. To the west and northwest, a large region of stratiform rain with embedded convection is present. The convective elements are moving to the north, but the stratiform region seems to be drifting to the east. To the east of the radar, a large area of precipitation is present. The side closest to the radar has two main convective bands, one oriented north-south, while the other is oriented east-west. To the east of the bands is a large area of stratiform rain. This area of precipitation is moving towards the north. DRJ
18:29 UTC: Stopped scanning temporarily to perform Solar-cal and Zauto. NSD
19:05 UTC: Did Solar-cal, and Zauto, numbers have been recorded in Maint. Log book. Now there are very large cells to the Northeast of the radar. From right on top of us all the way out to 150km away. There is also a very large cell directly West of the radar about 150 to 300km away. This is the cell that the SMART_R is hoping to catch in Tallahassee. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 55dBz range. All storms are tracking North by Northwest. NSD
20:27 UTC: The two very large cells are now coming together. One is right over the Florida Peninsula and the other over the Gulf of Mexico. They are both about 150 to 300km away from the radar. There are also three large rain bands forming, one is 150km Southwest of the radar, and the other two are 100 to 200km away. One is directly South of the radar, over Cuba, and the other is directly East of the radar. Reflectivity values are in the 18 to 55dBz range and all storms are tracking North by Northwest. NSD

21:27 UTC: Conditions remain the same, no significant changes to report at this time. It seems that some RAW data has been lost. I discovered that the FULL_NEAR scan had been inadvertently taken out of the Product Scheduler in IRIS. As a result both tapes have a block of missing FULL_NEAR scans. Times of the missing scans are from 19:37:37 UTC to 20:50:00 UTC. I have remedied the situation and have been successful in recovering the remaining FULL_NEAR scans that were left in the ingest files. Now all RAW data is once again going to both Exabyte Tapes. NSD

01:12 UTC
The bow echo to the west of us is moving towards and is spreading out. It no longer is a sharply defined line with peak reflectivity values in the low 50dBZ range instead of the higher 50dBZ’s that we saw earlier. I am scheduling, as many rhi’s as possible to target the high reflectivity cores of the echo. LNG
02:00 UTC
The echo has passed us now and is continuing to move to the northwest. We have had a light rain here at TOGA. LNG
02:17 UTC
We saw an interesting band of 56dBZ rain between 11 and 23 degrees azimuth, at a range of about 35km. LNG
03:00 UTC
Echo is moving northwest still and is about 50-60 km away. LNG
03:20 UTC
Echo has ceased to be a line and has turned into broad stratiform rain in the upper 20dBZ level. There are not that many high reflectivity cores left so I am not going to do any more rhi’s unless some more occur. LNG
03:47 UTC
There appears to be two rain bands forming. One is to the east at a range of about 100-200km at an azimuth of 80-90 degrees. The second one is at a range of 120km with an azimuthal angle of 340-30 degrees. There is also another bow echo forming to the west of us at a range of 160-180km. When it gets closer, we’ll start doing rhi’s on it. LNG
05:00 UTC
All of the rain patterns mentioned above are still there, but moving slightly north. They are still to far out of range to do rhi’s, and seem to be slowly weakening. LNG

07:20 UTC

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