While preparing for this lesson, the teacher should consider the Big Book as an opportunity to build story language and demonstrate text reading. Using a pointer placed under the first letter of each word, move through the story with phrasing and fluency as a demonstration for left-to-right and top-to-bottom directionality. When selecting a book prior to reading, consider the use of transitional words in telling the story and pre-read the book. The teacher should think about the transitional words that you will read as you orally tell the story using only the pictures. Think about details that are included in the print that would not be evident from the pictures. Consider how you will explain your story using only picture evidence. Do not tell the fairy tale; tell a story from the pictures.
Key Vocabulary and Concepts
Shared reading: model often uses oversized books (referred to as big books) with enlarged print and illustrations. The teacher reads the book aloud and all of the children who are being read to can see and appreciate the print and illustrations. Transitional words: then, once, next, last, finally
Turn and talk: students turn to their partner to discuss a question or topic
Story language: “Once upon a time”
Nonfiction: Writing that is based on actual persons, places, things, or events.
Concepts of Print The concepts that students need to learn about the conventions and characteristics of written language such as directional movement, one-to-one matching of spoken and printed words, the concept of a letter and a word, book conventions (for example, the book’s title, the name of the author), and the proper way to hold and open a book.
Objective for Lesson C
The student will be able to use transitional words and story language while retelling a narrative story.
The teacher will select a big book to read aloud.
Book baskets containing a variety of familiar picture books and nonfiction books prepared for every two students.
Use overhead with transparency from book if Big Book is not available.
Use computers in centers to allow students to listen to stories.
http://www.learningplanet.com/act/fl/aact/index.asp Demonstration: Select a new big book such as The Gingerbread Man by Paul Galdone. Demonstrate using the pictures to tell a story placing emphasis on transitional words (then, once, next, last, finally) and story language (once upon a time). Make the story language explicit to the students. Say for example, “Finally the Gingerbread Man and the Fox reach a river.” Using the chart paper, make a list of the transitional words that help tell the story. Read text to class fluently, using a pointer to demonstrate left to right and return sweep. Stop at any transitional words and reread the sentence. Explain how the word helped you understand the story.
Engagement: Students turn and talk to a partner: Ask a question; what happened at the beginning of the story? Use transitional words such as once, then, next as you tell the story.
Independent practice: Students working with a partner select a book from book basket and together tell a story using transitional words and story language.
Share: One or two students share the beginning of their story.
(Repeat with similar books on subsequent days for further instruction needs.)
Assessing the Lesson Formative Assessment andSummative Assessment
Use the following bullets to assess student understanding of using pictures to tell a story and support understanding. Use this information to make instructional decisions concerning repeating the lesson whole class or using small group instruction for intervention.
Orally retells a story using pictures.
Orally retells a story using pictures and print.
Orally retells a story including beginning.
Uses transitional words when telling a story.
Differentiates between a picture, a letter and a word.
Asks appropriate questions.
Follows one-step directions.
Assess language development by creating a rubric using the items from the formative assessment checklists or use an assessment tool such as the Oral Language Acquisition Inventory. Examples of rubrics can be found at http://rubistar.4teachers.org.
Extending the Learning Differentiation; Enrichment; Intervention
Learning centers provide opportunities for students to practice skills and strategies that are demonstrated and taught within the reading and writing framework. They allow students to manipulate language in both oral and written form. They engage the learner through interaction, while providing open-ended activities. They enable the teacher to assess the students’ use of literacy strategies.
All centers need to be demonstrated both with engagement and procedures for use. Slowly introduce centers to allow students to fully understand the expectations.
K–4.3Use pictures, letters, or words to tell a story from beginning to end. In a flannel board center provide pictures of previously read stories for children to retell the stories from beginning to end.
K–4.1 Generate ideas for writing by using techniques (for example, participating in conversations and looking at pictures). Provide stacks of small books for journal writing using two sheets of printer paper, folded in half and stapled, forming a four page book. Encourage students to begin drawing pictures that tell a story they generated or a book they read. They can begin a new book or continue one started previously.
K–3.22 Carry out left-to-right and top-to-bottom directionality on the printed page.
A Reading Center provides opportunities for children to listen to books read aloud.
A Listening Center provides opportunities for children to listen to books on CD with matching book sets.
A Morning Message Center provides opportunities for children to read with a pointer.
A Big Book Center allows children to use a pointer to read big books previously shared by the teacher.
K–1.11 Read independently for pleasure. In a reading center, provide a variety of books at various reading levels that are well organized and easily accessible for children to read.
K–2.9 Read independently to gain information.
Provide a center with a variety of books and comfortable seating for students to read independently.
K–3.13 Recognize uppercase and lowercase letters and their order in the alphabet.
In an Alphabet Sort Center (magnetic letters on a cookie sheet), provide letters from names and name cards to match.
Students that are already reading need opportunities to practice with print. Provide small group instruction that allows opportunities for reading and discussion.
Provide small group and one-on-one instruction for students that need more time for oral language development. Provide students that require more experiences with books many opportunities to hear books read to them as well as time to explore books. Provide books on tape, computer generated stories and other opportunities to listen and talk about stories.