Travel and hospitality services



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TRAVEL AND HOSPITALITY SERVICES

UNIT I

Tourism: Concept- Nature of Tourism: Significance of Tourism – Classification –

Tourism in India – Future of Tourism – Basic and Geographical Components of Tourism –Definitions of Tourist and Foreign Tourist – Elements of Tourism.
1.What is Tourism?

Definition of Tourism Concept:

The amorphous nature of tourism has made it difficult to structure its definition. Most of academic writers tend to craft their definitions to suit their specific purposes, here are some examples;

Tourism is Defined as:The temporary movement of people to destinations outside the normal places of work and residence, activities undertaken during their stay in those destinations, and the facilities created to carter for their needs. (Mathieson & Wall, 1982).

Tourism comprises of the activities of persons traveling to, and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business or other purposes. (WTO, 1991)

Tourism is the study of man away from his usual habitat, of the industry which responds to his needs and the impacts that both he and the industry have for the host socio-cultural, economic and environment. (Jaffari, 1991)

Tourism society of England, (1976), defines Tourism as ‘The temporary short-term movement of people to destinations outside places where they normally live and work, their activities during their stay at these destinations. It includes movement for all purposes, as well as day visits or excursions’.

Tourism is defined as ‘ The activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business, and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited’ (WTO AND UNSTAT,1994).

There have been many attempts to define the word tourism .one of the most enduring definitions is that used by the tourism society.

Both of these definitions offer a clear insight into the scope and context of tourism. They demonstrate that it is an activity embracing all aspects of the movement of people away from their normal surroundings and the activities they undertake and facilities they use in their destination areas. More specifically these two definitions demonstrate that people we would cauterize as tourists are:

1. Away from their normal place of residence, though they will be returning home after some point in the future.

2. On a visit that is temporary and short-term, but is not greater than 12 months in duration.

3. Engage in activities that one would normally associated with tourism

4. Not necessarily staying away from home overnight, but merely on a day visit (excursion).

5. Not always away from home for holiday purposes, but may be away from home on business.

In attempt to define tourism it is important to distinguish between those visitors who stay overnight in a destination and those who do not. From technical point of view, domestic/ international visitors who stay at least one night in the place or country visited are known as tourists, where as those who do not stay overnight are categorized as same day visitors, day visitors or excursionists.

Tourism is different from travel. In order for tourism to happen, there must be a displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of transportation (he /she might even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case for poorer societies, and happens even in more develop ones, and concerns pilgrims, hikers…). But all travel is not tourism.

Three criteria are used simultaneously in order to characterize a trip as belonging to tourism.

The displacement must be such that:

It involves a displacement outside the usual environment: this term is of outmost importance.

Type of purpose: the travel must occur for any purpose different from being remunerated from within the place visited: the previous limits, where tourism was restricted to recreation and visiting family and friends are now expanded to include a vast of array of purposes;

Duration: only a maximal duration is mentioned, not a minimal. Tourism displacement can be with or without an overnight stay. This is reflected in the particularity of in transit visits, from a conceptual and statistical point of view.


2.What are the features of tourism?

Features Associated with Tourism .Prosser, (1998) pointed out the following features associated with tourism:

a. Travel/journey

b. Non-permanent stay

c. Activities

-leisure

-business (business meetings, exhibitions & trade fairs)

d. Experience during travel/ stay

e. Resources and facilities required

f. Impacts resulting from travel and stay


3.Define tourist and tourism?

The large sums of money spent and immense value of travel are indicative of the importance of tourism. But, what exactly is a tourist end what is Tourism? The definition is complex.

How we define a tourist depends on what we want to say about him or her, and why

A) To the travel agent:

The tourist is a client purchasing a package tour or a business traveler seeking transportation to a meeting or convention.

B) An International airline may distinguish between a traveler who is likely to prefer a charter package and the one who flies first class on a scheduled airliner. In the eyes of and airline, the kind of ticket purchased may bet the best indicator of the .difference between a pleasure traveler and a business traveler.

C) Once the traveler disembarks, the airline definition gives way to that of the accommodation industry. A hotel may distinguish between the convention delegate who will attend a meeting or meal function at the hotel and the visitor who is likely to use the hotel only as a place to sleep during his or her visit with friends or relative.

D)A local attraction /Event, such as annual circumcision ceremonies / traditional dances (after harvests), will want to make all travelers aware, regardless of how they travel or what accommodation arrangements they have chosen, that the event is taking place and that they, the traveler as well as local and area residents are invited to participate.

E) To the food and beverage industry/service The tourist is a source of increased sales in its year-round outlet and, of economic survival in those seasonally attractive places such as beaches etc.

In attempt to define tourism it is important to distinguish between those visitors who stay overnight in a destination and those who do not. From technical point of view, domestic/ international visitors who stay at least one night in the place or country visited are known as tourists, where as those who do not stay overnight are categorized as same day visitors, day visitors or excursionists.

Tourism is different from travel. In order for tourism to happen, there must be a displacement: an individual has to travel, using any type of transportation (he /she might even travel on foot: nowadays, it is often the case for poorer societies, and happens even in more develop ones, and concerns pilgrims, hikers…). But all travel is not tourism.

However, from the individual point of view, a tourist is one who seeks to get away from home for a change (even a change of place). The family that spends a week in a tent at the same area campground every year may not see themselves as tourists. Nor for example, would school children on a canoe expedition in a remote part of a national park / in a lake look upon themselves as tourist.

The traditional tourist may represent an important proportion but we can not agnate the tourism section with tourists or pleasure related activities alone. The existence featurism industry is primarily geom. The traveler’s desire to experience a change and willingness to spend many in the pursuit of the experience. The tourism industry is composed to those sectors of the economy providing services such as accommodation food and sewerages, transportation and recreation as well as the associated distribution and sales services. It is supplemented by public and private concerns organizing and providing a broad range of events and attractions.

4.Write a note on basic tourism concepts?

• Tourism industry: Leiper (1990), defines Tourism industry ‘ as the range of businesses and organizations involved in delivering the tourism products ‘and in the light of his model of the tourism system; these businesses and organizations represent a key element. These include travel agencies, tour operators, hotels, airlines .they are most found in the destination, must be noted that all are elements of interaction.

In other words Tourism industry may be defined as “

• Travel is defined as “the act of moving” by most dictionaries, has a different definition within the context of the tourism industry. Travel is defined as “the act of moving outside one’s community for business or pleasure but not for commuting or traveling to or from work school”(Gee,Mackens&Choy,1989,p.12). With respect to travel s an industry, there must also be the creation of economic value resulting fro the travel activity.

• Traveler –any person on trip between two or more locations (WTO, 1995b, p.17).

• Tourist (overnight visitor)-is a visitor staying at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited.

• Same Day Visitor (Excursionist) -is a visitor whom does not spend a night in a collective or private accommodation in the place visited. A Day trip to Bagamoyo town or a day in Mikumi National Park. Note that, not all travelers are tourists basing on the definition of tourists the following are excluded migrant workers, nomads, diplomats, refugees, soldiers in military mission, etc.

• Visitor –any person traveling to a place other than that of his/her usual environment for less than 12 consecutive months and whose main purpose of travel is not to work for pay in the place visited.

• Residents: A person who has lived in a country for at least twelve consecutive months prior to arrival in another country for a period not exceeding one year .

• Recreation refers to any activity in which one is engaged in during leisure time. There are both home (indoor) based and outdoor recreational activities. Home based include watching TV, listening to music, gardening. Outdoor activities include; visiting friends and relatives, excursions.

• An attraction –refers to anything that draws the attention of people.

• Tourist attraction-refers to anything that draws the attention of the tourists. It can be an event, an object, a natural and/or a man-made thing. For a feature to be an attraction needs to or must have a unique feature. A tourist attraction can be a place where tourists both local and foreign visit.

The tourist attraction range from being an event such Saba Saba trade fair, an activity like game viewing, sport hunting, a place like historical towns like bagamoyo, national parks, an entertainment like traditional dances, music, places like slave market (Zanzibar& bagamoyo), Jozan forest, spice farm in Zanzibar, historical buildings at kilwa, makumbusho village, oldvai gorge, animals, plants, climate, dolphin view, snorkeling, etc.

• Tourist destination.

Is a geographical unit/area visited by a many tourists, it may be a country, region,a village, a town, a city, islands, National park, forest etc.

• Tourist product.

Tourist product is an amalgam of what a person does and experience and of the services he uses and products he purchases during his or her trip. E.g. these elements may be services of the travel agent or tour operators, hotel, pub, restaurant, transportation operators and other tourist services like gift shops.

• Hospitality industry.

Hospitality is a reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers with liberality and good will. Hospitality sector is made up of business which practice the act of being hospitable, those business are characterized by generosity and friendliness to guest. Examples includes Hotels, casinos, cruise ships liners, resorts, restaurants, fast foods, pubs, bars, recreation facilities such as amusement parks, theme parks, etc.

• Leisure

One of the approaches of defining the word leisure “leisure as time” time available to an individual after sleep and other basic needs have been met. Time spent in non compulsory activities such as employment, running a business, household responsibilities, education, eating, sleeping it is referred to us as a "free time". In other words leisure is time spent in non-compulsory activities. The philosophy of leisure and leisure time are thought to have emerged in the late nineteenth century with the rise of mechanized industry. Machines made work more efficient, and the typical worker's week was cut by over twenty hours. In turn, workers increasingly engaged in non-compulsory activities such as sporting events or theater etc .


5.What are the types of leisure?

Leisure can be divided into two types namely:

a) Active leisure:

Active leisure implies a preferred exertion of energy. This involves active recreation activities such as swimming, mountain climbing, hunting, engaging in various sports activities i.e. football, netball, tennis, golf etc. People can participate in sport for fun rather than for competition.

b) Passive leisure:

Passive leisure implies a desire to refrain from exerting energy. Such as lounging, "doing nothing". It is viewed by many people as wasting of time. Passive leisure that is not enjoyable can lead to boredom. Some moral codes frown upon this type of leisure, while others celebrate it.


6.What are the categories of travelers?

Travelers:

Travelers refer to any persons on a trip between two or more locations. It can be noted that not all travelers are tourists and this include refuges, nomads, border workers, diplomats, transit passengers etc.

There are four major categories of travelers namely:

a) A visitor

Is a person traveling to another country or within his same country for less than one year other than the purpose of being paid for. Visitors can be divided in to two categories,

i) External Visitors

These are people who travel for a period not exceeding twelve month to a country other than the one in which they generally reside and whose main purpose is other than the exercise of an activity paid from within the place visited. A visitor from Brazil visit Tanzania.

ii) Internal Visitors

These are visitors who travel to a destination within his own country that is outside his usual environment for a period not exceeding twelve month. A visitor from Mwanza visit Tanga city.

b) Tourist:

A tourist is a visitor who travels to a country other than his or her own country or who travels to a place within his some country but outside usual environment for at least one night but not spend more than one year and not for the purpose of working for pay. Example tourist from Sweden visit Manyara national park for one week or a tourist from Kigoma Region visit Mbeya city. Tourist can sub divided into two categories namely;

i) International Tourists;

These are the foreigners visiting another country for a period of at least twenty four hours for example tourists from Japan visiting tourist attractions in Tanzania.

ii. Domestic Tourists.

These are the visitors of the same country visiting destination in their own country for instance a tourist from Mwanza visiting Zanzibar town or Mikumi National Park. Tourist can also be divided according to the purpose of their visit. Under this category we have three categories namely.

ii) Business Tourists or Travelers.

These are the people who may travel for business activities such as attending business meeting, conference, seminars or making business transaction etc.

iv. Leisure /Recreation Tourist.

These are visitors, tourist who travel typically for holiday. Their main rationale for travel is absolutely leisure. The activities which they might undertake in their destination include game viewing, bird watching, mountain climbing, visiting various cultural attractions etc.

v. Other travelers / Tourists.

These are travelers who travel for other purpose like study, research, health/medical, religion etc.


7.What are the forms and categories of tourism?

Just like as there are different types of visitors, there are different forms and categories of tourism which take place, varying by tourist, destination, and motive for tourism (travel), such as international versus domestic, Inbound versus outbound tourism, national and internal tourism.


International and Domestic tourism

According to the WTO, international tourism differs from domestic tourism and occurs when the tourist crosses a country’s border. Not every international traveler is a visitor, however. The traveler is a visitor only if the trip takes him or her outside the usual environment for example workers who cross border for employment are not considered visitors. The interest in international tourism has always been strong primarily for economic reasons, as this form tourism plays an important role in trade and monetary flows among nations.

For any given country the world tourism organization (UNWTO) suggests that there are three basic forms of tourism namely;

1. Domestic tourism

• Involves residents of the given country traveling within their own country.

• Tourism of resident visitors within the economic territory of the country of reference.

For example Tanzanian residents traveling to different destinations within Tanzania for tourism purposes, Arusha to Dare s salaam.

2. Inbound tourism

• Involving non-residents traveling in the given country.

• Tourism of non-resident visitors within the economic territory of the country of reference.

For example, Europeans, Americans traveling to Africa for the purpose of engaging in tourism related activities. Tourists from America taking part in game drives, SCUBA diving, photographic safaris, balloon safaris etc.

3. Outbound tourism

• Involving resident of a given country traveling in another country.

• Tourism of resident visitors outside the economic territory of the country of reference for example Tanzanian residents visiting Kenya for the purpose of taking part in tourism related activities.

These basic forms of tourism can be combined in a variety of ways to derive the categories of tourism shown below. With this figure it is possible to identify three principal categories of tourism.

However, some scholars categorize tourism into six forms:

i. National tourism: is the tourism of resident visitors, within and outside the economic territory of the country of reference.

ii. Internal tourism: is the tourism of visitors, both resident and non-resident, within the economic territory of the country of reference.

iii. International tourism: this comprises of inbound and outbound tourism, movement of tourists across borders

iv. Domestic tourism

• Involves residents of the given country traveling within their own country.

• Tourism of resident visitors within the economic territory of the country of reference.

For example Tanzanian residents traveling to different destinations within

Tanzania for tourism purposes, Arusha to Dar -es-salaam.

v. Inbound tourism

• Involves non-residents traveling in the given country.

• Tourism of non-resident visitors within the economic territory of the country of reference.

For example, Europeans, Americans traveling to Africa for the purpose of engaging in tourism related activities. International visitors/tourists engage in game drives, SCUBA diving, photographic safaris, and balloon safaris while in Tanzania etc.

vi. Outbound tourism

• Involves resident of a given country traveling in another country.

• Tourism of resident visitors outside the economic territory of the country of reference. For example Tanzanian residents visiting Kenya for the purpose of taking part in tourism related activities, similarly foreign visitors are statistically recorded as outbound tourists in their countries of origin.


8.What are the types of tourism ?

All types of tourism in India have registered phenomenal growth in the  last decade ever since the Indian government decided to boost revenues  from the tourism sector by projecting India as the ultimate tourist  spot.


The reason why India has been doing well in all types of tourism in  India is that India has always been known for its hospitality, uniqueness, and charm – attributes that have been attracting foreign travelers to  India in hordes. The Indian government, in order to boost tourism of  various kinds in India, has set up the Ministry of Tourism and Culture. This ministry recently launched a campaign called ‘Incredible India!’ in order to encourage different types of tourism in India.
The result was that in 2004, foreign tourists spent around US$ 15.4 billion during their trips to India. Being a country with tremendous diversity, India has a lot to offer in terms of tourism and related activities. The diversity that India is famous for, ensures that there is something to do for all tourists in India, no matter what their interests.

The different types of tourism in India are as follows:




HeritageTourism
India has always been famous for its rich heritage and ancient culture. So the onset of heritage tourism in India was long anticipated. India’s glorious past and cultural diversity make a potent blend which attracts millions of tourists each year to its heritage tourist attractions. The government of India and the Ministry of Tourism and Culture encourage heritage tourism in India by offering several benefits to the Indian states that are particularly famous for attracting tourists.

India's rich heritage is amply reflected in the various temples, palaces, monuments, and forts that can be found everywhere in the country. This has led to the increase in India's heritage tourism. The most popular heritage tourism destinations in India are:


  • Taj Mahal in Agra

  • Mandawa castle in Rajasthan

  • Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu

  • Madurai in Tamil Nadu

  • Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh

  • Delhi, the Indian capital

Taj Mahal was built by a grief stricken Emperor Shahjahan as a memorial to his beloved wife Mumtaj Mahal.A world-renowned wonder, Taj Mahal Sits pretty on the northern side of this green paradise. It looks the same from all the four sides! The Quranic inscriptions on its four entrances are carved in such subtle increase in size that may appear to be of the same size from top to bottom! Shahjahan invited master craftsmen from as far as Italy and Persia to help design his ambitious tribute to love.The Taj Mahal is phenomenal not in the beauty alone that shines forth, but in the deep planning and design that went into its making, and the ethereal idea of immortalizing love. Delicate carvings in marble vie with gorgeous pietra dura for attention. Lapiz, Lazuli, Carnation, Mother of pearl, Agate and Emerald are inlayed in floral and geometrical patterns in the marble itself. This enchanting mausoleum, on the bank of river Yamuna started in 1631 it took 22 years to complete with the help of an estimated 20000 workers.The Mandawa castle in Rajasthan, built in 1775 reflects India's rich heritage and attracts thousands of tourists each year to Rajasthan which seems especially popular for its antique paintings, jade jewelry, palaces, and costumes. Mahabalipuram has sculptural and architectural sites which are considered the greatest in India. Mahabalipuram has cave temples that have been carved from granite blocks and belong to the 7th century. This is the primary reason why many heritage tourists in India visit this place.

The tourism of heritage in India has also increased due to the interest of many foreigners in the temples of India. Madurai is known as the  ‘temple city’ due to the presence of a large number of temples in the city. And for this reason, many tourists go and visit the place each year. The most important temple in Madurai is the Meenakshi temple.

Heritage tourism India has also been popularized because a lot of tourists go to Delhi which is not only the capital of India but also has many heritage sites. The most famous heritage sites in Delhi are the Red fort, Jama Masjid, Humayun's tomb, and Tughlaqabad fort.

Heritage tourism India has grown in recent years but there is scope for further development which can be attained only through combined  efforts of the government of India and the tourism boards.


Ecotourism


Ecotourism India has developed recently, for the concept itself is a relatively new one. Ecotourism entails traveling to places that are renowned for their natural beauty and social culture, while making sure not to damage the ecological balance.

Ecotourism pertains to a conscious and responsible effort to preserve the diversity of a naturally endowed region and sustaining its beauty  and local culture. Indians have been known since ages to worship and conserve nature. So the growth of ecotourism in India is but natural. Also the government of India has set up the Ministry of Tourism and Culture to promote ecotourism in India alongside other types of tourism.

Ecotourism in India has grown significantly in recent years in India since the country has a diverse geography which led to the development of  many tourists destinations. These various destinations not only de-stress the tourists but also rejuvenate them. There are various ways in which tourists can enjoy nature in India. And this has given ecotourism in India a major boost.

Places such as Kerala, Lakshdweep Islands, the Himalayan region, north-east India, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands are some destinations in


 India where tourists can participate in ecotourism-related activities. In Kerala, Thenmala is a planned ecotourism spot and is the first of its kind in India. Great care has gone into the care and preservation of Thenmala so that it caters to nature lovers and eco- tourists.

Eco-tourists have been thronging India in large numbers for it has a rich source of flora and fauna. A great number of endangered and rare species are also to be found in the various national parks in India. The major national parks in India for ecotourism are:



  • Corbett National Park in Uttar Pradesh
  • Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh


  • Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh

  • Gir National Park and Sanctuary in Gujarat

  • Ranthambore National Park in Rajasthan

Ecotourism India has increased in the last few years. The government of India and Ministry of Tourism need to make concerted efforts to ensure  that ecotourism in India is able to keep pace with ecotourism destinations across the world and making sustainable tourism a priority.

Adventure Tourism


Adventure tourism has recently grown in  India. This involves exploration of remote areas and exotic locales and  engaging in various activities. For adventure tourism in India,  tourists prefer to go for trekking to places like Ladakh, Sikkim and Himalaya. Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir are popular for the skiing facilities they offer. Whitewater rafting is also catching on in India and tourists flock to places such as Uttranchal, Assam, and Arunachal Pradesh for this adrenalin-packed activity.

Wildlife Tourism


India has a rich forest cover which has some beautiful and exotic  species of wildlife – some of which that are even endangered and very rare. This has boosted wildlife tourism in India. The places where a foreign  tourist can go for wildlife tourism in India are the Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary, Keoladeo Ghana National Park, and Corbett National Park.

Pilgrimage Tourism

India is probably the ultimate destination of all kinds of pilgrims following any faith around the world. The great religions like Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Islam, Christianity and Sikhism are the integral part of Indian culture and heritage whose values and faiths are mingled with the air, soil and the sky of India. You can feel the blissful serenity of the Indian atmosphere where Lord Buddha, Mahabir Jain, Shri Sathya Sai Baba and Guru Nanak once walked turning the Indian soil pious and blessed at the different circle of time wheel. There are numerous destinations in India which are considered sacred by people following different faith because of their religious importance. A visit to the Kedarnath or Badrinath will take you to the Himalayas which is believed to be the abode of 330 million gods and goddesses and you can feel the immense divinity in the air itself. It is widely believed that after breathing in the holy atmosphere of Varanasi or Haridwar or taking a dip into the sacred Pushkar Lake or river Ganges washes away the sins and helps one to attain nirvana (salvation). The divine Buddha pilgrimages, Bodhgaya and Sarnath are the destinations of thousands of Buddhist pilgrims every year coming from each and every corner of the earth.



9.Write a note on future of tourism ?

Tourism is a growing industry in India. Hoteliering as well as tourism account for the major foreign earnings for our nation. The declining value of the rupee and a good image of India as an exotic tourist destination have boosted the tourism and hotel industry in India during the late nineties.

It is very surprising to note that small countries like Indonesia, Mauritius, Seyshells, Malaysia, Hong Kong and Thailand have been able to do very well on the tourism front. India is the ancient cultural cradle of the world. It has fascinating tourist destinations like the Taj Mahal, The Khajuraho temples, the marble mountains, The Gateway of India, the Red fort and the Qutub Minar, The Ajmer Palace, The Bharatpur, Bird Sanctuary, The city of Canals and many more. We Indians are also not aware of the beauty of our country. Our ancient cities, palaces, lakes, temples, gardens, minarets, mosques, and lakes mountains delightful experiences for all the travelers as well as visitors. The foreign tourist longs for a tryst with India and loves to visit each and every corner of this vast country.

Our tourism exchange earnings are less than $1.5 billion and account of 0.5 percent of the total tourism traffic of the world. On the other hand, the tourism earnings of Singapore are $34 billion. The same figures are $6.5 billion for Malaysia. The facts do not point towards a healthy trend. We have not to depend merely upon the dollars – rupee parity but also, we have to generate enough of interest about the Indian subcontinent in the minds of the tourists so that they continue to come here and enjoy being here.

The problem of Kashmir has not been solved. Ten years before many tourists were kidnapped and a few of them were killed by the Kashmiri militants. Although the situation is under control, yet the army has to keep strict vigil over the sea. Therefore, the inflow of tourists is less. The situation is much better now and many Indians and foreigners visited Kashmir.

Central India, The North Eastern states, Calcutta, Mumbai, New Delhi, Khajuraho, and Goa are the most popular tourist destinations. Rajasthan is paradise for the foreigners and this state provides a wide range of cultural and ethnic diversities to the visitors.

The foreign tourists are appalled at the state of Indian catering services, roads, guides services, hotels motels, and transportation services and above all, the degrading environment of the Indian subcontinent. We would have to provide four star amenities to the tourists at the prices of three state standards. If we do not follow this norm, we would lose tourists to the United States of America, Seychells, Mauritius, Singapore, Thailand, Hongkong, and Japan. These countries offer entertainment, good quality rooms, and transportation, liquor, as well as food, at the most competitive prices. They follow international tourism norms in terms of catering, hospitality, and hygiene. We do not follow any norms and this leads to aversion on the part of the tourists from India.

It is fortunate to note that hotel management and tourism have become serious subjects as well as vocations. The government as well as the private institutions has launched many courses in tourism as well as hotel management. The professionals in tourism and travel are required by tour operators as well as airlines. The sea cruisers and airlines also need hospitality staff and chefs are required around the world. Hotel professionals are also in great demand. This would boost the hotel industry as well as the economy.


The services of tourist guides, catering, roads, air travel, sanitation, transportation, and telecommunications would have to be operated on professional grounds. The international agency is doing well to promote and regulate air travel around the world. The Government of India is also doing its best. The participation of the private firms has also increased. However, a lot needs to be done in this crucial area. We can earn a lot through tourism as well as hotel industries. Our outlook and approach would have to be professionalized if we want to achieve concrete results in this fastest growing industry.


UNIT II

India – A Tourist Destination- Tourism Marketing: the concept – users of Tourism

Services – Product Planning and Development – Market Segmentation for Tourism – Marketing Information System for Tourism

1.Write a note on Indian tourism?

The Taj Mahal is one of India's best-known sites and one of the best architectural achievements in India. Located in Agra, it was built between 1631 and 1653 by Emperor Shah Jahan in honor of his wife, Arjumand Banu, more popularly known as Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal serves as her tomb.

The Mahabodhi Temple A 2000 year old temple dedicated to Gautam Buddha in Bodh Gaya. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Nalanda Vishvavidyalaya, located in the Indian State of Bihar, was a Buddhist center of learning from 427 C.E to 1197 C.E partly under the Pala Empire.[13][14] It has been called "one of the first great universities in recorded history.".[14] According to historical studies the University of Nalanda was established 450 C.E under the patronage of the Gupta emperors, notably Kumaragupta.[13]


The Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur, Tamil nadu built by the Cholas, this temple is one of India's most prized architectural sites.

The Airavateswara temple located in the town of Darasuram, near Kumbakonam, Tamil nadu.

The Shore Temple, along with the collection of other monuments in Mahabalipuram, Tamil nadu have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

The Golden Temple is one of the most respected temples in India and the most sacred place for Sikhs. The Golden Temple is located in Amritsar, Punjab, India.

The Bahá'í temple in Delhi, was completed in 1986 and serves as the Mother Temple of the Indian Subcontinent. It has won numerous architectural awards and been featured in hundreds of newspaper and magazine articles. (It is also known as the Lotus Temple.)

The Hawa Mahal in Jaipur also known as Palace of Winds is major attraction in Jaipur.

The Taj Mahal Palace is an icon of Mumbai.

The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata



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