Учебно-методическое пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому языку для студентов специальности «Финансы и контроль в сфере таможенной деятельности»

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Techniques

Some facial recognition algorithms identify faces by extracting landmarks, or features, from an image of the subject's face. For example, an algorithm may analyze the relative position, size, and/or shape of the eyes, nose, cheekbones, and jaw. These features are then used to search for other images with matching features. Other algorithms normalize a gallery of face images and then compress the face data, only saving the data in the image that is useful for face detection. A probe image is then compared with the face data. One of the earliest, successful systems is based on template matching techniques applied to a set of salient facial features, providing a sort of compressed face representation.

A newly emerging trend, claimed to achieve previously unseen accuracies, is three-dimensional face recognition. This technique uses 3-D sensors to capture information about the shape of a face. This information is then used to identify distinctive features on the surface of a face, such as the contour of the eye sockets, nose, and chin. One advantage of 3-D facial recognition is that it is not affected by changes in lighting like other techniques. It can also identify a face from a range of viewing angles, including a profile view.

Another emerging trend uses the visual details of the skin, as captured in standard digital or scanned images. This technique, called skin texture analysis, turns the unique lines, patterns, and spots apparent in a person’s skin into a mathematical space. Tests have shown that with the addition of skin texture analysis, performance in recognizing faces can increase 20 to 25 percent.

Notable users and deployments

The London Borough of Newham, in the UK, previously trialled a facial recognition system built into their borough-wide CCTV system. The German Federal Police use a facial recognition system to allow voluntary subscribers to pass fully automated border controls at Frankfurt Rhein-Main international airport. Subscribers need to be European Union or Swiss citizens. Since 2005 the German Federal Criminal Police Office offers centralized facial recognition on mug shot images for all German police agencies. Recognition systems are also used by casinos to catch card counters and other blacklisted individuals.

Pennsylvania Justice Network searches crime scene photographs and CCTV footage in the mug shot database of previous arrests. A number of cold cases have been resolved since the system became operational in 2005. Other law enforcement agencies in the USA and abroad use arrest mug shot databases in their forensic investigative work. U.S. Department of State operates one of the largest face recognition systems in the world with over 75 million photographs that is actively used for visa processing.

In addition to being used for security systems, authorities have found a number of other applications for facial recognition systems. While earlier post 9/11 deployments were well publicized trials, more recent deployments are rarely written about due to their covert nature.

At Super Bowl XXXV in January 2001, police in Tampa Bay, Florida, used Identix’ facial recognition software, FaceIt, to search for potential criminals and terrorists in attendance at the event. (it found 19 people with pending arrest warrants).

Comparative study


Among the different biometric techniques facial recognition may not be the most reliable and efficient but its great advantage is that it does not require aid from the test subject. Properly designed systems installed in airports, multiplexes, and other public places can identify individuals among the crowd. Other biometrics like fingerprints, iris, and speech recognition cannot perform this kind of mass scanning. However, questions have been raised on the effectiveness of facial recognition software in cases of railway and airport security.

Criticisms

Weaknesses


Face recognition is not perfect and struggles to perform under certain conditions. Ralph Gross, a researcher at the Carnegie Mellon Robotics Institute, describes one obstacle related to the viewing angle of the face: "Face recognition has been getting pretty good at full frontal faces and 20 degrees off, but as soon as you go towards profile, there've been problems." Other conditions where face recognition does not work well include poor lighting, sunglasses, long hair, or other objects partially covering the subject’s face, and low resolution images.

Another serious disadvantage is that many systems are less effective if facial expressions vary. Even a big smile can render in the system less effective. For instance: Canada now allows only neutral facial expressions in passport photos.


Effectiveness

Critics of the technology complain that the London Borough of Newham scheme has, as of 2004, never recognized a single criminal, despite several criminals in the system's database living in the Borough and the system having been running for several years. "Not once, as far as the police know, has Newham's automatic facial recognition system spotted a live target." This information seems to conflict with claims that the system was credited with a 34% reduction in crime - which better explains why the system was then rolled out to Birmingham also.

An experiment by the local police department in Tampa, Florida, had similarly disappointing results. "Camera technology designed to spot potential terrorists by their facial characteristics at airports failed its first major test at Boston's Logan Airport".

Privacy concerns


Despite the potential benefits of this technology, many citizens are concerned that their privacy will be invaded. Some fear that it could lead to a “total surveillance society,” with the government and other authorities having the ability to know where you are, and what you are doing, at all times. This is not to be an underestimated concept as history has shown that states have typically abused such access before.

III. Decide which of the following statements are correct and provide the information for them.

    1. A facial recognition system is method of identifying or verifying a person using photo cameras.

    2. A facial recognition system is used in a criminal and terrorist search.

    3. Some facial recognition algorithms identify faces by extracting landmarks, or features, from an image of the subject's face.

    4. There are different types of facial recognition algorithms.

    5. A facial recognition system is used in many countries.

    6. Facial recognition is the most reliable and efficient method.

    7. There are some points for criticism of a facial recognition system.

    8. Privacy concerns are grounded.


IV. Give the main point of the article in 5-6 sentences. You may use the following clichés:

The article is devoted to…

The importance of … is stressed.

There is no doubt that …



TEXT D. SMARTGATE

I. Read the article and give the summary of it.

What is SmartGate?

SmartGate gives eligible travellers (New Zealand and Australian citizens) arriving into New Zealand international airports the option to self-process through passport control. It uses the electronic information in the e-Passport and facial recognition technology to perform the customs and immigration checks that are usually conducted by a Customs officer.

Who can use SmartGate?


If you are travelling to New Zealand, hold a New Zealand or Australian e-Passport and are over 18, you will have the option of using SmartGate.

Will trans-Tasman travellers still need a passport to enter Australia or New Zealand?


Travellers will still need a valid passport when travelling between Australia and New Zealand, and will be subject to the existing compliance checks by border agencies in both countries. Only e-Passports can be used in the SmartGate kiosks. Travellers without e-Passports will still have to present themselves to border officials at the airport.

When will SmartGate be implemented?


  • December 2009: operational at Auckland International Airport for arriving passengers.

  • Mid-2010: operational at Wellington and Christchurch international airports for arriving passengers

  • December 2010: operational at Auckland International Airport for departing passengers

  • Mid-2011: operational at Wellington and Christchurch international airports for departing passengers.

Do travellers have to apply or register to use SmartGate?


No. To use SmartGate, you simply need to hold an Australian or New Zealand e-Passport and be aged 18 years or over.

Does SmartGate mean it’s easier for risky people to get into New Zealand?


No. Existing security checks will continue to apply.

How does SmartGate work?

SmartGate is a simple, two-step process involving a kiosk and a gate. The kiosk checks if you are eligible to self-process. The gate performs the identity check and clearance.  

Step 1 – kiosk

  • At the kiosk, place your e-Passport into the reader as shown on the screen

  • Answer questions using the touch screen

  • The kiosk checks your eligibility to self-process

  • If you are eligible, the kiosk will issue a ticket

  • You must hold onto this ticket for use at step 2.  

Step 2 – gate 


  • At the gate insert the ticket into the reader

  • Look directly at the camera and follow the instructions on the screen

  • The gate performs the identity check and final clearance activities

  • If the images match, the ticket is re-issued and you can proceed through the gate

  • Take your ticket, collect your luggage, and hand in your SmartGate ticket and incoming passenger arrival card at the check point.

What is an e-Passport?


e-Passports are the most recent type of passport and include an electronic microchip containing the same information that is on the passport's photo page. New Zealand and Australian e-Passports are identified by the gold international passport symbol on the front cover.

Will all travellers with e-Passports have to go through the SmartGate kiosks?


No. e-Passport holders may choose to either go through the SmartGate kiosks or present their passport to Customs at passport control. 

Why is biometric facial recognition technology being used?

Facial recognition is considered the least intrusive biometric measure and has a high degree of accuracy when used for one-to-one matching. The e-Passport photo provides a portable biometric identifier, meaning the traveller does not have to enroll or register.

How does SmartGate help travellers?


SmartGate gives eligible travellers a choice in how they are processed when they arrive in New Zealand from Australia. It provides a secure, efficient way to clear through passport control. SmartGate:

  • gives you the option to process yourself

  • gives Customs and Immigration the ability to process more passengers securely and simply while maintaining the existing standards of border security

  • improves border security by allowing Customs and Immigration officers to focus on more high-risk travellers and increase the security of New Zealand’s border

  • deters the use of forged or stolen passports through its face recognition technology.

Will SmartGate be quicker to use?


It will depend on the number of travellers using SmartGate. SmartGate makes passport control a more efficient process in terms of processing the total number of travellers and should result in reduced queue times for many travellers.

Can travellers wear glasses, hats, burqas, or other headwear?

Prescription glasses can be left on but all travellers should remove sunglasses or headwear as they would if being processed by a Customs officer. For the face matching process to be effective, it is important that travellers look like their passport photo as much as possible. Any religious headwear, burqas, headscarves, or turbans that cover facial features may impede SmartGate's automated identity checking. New Zealand Customs has special arrangements to sensitively complete identity checking for people with religious headwear.

What happens if travellers change their hairstyle or weight, will they have trouble using SmartGate next time?


No. SmartGate has been designed to allow for small changes in appearance.

What happens after travellers pass through SmartGate?


As a SmartGate user, you are still subject to all existing customs, immigration, and biosecurity requirements. You will need to present a completed passenger arrival card and your SmartGate ticket to a border official in the arrivals hall once you have collected your luggage. You must continue to declare any goods subject to government prohibitions or restrictions.

Do travellers still need their passenger arrival card?


Yes. You will need to hand your completed passenger arrival card and SmartGate ticket to a border official after you have collected your luggage.

What is the SmartGate ticket?


The SmartGate ticket is evidence that you have used SmartGate to cross the border. You will need to retain this ticket and present it with your completed passenger arrival card to a Customs officer after you have collected your luggage.

Can airline crews or people travelling on military orders use SmartGate?


Yes. This option is available to them providing they hold an Australian or New Zealand e-Passport and are aged 18 years of over.

How many New Zealanders have e-Passports?


There are more than 1.5 million New Zealand e-Passports in circulation, and every e-Passport holder aged 18 years or over may use their e-Passport for SmartGate.

What personal information is on the e-Passport microchip?

The information on the microchips in the e-Passports is the same as the information on the photo page of the passport, i.e., full name, nationality, birth date, birth place, sex, dates of issue and expiry, and the holder's photograph. There is no other identity information held on the microchip. SmartGate also uses facial recognition software to compare the digitised image in the e-Passport microchip to the face of the person at the gate.

Does this new system mean biometrics are being introduced now?


Electronic biometric records were introduced in the New Zealand e-Passport in 2005. New Zealand e-Passport holders are already able to use the SmartGate facial biometric system deployed in Australian airports. New Zealand will be introducing the same technology.

What if I don’t want to give my biometric details?


The use of SmartGate is optional. People can still use the existing immigration process at passport control.

How secure is the information on the e-Passport chip?


The e-Passport chips are digitally encrypted and can only be read after being unlocked by a special device at the border entry gate at the airport (either the normal Customs gate or at the SmartGate terminals). After the device has read the passport, the image remains unreadable by others.Immigration New Zealand has a big IT upgrade planned – will SmartGate work with that?

Immigration New Zealand is currently investigating how SmartGate can meet future immigration requirements.


How will SmartGate work at the border for Immigration?

SmartGate will automate the immigration checks currently undertaken by Customs officers on behalf of Immigration New Zealand by computerising the face-to-document passport identity check. Passengers will need to carry e-Passports, which already electronically store immigration information.

How does this initiative benefit Immigration New Zealand’s work?


The introduction of SmartGate represents the first step towards a comprehensive approach to managing identity by Immigration New Zealand. The Immigration Bill/Act [the Bill is currently before the House] provides for Immigration New Zealand to make use of biometrics (facial recognition technology, fingerprints, and iris scans) throughout the immigration process, which will improve security and enable some things to be automated.

 

II. What information seemed to you interesting / unbelievable? Do you believe Smartgate can be used in the RB?



TEXT E. CROSSING THE BORDERS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

I. What customs requirements when crossing the border of the Republic of Belarus do you know? What quantities of food/ jewelry do you have the right to transit?

II. Read the article and translate the marked words and phrases.

Entrance to the Republic of Belarus is subject to customs inspection of personal property (accompanied baggage) and motor vehicles. Persons, crossing Belarus in transit, should complete passenger declaration; the modules are available at entry points or handed directly in trains. The declaration requests minimum personal data, goods, currency and vehicles; it is easy to be completed in 3-5 minutes.

No clearance documents are issued for transit vehicles registered in the country of temporary or permanent residence if they were manufactured less than 7 years ago. The period of permanency of such cars in the territory of Belarus is controlled with the marks of customs in persons’ passport. While importing the cars which period form the date of manufacture exceeds seven years, the customs officers issue entry certificate for the vehicle that is valid for multi crossing the border within the period indicated.

Transit vehicles without registration in the state of temporary or permanent residence of the person should be cleared in departure customs, and said document should be available for customs control at entry points to the Republic of Belarus.

Goods not intended for commerce provided the weigh not to exceed 50 kg, are duty free. Customs value of said goods should not exceed EUR 1,000.0, and of the goods are indivisible, it’s NMT EUR 1,200.0.

The list of the goods above is as follows: NMT 1L of strong drinks, 1L of beer, 200 pcs. of cigarettes or 200 g of tobacco or other tobacco goods per person come of age; NMT 5 pcs. of jewelry per person; 1 pc. of wristwatch; 3 types of clothes made of genuine leather and/or of fur; 4 tires for motor vehicles.

Further it should be stressed that certain commodity groups are imposed to duty tax irrespective of their customs value not the weigh: furniture, bodies, trailers, certain construction materials, gas- and electric stoves, air funnels, kitchen machines, sanitary ware items, refrigerators, deep-freezers, dishwashers, laundry washers, sewing-machines, videotape recording equipment, TV sets, computer monitors LCD.

As for food, it’s permitted per person to take the following:


  1. from member-states of CIS subject to seasons:

from June 1st through October 31 total weigh 30 kg inclusive;
from November 1 through May 31 total weigh 50 kg inclusive

  1. from non members of CIS total weigh 5 kg inclusive.

Duty free and without financial guarantees are permitted to be handled one motor vehicle and trailer registered in the country of temporary or permanent residence of the person handling said vehicle.

Motor vehicles without registration are considered as commodities, and their transit handling across customs zone of the Republic of Belarus is permitted with the assurance of duty tax payment (financial guarantees) at the amount subject to the year of manufacture of the vehicles:



  1. 3 years and less in the amount equal to EUR 1,500.0;

  2. over 3 years and under 10 years inclusive, (cubic) capacity under 2,500.0 sm2 in the amount equal to EUR 500.0;

  3. over 3 years and under 10 years inclusive, (cubic) capacity 2,500.0 sm2 in the amount equal to EUR 1,500.0;

  4. over 10 years and under 14 years in the amount equal to EUR 1,500.0;

  5. 14 years and more in the amount equal to EUR 3,000.0.

Deposited guarantee amounts shall be reimbursed by Belarusian departure customs or the customs of destination to the person subject to his application, documents confirming vehicle delivery to the point of destination and their import outside the Republic of Belarus. The sums can be reimbursed directly to the person in cash or transferred to the indicated bank account.

Travelling to and from the Republic of Belarus

In view of the upcoming holiday season we suggest you should be made aware of rules regulating transportation of goods by individuals through the customs border of the Republic of Belarus. You can bring goods, which cost less than $1,000 ($?1,200 for indivisible goods) and weigh less than 50 kg (80 kg for indivisible goods) into Belarus for your own use without paying Belarus tax or duty, except for certain kinds of household appliances, plumbing fixtures, construction materials and television equipment, foodstuffs, vehicle bodies, trailers, furniture and motor vehicles. If the weight of the goods varies between 50 kg and 200 kg (80 kg and 250 kg for indivisible goods), you have to pay a customs duty of 30% of the customs value or at least $2 per 1 kg. If you import more than 200 kg and/or the value exceeds $10,000, you have to pay 60% of the customs value or at least $4 per 1 kg.

A reminder, you can import notebooks and digital photo cameras duty-free if the value of transported goods is under $1,000 or you have temporary export clearance. Video cameras are subject to flat rate customs duties and you are requested to have temporary export clearance when going abroad.

There are no restrictions in weight, cost and quantity terms for export from the Republic of Belarus. However, it is advisable to declare expensive goods as temporary exports to avoid possible problems with facing the $1,000 and 50 kg requirements. You have to fill in two copies of passenger customs declaration, which customs officers need to mark with temporary export authorisation. One of the copies should be kept till re-entry into Belarus.

You have to fill in a ТД-4 passenger customs declaration to declare goods and vehicles transported through the customs border for your own use. One person is entitled to duty-free import of certain goods for personal use.

Personal use goods subject to restricted export and import:


  • You need permit of the Interior Ministry of the Republic of Belarus to export and import military-issue firearms, hunting and sports arms and ammunition, gas spray guns and ammunition, any kind of cold arms, firearms replicas that use dummy charges, special devices and instruments for inflicting bodily injuries or performing paralysing action, gas canisters with irritating, neuroparalytic or poisoning gases;

  • You need permit of the Healthcare Ministry of the Republic of Belarus to export and import narcotic and psychotropic substances;

  • You need permit of the Emergencies Ministry of the Republic of Belarus to export and import aggressive, radioactive, venomous and poisoning substances;

  • You need permit of the Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Ministry of the Republic of Belarus to export and import specimens of wild fauna and flora, which are subject to the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

You need permit of the State Electric Communication Inspection under the Information Technology and Communication Ministry of the Republic of Belarus to import radio electronics. You can import mobile phones without permits.

You need permit of the Culture Ministry of the Republic of Belarus to export cultural valuables.


Goods used for non-commercial purposes, which are banned from export from the Republic of Belarus:

  • wild plants used for medical purposes;

  • endangered varieties of plants and species of animals inscribed on the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus, their parts or derivatives (except those cultivated or bread by man);
  • printed materials or audio, video records, other information carriers containing information which can harm political or economic interests of the Republic of Belarus, its state security, health or citizens’ morality;


  • scrap metal and waste ferrous, non-ferrous and precious metals, including half-finished products;

Goods used for non-commercial purposes, which are banned from import to the Republic of Belarus:

- more than 5 litres of liqueurs, 200 cigarettes or 200 grams of tobacco or tobacco goods, more than 4 used pneumatic rubber tyres.

If you choose to take a live animal with you when going on a recreation trip to the European Union, you need to get a veterinary passport for your pet at your local veterinary station because this document is obligatory in the EU.

Belarusian roubles and foreign currency import/export rules

A natural person has a right to import/export Belarusian roubles in the amount not exceeding 500 base amounts without declaring the money in written form.

Citizens leaving the customs territory of Belarus are entitled to export foreign currency to the tune not exceeding US $ 3,000 in equivalent without declaring the money in written form. In case the sum of money exported from the country exceeds US $ 3,000 in equivalent, you need to declare the money in written form. To export more than US $ 10,000 in equivalent, you need to have special permits like a document issued by the customs service, which proves you have imported this foreign currency to the customs territory of the Republic of Belarus or that of the Russian Federation, or you need to have a bank permit.

No limitations are imposed on the amount of foreign currency that can be imported by foreign citizens to the Republic of Belarus. In case the amount of foreign currency imported by one person to Belarus does not exceed US $ 10,000 in equivalent, no obligatory declaration in written form is required, except if the person wishes to declare the money and if the money is imported for the purpose of using it as foreign gratuitous assistance. If the amount of foreign currency imported by one person to Belarus exceeds US $ 10,000 in equivalent, obligatory declaration in written form is required.

No limitations are imposed on the amount of money imported or exported to/from Belarus by means of certificated securities, traveller’s and bank cheques, plastic cashless payment cards, and no obligatory declaration in written form is required.

Determination of the customs value of imported goods

Importer is to determine the customs value himself/herself when filling out a customs declaration. Depending on the circumstances of a trip, to verify the customs value of goods transported by natural persons, the following originals of documents are accepted: agreement (contract); specification; invoice; accepted pro forma invoice; cash-memo; receipt; inventory and etc.

If a person cannot verify the value of goods him-/herself, or there are grounds to believe that the information presented for verification is either unreliable or insufficient, a customs body itself shall determine the value on the basis of information about the price of the goods as indicated in catalogues of foreign retailers, or on the basis of any other information about the price that the customs body has with regard to such goods.




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Гладко М.А.

Учебно-методическое пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому языку для студентов специальности «Финансы и контроль в сфере таможенной деятельности» = English Reader for Students Majoring in Customs / М.А. Гладко. - БГЭУ, 2010. – 97c.

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