A communist teacher in Russia told his students during the lesson, "I can see you. You can see me, too. This means to say that we exist. The mountains over there exist because we can see them, too. Something non-existent cannot be seen. What we cannot see is not said to exist. My words come from our scientific knowledge. One who is educated and progressive depends on scientific knowledge. Reactionists claim that there is a creator of all the creatures. It is wrong to believe the existence of a creator. It is not compatible with science. It is reactionary to claim the existence of something which cannot be seen." Asking permission to respond, a Turkoman boy said, "Are you talking with your intellect? Since we cannot see the existence of your intellect, it would be incompatible with science to accept that you have an intellect and that you are talking with it." The teacher was unable to answer these statements and kicked him out of the class after beating him harshly with a hatred arising from defeat. The boy was never seen again.
Today, there are two kinds of disbelievers in the world. First there are disbelievers with a holy book (people of the book). They are Jews and Christians. They believe in Resurrection and in eternal life after death.
Second, there are disbelievers without a holy book, that is, mushriks who do not believe in one Allah, who makes everything. Some of these disbelievers, by using State oppression, cruelty and torture, prohibit worshipping, and the teaching of religion. And some of them, through words that provoke feelings of goodness and humanity, cause others to fall into debauchery. They also cause them to be deprived of moral and religious knowledge. Putting forth false stories and mendacious examples, they deceive millions of people. They train them as religiously ignorant people. In other words, on the one hand, they talk about civilization, science and human rights, and, on the other hand, they animalize human beings.
The people of Europe and America have holy books. Copernicus, the founder of modern astronomy, was a priest in Freienburg. Bacon, the great physicist of England, was a priest belonging to the Franciscan Church. The famous French physicist Pascal was a priest and wrote religious books while exploring the laws of physics and geometry. The famous Richelieu, who was France's greatest prime minister and the one who brought France to the leading position in Europe, was a high ranking clergyman. Also Schiller, the great German doctor and poet, was a priest. Bergson, the French thinker and a world-famous philosopher, in his books defended spirituality against the attacks of materialists. Those who read his books MatlÅre et MÅmomiera, Les deux Sources de la Morale et de la Religion and Essai sur les DonnÄes ImmÄdiates de la Conscience will eagerly believe in religion and the next world.
William James, the great American philosopher, founded the sect of pragmatism; and in his book Religious Experiments and others, he praised being a believer. French doctor Pasteur, who had studied on infectious diseases, bacteria and various vaccinations, willed that his funeral be performed with a religious ceremony. Finally, F.D. Roosevelt, an American President, who administered the world in the Second World War, and the British Prime Minister Churchill were Christian believers. Many scientists and politicians, whose names we cannot remember, were all persons who believed in the Creator, the next world, and angels. Who can ever claim that those who disbelieve are wiser than these people? They would have been good Muslims if they had seen and read Islamic books. But reading, even touching, Islamic books was prohibited and even deemed a grave sin by their priests. Those priests prevented people from attaining happiness both in the world and in the Hereafter. Please see the twenty-sixth chapter, about Social Justice, Socialism, and Capitalism, in the Second Part (of the Turkish version).
Imam-i Ali (radi-Allahu 'anh), said "Muslims believe in the next world. Disbelievers without a holy book deny it. If there weren't a resurrection, disbelievers would not gain anything and Muslims would not suffer any harm. But since what disbelievers believe will not happen, they will suffer eternal torment." Islamic scholars prove their words true and respond to the attacks of disbelievers through reason, knowledge and science. Could Resurrection be denied if Muslims did not prove their words to be true? Even if being under eternal torment were only a probability, whichever wisdom would risk it? Nevertheless, torments in the next world are not only a probability, but an obvious fact. Then, it is unwise not to believe.
And some enemies of Islam, seeing that through reason and knowledge they won't be able to vitiate the sound iman of the people and that they only display their own disgrace, resort to tricks and lies. They pretend to be Muslims, write false articles that seem to like and praise Islam; but in these articles and words of theirs, by disputing the essential and basic principles of Islam, they cast a bad light on them as if they were not a part of Islam. They try to alienate and estrange the readers and audience from them. Thinking of the times for, amounts of, and kinds of worships, which Allahu ta'ala has commanded as inappropriate, they believe it would be better if worships were done in another way. Knowing nothing of the delicacies, uses and values that are hidden in the inner soul of worships, they consider them as a medium for simple and primitive functions; and they act as if they are trying to correct them. It is a defect in men not to know something; it is all the more funny and pathetic to interfere with something that one doesn't understand. And the Muslims who obey and believe such ignorant people, supposing them to be wise are even poorer and more stupid. And some of these insidious and ignorant disbelievers say, "Yes, Islam commands developing good habits, being healthy, working hard, and it prohibits evils and matures people. These are necessary for every nation. Yet there are also social rules, the rights of family and community in Islam. These were established in accordance with the circumstances of ancient times. Today, nations have grown larger, circumstances have changed and needs have increased. New rules and laws are necessary to meet today's technical and social improvements. Rules in the Qur'an cannot meet these needs." Such words are the absurd and out-of-place thoughts of the ignorant who do not know of Islamic laws and Islamic knowledge. Islam has declared clearly what justice and cruelty are, what rights and duties people have towards one another, families and neighbors towards one another, people towards the government, and governments towards one another. Islam states what a crime is, and it has put basic rules upon these unchangeable concepts. It has not limited the practicing of these unchangeable rules on all events and happenings, but has commanded them to be practiced according to common usage. In the book Durar-ul- Hukkam, an explanation of Majalla, from article 36 onward, it is written: "The rules depending upon a Nass (Ayat-i karimas or Hadith ash-Sharifs with clear meanings) or a Dalil (proof) do not change in the course of time; however, the rules depending upon customs and common usage may change with time. The Hukm-i Kulli (general rule) does not change, but its application to events may change in time. In worship, 'common usage' becomes dalil in order to give clarity and to inform people of a rule which is not declared by a Nass. To classify a custom as 'common usage', it must originate from the time of the Sahaba-i Kiram, and it must be known that it has been used by the Mujtahids and that it has continued to be used. In the rules of Muamalat (transactions), the customs prevailing in a region which don't contradict a Nass also become dalil. These can be understood by the 'alims of fiqh. Allahu ta'ala has established the Islamic religion in such a manner that it addresses every new development and invention in every country. Showing toleration and indulgence not only in social life, but also in worships, the Islamic religion has given men freedom and the right of ijtihad when confronted with different conditions and necessities. During the times of Hadrat 'Umar, the Umayyads and in such a big empire as the Ottoman Empire, large communities of various peoples, spread over continents, were administered with these divine rules. Muslim accomplishments and glories have been famous throughout history. And in the future, every nation, big or small, will attain comfort, peace and happiness in proportion to the extent to which it obeys and practices these unchangeable divine rules. Nations and societies which deviate from the social and economic rules declared by Islam will not escape hardships, suffering and calamity. It is written in history that this has been so with nations in the past, and so will it certainly be in the future. History is repetitive.
Muslims should attach great importance to national unity and solidarity; they should be extremely active materially and morally in making their country stronger; they should learn the teachings of the Islamic religion very well; they should abstain from the harams; and they should pay their debts to Allahu ta'ala and His born servants. They should be ornamented with the beautiful morals of Islam and should not cause harm to anybody. They should not be a means of agitation or anarchy, and they should pay their taxes. Our religion, Islam, wants us to behave in such a manner. The first obligation of a Muslim is to abstain from being guilty according to the law and from sinning by not following Satan or one's nafs, and by not believing bad, insidious, disobeying and revolting people. Allahu ta'ala imposed three obligations on His human beings. The first one is a personal obligation. Every Muslim must be well trained, healthy, well mannered, and good tempered. He must perform his ibadats and learn ilm, high-morality, and he must work for halal sustenance. The second obligation is to be carried out within the family. One must observe the rights of his father, mother, children, brothers and sisters. The third obligation concerns those which must be performed within the context of the society. These are the obligations relating to a Muslim's neighbors, teachers, family, the persons employed by him, the government, the state, and the people belonging to different religions and nationalities. It is a must to help everyone, not to insult anybody by saying something evil, not to hurt anyone, to be helpful towards everybody, not to revolt against the state, the government, the laws, to observe everybody's rights, and to pay taxes promptly. Allahu ta'ala did not order us to interfere with governmental and state affairs. Allahu ta'ala ordered us to help the government, not to incite trouble.]
Then, Muslims should feel haya (bashful) towards Allahu ta'ala. Haya is from iman. The bashfulness peculiar to a Muslim is indispensably necessary. It is a must to abhor and believe as wrong and harmful the disbelievers and disbelief and everything outside of Islam, no matter what theory or ideology it is. Allahu ta'ala has commanded us to take jizya from disbelievers; that is, they must pay taxes. The purpose of this is to insult them. This type of insulting is so effective that they cannot wear valuable suits, nor can they adorn themselves out of the fear of having to pay more jizya. They lead a despicable and miserable life. The purpose of jizya is to offend and disgrace disbelievers. The jizya shows the glory and honor of Islam. If the zimmi converted to Islam, he would no longer have to pay jizya. The symptom of iman's existence in a heart is that it dislikes disbelievers. [Disliking is done by the heart. We should live in harmony with disbelievers or any others; we should not cause harm to anybody.]
[Temporary co-operation with disbelievers can be formed only politically and when necessity requires it. Yet this shouldn't go as far as to unite with them, and it should end when the necessity is over.
Question: "We should not distrust or have a bad opinion of anybody; we should not look at his words and actions exposing his disbelief, but those indicating his iman. Iman exists in the heart. Allah knows if there is iman in a heart. No one else knows it. He who says 'disbeliever' about a person with iman in his heart becomes a disbeliever himself. We should regard everybody as a Muslim and love everybody who does not openly speak ill of Islam," is said. Is this point of view correct?
Answer: It is wrong to say we shouldn't distrust anybody. Its correct form is "We shouldn't distrust a Muslim." In other words, when a person, who says that he is Muslim and does not express a word or does not do an action rendering him a disbeliever, says or does something which may mean belief as well as disbelief, we should understand it as belief, and we should not say that he has dissented from the religion. But when a person strives to demolish the religion and to make youngsters kafir, or if he, saying "good" about one of the harams, tries to make it popular so that everybody commits it, or if he says that one of Allahu ta'ala's commands is retrogressive and harmful, he is called "kafir"." Even if he says that he is a Muslim, performs namaz (ritual prayer) and goes on a hajj (pilgrimage), he is still called a Zindiq. It would be stupidity to regard such hypocritical persons, who deceive Muslims, as Muslims.]
Allahu ta'ala in the twenty-eighth ayat of Surat-ut-Tawba of the Qur'an al-karim says, "Najas and rijs," that is, "foul," about disbelievers. Then, disbelief should be foul and base in the eyes of Muslims. Allahu ta'ala declares in the fourteenth ayat of Surat-ur Rad and in the fiftieth ayat of surat-ul Mumin, "The prayers of these enemies are without a result. There is no possibility of them being accepted."
Allahu ta'ala and His Prophet are pleased with Muslims. There cannot be a greater blessing than attaining Allah's consent and love.
As iman and kufr are opposite one another, so are this world and the next. This world and the next world cannot stay together. In order to earn the next world it is necessary to abandon this world, that is, the harams. Abandoning this world can be done in two ways. Firstly, it is to abandon the mubah, that is, many of the activities that are not sins, together with all the things that are haram, and to use as many of the mubahs as is only necessary to live. [In other words, it is to abandon the habits of being lazy or idle and/or diving into pleasures, dissipations and amusements of the world. Instead, we must spend our time worshipping, while making and using the most advanced forms of technology that are necessary for the protection and comfort of Muslims. And we must work so that non- Muslims may come to reason. Working for these purposes must be our hobby in this world. All the Ashab of our Prophet and many of our superiors worked in this way. It is very meritorious and very useful to abandon the world in such a way. We say once more that the purpose of this path is to sacrifice all comforts and pleasures in order to do the things which the Islamic religion commands.]
Secondly, it is to abstain from the things that are haram and dubious in this world without abandoning the mubah. Even this kind of abandoning of the world is of value in light of the present world's condition.
Then, it is positively necessary for each Muslim to abstain from the things which the Islamic religion prohibits.
[He who slights the fact that these are haram, that is, he who does not think it is necessary to abstain from them, or, he who does not pay attention to Allahu ta'ala's prohibitions and instead likes them and says 'How nice,' becomes a disbeliever. They will remain in Hell eternally. Those who admit and respect the prohibitions of Allahu ta'ala yet are overcome and deceived by their nafs and commit them but later come to their senses and repent do not become kafir; they do not lose their iman. Such people are called Asi (disobedient) or Fasiq (sinner). Though perhaps they will go to Hell and will be punished because of their sins, they will not remain in Hell eternally but will get out and enter Paradise.]
There are a lot of things which Allahu ta'ala has made mubah, which He has permitted. The value in these is more than that in the haram. Allahu ta'ala likes those who use the mubah. He dislikes those who use the haram. Does a wise and reasonable person spurn the love of his owner and creator for only a temporary pleasure? Besides, the number of things that are haram is very small. The flavors in the haram, exist in the mubahs, too.
[Dunya (world) is the feminine form of adna, i.e., ism-i tafdil (adjective in the superlative degree). Its masdar (infinitive) is either dunuwwun or danatun. When it is derived from the former, it means 'the nearest'. The word dunya in the ayat, 'We have adorned the lowest (nearest to the Earth) heaven with stars giving lights like lamps' is so. It has been used with the second meaning in some places. For instance, it bears the second meaning in the hadith, "Things that are dani, base, are mal'un." That is, the world is mal'un. Despicable things are the nahy-i iqtiza-i and nahy-i gayr-i-iqtizai of Allahu ta'ala, that is, they are haram and makruh. Property was not spoken ill of because Allahu ta'ala considers property a blessing. The evidence for our position is the property of Hadrat Ibrahim Khalil-ur-Rahman ('alaihi's-salam), who is the second most valuable creation of all creatures and humanity. His livestock included half a million heads of cattle that filled up plains and valleys.]
Disbelievers are of two kinds
20 - Disbelievers have adopted various methods against Islam and parted into branches; yet they are summed up in two groups. Those in the first group do their worldly affairs and their worships and do not attack Muslims. Realizing their inferiority against Islam's strength and greatness, they have accepted to give the jizya, thus accepting asylum in Islam's domination and justice. These disbelievers are called Ahl-i zimmat or Zimmi. It is necessary to dislike disbelievers of this kind and to view them as enemies; yet it is haram to torment them and to hurt their hearts. It is written in the 'Siyar' section of Fatawa-i- Khariyya, "Something which is forbidden for Muslims is forbidden for the zimmis, too. Fornication, eating in public during Ramadan, violating the fast publicly, dancing, music, interest (a percentage of a sum of money loaned to someone or borrowed from someone), going out uncovered are forbidden for them, too. Only alcoholic drinks and pork are not forbidden to them. It is permitted to visit them when they are sick or at other times and to travel together with them." It is written in the subject on 'tazir' [General name for various types of punishment which the Islamic religion inflicts for some crimes. The punishments of tazir is explained in detail in a different chapter in the third fascicle of our book.] in Multaqa and Durr-ul- Mukhtar and in other fiqh [A branch of Islamic knowledge that includes actions commanded, actions prohibited and actions neither commanded nor prohibited.] books, "A Muslim who utters a bad word to disbelievers, such as, "You are an adulterer" or who hurts their hearts by saying 'disbeliever' or who backbites them will be called to tazir, that is, he will be thrashed with a stick, for it is a sin to hurt them. Also, it is a sin to touch their property." It is written in the fifth volume of Durr-ul-Mukhtar: "It is worse to torment the zimmi, who is a non-Muslim compatriot, than it is to torment a Muslim. To mistreat and torture an animal is worse than doing the same thing to a zimmi. It is permitted to greet the zimmi and to shake hands with him in order not to torment him. The case is the same with greeting a sinner who commits sins publicly."
The book Bariqa says while explaining the disasters caused by the hand, "It is permissible to kill ants that do harm to man and his food, provided they will not be tormented or thrown into water. It is permissible to burn wood that has ants inside after shaking it by knocking it down on the ground. It is always permissible to kill mice, lice, fleas, scorpions and locusts. It is makruh to throw lice, while they are alive, on the ground or to burn any living creature. It is permissible to slaughter, shoot or poison a harmful cat, a mad dog or wild beasts with a sharp knife. It is not permissible to thrash them. Thrashing is done in order to teach manners. Since an animal doesn't have reason it cannot be taught manners. In case it is necessary to kill a living thing, it is permissible to kill it by burning it when there is no other way."
It is permissible to excise one of a person's limbs in order to cure a disease like gangrene. It is permissible to incise into the bladder [the kidney and the gall] in order to get stones out. It is never permissible to slap a living thing on the face for any reason.
As for the second group of disbelievers; they cannot stand the brightness of the Islamic sun. They try to demolish the Islamic religion with all their forces and negative propaganda media. These poor people do not realize that to eradicate Islam from the world means to deprive people of happiness, comfort, safety, and to draw themselves and all the humanity into disasters and troubles. In short, it means to cut the ground from under their own feet. Allahu ta'ala, by declaring: "In order to avoid suffering the attacks and torments of disbelievers and in order to enable them to attain endless bliss, work as ceaselessly as is humanly possible. Make the most perfect media of war," in the sixtieth ayat of Surat-ul- Anfal, commands us to honor these disbelievers by helping them to become Muslims or not to meddle with the workings or the worships of those who yield themselves to Islam's protection by accepting the jizya. We must protect the lives, property, and chastity of such people. Thus, He wants the whole world to unite under Islam's flag; He wants everyone to have iman and to love one another. He commands us to establish a justice that will include all those who persist in disbelief even though they understand Islam. We must endeavor to provide comfort for people, animals, the living, the dead, and everything.
Entering Paradise requires following Rasulullah
21 - Escaping Hell in the next world is peculiar only to those who adapt themselves to Hadrad Muhammad 'alaihis-salam'. All the blessings in this world, all inventions, all degrees, all branches of knowledge will be available in the next world on the condition that one has followed the way of Rasulullah. Otherwise, every good deed done by those who do not follow Allah's Prophet will remain in this world, causing their next world to be destroyed. That is, it will be nothing but an istidraj [Allah's inciting a sinner to perdition by granting him success.] disguised in goodness.
Disbelievers' favors remain in this world
22 - As a matter of fact, of all the useful and auspicious deeds in the world, the one which Allahu ta'ala likes best is building a jami' (mosque). There are hadiths explaining that building a jami' will bring about countless blessings. Nevertheless, Allahu ta'ala declares in the eighteenth ayat of Surat-ut-Tawba, "It is not permissible for disbelievers to build a jami (mosque). It is not a reasonable and useful activity. Their building a jami' and all their deeds, which they like, will be useless for them on the Resurrection and, since they do not adapt themselves to Hadrat Muhammad, they will go to Hell and will be punished with very bitter torments eternally."
He declares in the eighty-fifth ayat of Surat-ul Al-i 'Imran, "Allahu ta'ala does not like or accept the religion of those who wish for a religion other than the Islamic religion, which was brought by Hadrat Muhammad. He who turns his back on the Islamic religion will suffer a great loss and will go to Hell in the next world."