Учебно-методическое пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому языку для студентов специальности «Финансы и контроль в сфере таможенной деятельности»

III. Using the words give the gist of each part of the text

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III. Using the words give the gist of each part of the text.

IV. Answer the following questions.

  1. What should an incoming passenger do when crossing the border of the RB?

  2. Do you need any clearance documents for transit vehicles registered in the country of temporary or permanent residence?

  3. Is it necessary to declare and register transit vehicles?

  4. Should you declare goods intended for personal use?

  5. What commodity groups are imposed to duty tax?

  6. Of what quantities and value are you allowed to bring goods into Belarus for your own use without paying Belarus tax or duty?

  7. Can you import notebooks and digital photo cameras duty-free?

  8. Are there any restrictions in weight, cost and quantity terms for export from the Republic of Belarus?

  9. What personal use goods are subject to restricted export and import?

V. Make a list of questions on parts “Goods used for non-commercial purposes, which are banned from export from the Republic of Belarus” and “Belarusian roubles and foreign currency import/export rules”. Exchange them with your partner and answer them.
VI. Role play the dialogue between: an incoming person from Africa bringing the Porsche car and some jewelry, animals and a customs officer. Use the vocabulary and the information from the article.

TEXT F. Here are some tips for travelers. Read them and role play the dialogues on their basis.

Register Items before You Leave the United States

If your laptop computer was made in Japan for instance you might have to pay duty on it each time you bring it back into the United States, unless you could prove that you owned it before you left on your trip. Documents that fully describe the items such as sales receipts, insurance policies, or jeweler's appraisals are acceptable forms of proof.

To make things easier, you can register certain items with CBP before you depart including watches, cameras, laptop computers, firearms, and CD players as long as they have serial numbers or other unique, permanent markings. Take the items to the nearest CBP office and request a Certificate of Registration for Personal Effects Taken Abroad. It shows that you had the items with you before leaving the United States and all items listed on it will be allowed duty-free entry. CBP officers must see the item you are registering in order to certify the certificate of registration. You can also register items with CBP at the international airport from which you are departing. Keep the certificate for future trips.

What You Must Declare

Items you purchased and are carrying with you upon return to the United States.

  • Items you bought in duty-free shops, on the ship, or on the plane.

  • Repairs or alterations to any items you took abroad and then brought back, even if the repairs/alterations were performed free of charge.

  • Items you brought home for someone else.

  • Items you intend to sell or use in your business, including business merchandise that you took out of the United States on your trip.

  • Items you inherited,

Also, if you acquired items in the U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, or in a Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act country (see section on $800 exemption for a list of these countries) and asked the merchant to send them to you, you must still declare them when you go through customs. This differs from the usual procedure for mailed items, which is discussed in the section on Sending Items Back to the United States.

You must state on the CBP declaration, in U.S. currency, what you actually paid for each item. The price must include all taxes. If you don’t know for sure, estimate. If you did not buy the item yourself for example, if it is a gift estimate its fair retail value in the country where you received it.

Remember: Even if you used the item you bought on your trip, it is still dutiable. You must declare the item at the price you paid or, if it was a gift, at its fair market value.

For Frequent Travelers

If you cross the U.S. border into a foreign country and reenter the United States more than once in a short time, you may not want to use your personal exemption until you have returned to the United States for the last time. Every 30 days you can only apply your personal exemption once every 30 days.

So as an example, you go to Canada, buy a liter of liquor, reenter the United States, then go back to Canada and buy $900 worth of merchandise and more liquor. You would probably want to save your $800 exemption for those final purchases and not use it for that first liter of liquor. In this case, on your first swing-back, simply tell the CBP officer that you want to pay duty on the liquor, even though you could bring it in duty free.

There are some questions usually asked by travelers. Here they are. Try to answer them.

What purpose are supplier's declarations issued for?

Who may issue a supplier's declaration?

When should the consignee of goods request a supplier's declaration?

My customer requires a supplier's declaration in which I am to confirm the European origin of the goods purchased from me. Why?

In customs law the value limits are obviously always changing. When do I have to fill in which documents? From/Up to what limit do I not have to pay import duties?

I started up my own business and now I run an import/export commercial enterprise. What can I import on easy terms? What customs requirements do I have to meet?

Can I bring back alcohol for my personal use or as a gift?

Why was I / my friend charged duty for a gift that was sent to me? (by me)?
I. Now read the answer to these questions and see if you were correct.
What purpose are supplier's declarations issued for?

The supplier's declaration is used as evidence for applications for a movement certificate EUR.1. The supplier's declaration is the basis for the issue of declarations of origin and forms EUR.2 by the exporter.

Who may issue a supplier's declaration?

Any supplier of goods in internal trade may issue a supplier's declaration.

When should the consignee of goods request a supplier's declaration?

Any manufacturing or processing company intending to export goods to a partner country under preferential conditions or being requested itself to issue a supplier's declaration, would need a supplier's declaration for the assessment of the status of origin of used pre-materials.

Any trade company intending to export goods acquired within the EU under preferential conditions unchanged to a partner country or being requested itself to issue a supplier's declaration, would need a supplier's declaration for the assessment of the status of origin of commercial goods.

My customer requires a supplier's declaration in which I am to confirm the European origin of the goods purchased from me. Why?

The goods or the packaging are already marked "Made in Germany". If your customer or one of his customers runs an export business and the EC has concluded so-called preferential agreements with the country of destination, you'll always need a supplier's declaration.

In this preferential agreement tariff advantages were agreed upon. Tariff advantage means that the importation into the country of destination is duty-free or at least tariff reduced if a corresponding preference document is submitted. Most preferential agreements require the evidence of origin in the preferential document. The simple labelling "Made in ..." would not be enough for this purpose.

As an intermediate dealer intending to export goods cannot know if his supplier provides him with goods of EC origin or just resells imported goods, the intermediate dealer may issue a preference document only if he can confirm the origin of goods in the meaning of the preferential agreement on the basis of the supplier's declaration.

Text samples for supplier's declarations for goods with or without preferential origin even as long-term supplier's declarations are available.
In customs law the value limits are obviously always changing. When do I have to fill in which documents? From/Up to what limit do I not have to pay import duties?

There are different allowances for duty-free quantities or values because of differing legal regulations, and there may be exceptions to every rule.

The following is a brief overview of the most important allowances by value or amount; the list is not complete and does not include exceptions (e.g. goods subject to excise duties)!


Small-sum arrangement for imports in tourist traffic; amounts of less than EUR 3 are not levied.

With effect as from 1 December 2008, the maximum allowance for the duty-free import of small consignments is being increased to EUR 150 per consignment; for the import VAT, the existing value limit of EUR 22 will remain in force.

Excluded from this exemption are, however:

Alcoholic products,

Perfumes and eau de toilette,

Tobacco and tobacco products.

Coffee is also excluded from the excise duty exemption, i.e. tax is levied on coffee even within the EUR 22 limit.

EUR 50

Samples and specimens

A limited number of samples and specimens up to a value of EUR 50 can be imported in one consignment duty-free. Other conditions also apply here and must be complied with.
EUR 45

Duty-free allowance for consignments from one private person to another

Goods sent by a private person outside the customs territory of the European Community to a person inside the customs territory of the European Community are duty-free up to a total value of EUR 45 provided they constitute an occasional, non-commercial consignment (= are not being sent in return for payment) and certain quantity limits are not exceeded in the case of tobacco products, alcohol and alcoholic beverages as well as eau de toilette and coffee.
EUR 175

Duty-free travel allowance for imports by persons aged under 15 in tourist traffic from non-EU countries

EUR 300

Duty-free allowance for imports by persons aged 15 or older in tourist traffic from non-EU countries who do not enter the country by sea or air

EUR 430

Duty-free allowance for imports by persons aged 15or older in tourist traffic from non-EU countries who enter the country by sea or air

EUR 250/EUR 50

EU resident and non-EU residents may import samples and specimens for corresponding trading enterprises or processing facilities

in the case of industrial goods up to a value of EUR 250 per import consignment

in the case of food and agricultural products up to a value of EUR 50 per import consignment, with the exception of seed,

without an import permit.

I started up my own business and now I run an import/export commercial enterprise. What can I import on easy terms? What customs requirements do I have to meet?

First define yourself a limited range of goods. Let us know the country your business partner is registered in. From a customs point of view it may be very expensive to deal in fresh fruit and vegetables, chemical products, leather products, electrical appliances, textiles, antiques etc. at the same time. The conditions are too different.

On principle, customs requirements depend on the heading of the international "Harmonised commodity description an coding system" (HS) a product is classified under. The Customs tariff of the EC and of most other countries is based on this HS. Many other fields of justice relate to it. The "Warenverzeichnis für die Außenhandelsstatistik" (Commodity classification for foreign trade statistics) which is available in book trade, may offer you an introduction into this "goods catalogue".

Can I bring back alcohol for my personal use or as a gift?

Generally, one liter per person may be entered into the U.S. duty-free by travelers who are 21 or older, although travelers coming from the U.S. Virgin Islands or other Caribbean countries are entitled to more. Additional quantities may be entered, although they will be subject to duty and IRS taxes.

Duty is generally 3% of value and the IRS excise tax is generally between 21-31cents per 750ml bottle of wine, 67 cents/champaigne, and $2.14/ hard liquor. It is not legal for travelers under the age of 21 to import alcohol - even as a gift. The total amount of alcohol you may enter the country with is primarily determined by the laws of the state where you will arrive back into the U.S. Each state's ABC board (or equivalent) sets the amount of alcohol a person may bring into the state without a license or permit from that state. Travelers must check with the appropriate state ABC board, as the amounts vary from state to state.

There is no federal limit on the amount of alcohol a traveler may import into the U.S. for personal use, however, large quantities might raise the suspicion that the importation is for commercial purposes, and a CBP officer could require the importer to obtain an TTB import license (which is required for all commercial importations) before releasing it. If you do intend to travel with a large quantity of alcohol, we suggest you contact the entry branch of the port you will be entering the country through to discuss your situation in advance.

Alcoholic beverages purchased in duty-free shops are subject to duty when you bring them with you into the United States.

Why was I / my friend charged duty for a gift that was sent to me? (by me)?

It comes as a rude surprise to many people that recipients of gifts mailed from abroad will have to pay any duty owed on the item before they can receive it.

Duty cannot be pre-paid by the sender (duty can't be paid until the duty rate is assessed by a Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officer. This can't happen until the item actually arrives in the U.S.), it can only be paid by the recipient.

We are aware that this can place the sender in an awkward position, but there is nothing CBP can do. We suggest you include a note with the package offering to reimburse the recipient for any CBP duty they are charged.

II. Translate the marked words and expressions and role play the dialogues using them and the information you have read.
Do you know anything about the work of Customs Intelligence?

Would you like to become a Customs Intelligence Officer?


I. Read the article and translate the marked words and phrases.

Customs enforcement has developed drastically over the last decades to keep pace with the tremendous increase in international trade and transport, the growing awareness of trans-frontier organized crime and, more recently, the threat of terrorism. This has led to an increased awareness in Customs administrations that national and international co-operation is essential. Co-operation with other Customs administrations, with legitimate business circles and with other national law enforcement authorities are prerequisites for proper law enforcement in the field of customs.

A major part of this co-operation consists of sharing of information. Other Customs administrations have been a key source of information for many years. More recently, the value of sharing of information with business circles and with other law enforcement agencies has been recognized while generally available sources of information are better utilized. All of this information is the basis for risk management, now generally regarded as the best approach to customs controls in present international business practice.

Risk management is the key to the overall reconciliation of the requirements of enforcement, security and facilitation. Intelligence, in turn, is a key component of risk management. Intelligence is produced from the collection and processing of information and is used primarily by customs decision-makers at all levels to support their decision-making processes at strategic, tactical or operational level.

Against this background, the WCO has taken several steps to enhance the flow of information between its Members’ Customs administrations and the dissemination of intelligence to them. One of them is the creation of the Global Network of Regional Intelligence Liaison Offices (RILOs) with their various tasks, another is the operation of the Customs Enforcement Network (CEN).

Other activities of the WCO in this area are the publication of documents and manuals for its Members, as well as the co-operation and exchange of data with other law enforcement organizations.

II. Using the vocabulary speak about the activity of Customs Intelligence.

The SIS building, headquarters of the British Secret Intelligence Service

I. Read the articles and translate the marked words and phrases.

An intelligence agency is a governmental agency that is devoted to information gathering (known in the context as "intelligence") for purposes of national security and defense. Means of information gathering may include espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. The assembly and propagation of this information is known as intelligence analysis.

Intelligence agencies can provide the following services for their national governments:

  • provide analysis in areas relevant to national security;

  • give early warning of impending crises;

  • serve national and international crisis management by helping to discern the intentions of current or potential opponents;

  • inform national defense planning and military operations;

  • protect secrets, both of their own sources and activities, and those of other state agencies; and

  • may act covertly to influence the outcome of events in favor of national interests

Intelligence agencies are also involved in defensive activities such as counter-espionage or counter-terrorism.

There is a distinction between "security intelligence" and "foreign intelligence". Security intelligence pertains to national security threats (e.g. terrorism, espionage). Foreign intelligence involves information collection relating to the political, or economic activities of foreign states.

Some agencies are accused of being involved in assassination, arms sales, coups d'état, and the placement of misinformation (propaganda) as well as other covert operations, in order to support their own or their governments' interests.
The Canadian Security Intelligence Service

The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) is the internal security agency of the Canadian government. It is responsible for collecting, analyzing, reporting and disseminating intelligence on threats to Canada's national security, and conducting operations, covert and overt, within Canada and abroad.

CSIS is Canada's lead agency for national security matters. It is a federal agency which conducts national security investigations and security intelligence collection at home and abroad. CSIS collects and analyzes intelligence and advises the Government of Canada on issues and activities that may threaten the security of Canada. CSIS also conducts security investigations and assessments for all applicants seeking a security clearance with federal departments and agencies, with the exception of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) who conduct their own security assessments.

There is no restriction in the CSIS Act on where CSIS may collect "security intelligence" or information relating to threats to the security of Canada. The agency may collect information on threats to Canada or Canadians from anywhere in the world. While CSIS is often viewed as a defensive security intelligence agency it is not a domestic agency. CSIS officers work domestically and internationally in their efforts to monitor and counter threats to Canadian security.

CSIS is neither a police agency nor is it a part of the military. As an intelligence agency, the primary role of CSIS is not law enforcement. Investigation of criminal activity is left to the RCMP and local (provincial, regional or city) police agencies. CSIS, like counterparts such as the United Kingdom Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), the domestic British Security Service (MI5) and the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), is a civilian agency. CSIS is subject to review by the Security Intelligence Review Committee (SIRC) and an Inspector General (IG) as well as other legislative checks and balances. The agency carries out its functions in accordance with the CSIS Act, which governs and defines its powers and activities.

The Operational Programs of CSIS include:

  • Counter-terrorism

  • Counter-proliferation

  • Counter-intelligence

  • Security screening

  • Research, Analysis and Production (creating strategy for the implementation of the Operational Programs)

Defense Intelligence Agency of the USA

The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense, employing over 16,500 military and civilian employees worldwide. The Defense Intelligence Community is headed by the DIA, through its Director (who chairs the Military Intelligence Board), and coordinates the activities of the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force intelligence components. The DIA and DIC provide military intelligence to warfighters, defense policymakers and force planners within the Department of Defense and the United States Intelligence Community, in support of U.S. military planning and operations and weapon systems acquisition.

Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, DIA has been active in nuclear proliferation intelligence collection and analysis with particular interests in North Korea and Iran as well as counter-terrorism. DIA was also involved with the intelligence build-up to the invasion of Iraq in 2003 and was a subject in the Senate Report of Pre-war Intelligence on Iraq. The Defense Intelligence Agency has conflicted with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in collection and analysis on the existence of weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and has often represented the Pentagon in the CIA-DoD intelligence rivalry due to DIA's alleged clandestine HUMINT collection and often overlapping analysis products. Operational military intelligence has also been a focus, particularly in Iraq with insurgency threats and asymmetric warfare. The DIA is responsible for assessing the current and projected national security threats to the United States as well as presenting these assessments to the Senate Armed Services Committee. The DIA still actively maintains its responsibility for conventional strategic and operational military intelligence.

DIA's Director is a three-star military officer who serves as principal adviser to the Secretary of Defense and to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff on matters of military intelligence. The Director also chairs the Military Intelligence Board, which coordinates activities of the defense intelligence community. The exact numbers and specific budget information are not publicly released due to security considerations. DIA has major operational activities at The Pentagon, the Defense Intelligence Analysis Center (DIAC), Bolling Air Force Base in Washington, D.C.38.848°N 77.012°W, the National Center for Medical Intelligence (NCMI) in Fort Detrick, Maryland, and the Missile and Space Intelligence Center (MSIC) in Huntsville, Alabama. DIA is a member of the United States Intelligence Community, reporting to the Director of National Intelligence.

DIA possesses a diverse workforce skilled in the areas of military history and doctrine, economics, physics, chemistry, world history, political science, bio-sciences, computer sciences, and many other fields of expertise.

The Agency responds to the needs of a variety of customers from the President of the United States to the soldier in the field. Its work encompasses all aspects of military intelligence requirements – from highly complex missile trajectory data to biographical information on foreign military leaders.

The dark blue background of the seal signifies the unknown, or the threats and challenges of the world around us. The flaming gold torch symbolizes the Intelligence function, lighting the way to a world symbolized by the blue-green planet. The eternal search for knowledge and truth is the worldwide mission of DIA. The two red ellipses symbolize the technical aspects of intelligence today and in the future. The 13 stars and the wreath identify DIA as a Department of Defense organization.
A Cooperative Approach of Australian Enforcement Bodies

The establishment of the Unified Policing Model and subsequent Joint Airport Intelligence Groups (JAIGs) and Joint Airport Investigations Teams (JAITs) was one of the most significant outcomes of the 2005 Wheeler Review, which examined security and law enforcement arrangements at major Australian airports. The Wheeler Review called upon all agencies with a responsibility for aviation security to work cooperatively to identify and address a range of dynamic criminal and security threats.

JAIGs around Australia are the primary means by which the various agencies with a responsibility for aviation security come together. Customs, Australian Federal Police (AFP) and State Police are the full time members of the JAIG. The Australian Crime Commission, Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, Department of Transport and Regional Services and Australian Security Intelligence Organisation are all part time members. Irrespective of membership status, each agency is equally represented by senior officers on the Aviation Intelligence Joint Working Group which provides strategic oversight of all the JAIGs and their activities.

Each of the agencies within the JAIG has resources, expertise, information and legislative powers unique to their operation. JAIG members pool their expertise, resources and legislative powers to develop operational and tactical intelligence to identify security weaknesses and criminal threats. Customs officers within the JAIG use their analytical skills, expertise and contacts within the airport environment to develop strategic and operational intelligence.

Actionable intelligence developed by the JAIGs is used by the other elements of the Unified Policing Model, such as the five JAITs around Australia, to swiftly address identified criminal threats. The JAITs, consisting of AFP, Customs and State Police, undertake intelligence led investigations into serious and organized crime. Officers of each JAIT similarly pool their powers, resources and expertise. Customs officers within the JAITs provide real time tactical intelligence support to AFP and State Police investigators to promptly remove and prosecute criminal entities and threats that may impact upon the security of airports and the safety of air travellers.

Senior officers from Customs Intelligence and Targeting Division attended the Heads of Intelligence (HINT) meeting in Auckland, New Zealand. This regular event comprises border agency intelligence leaders from the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. The meeting was an opportunity for Customs to build on exchanges from past years about organisational capacity and intelligence best practice. This year's meeting focused on commissioning joint analytical projects on topics of mutual concern to the represented border agencies. Customs officers agreed to collaborate on strategic risks, such as the operation of criminal networks, the illegal movement of people and goods, counter-terrorism and money laundering with their international counterparts.

II. Answer the questions:

  1. What is an intelligence agency?

  2. What kind of information is obtained by an intelligence agency?

  3. What services does it provide?

  4. What is the Canadian Security Intelligence Service and the Defense Intelligence Agency?

  5. What services and programs do these agencies provide (compare)?

  6. What were the objectives of the Customs meeting?

  7. What are the common features and differences between the work of Customs Intelligence of the USA, Great Britain, Australia and Canada?

  8. How do you think why some agencies are accused of being involved in assassination, arms sales, and the placement of misinformation?

III. Using the words and the information obtained role play the dialogue between Customs Intelligence Officers from the three countries.
IV. Find information about the Belarusian Customs Intelligence Office and compare it with that of other countries.


I. Read the texts and be ready to give the gist of them.

MSR Customs

At MSR Customs we understand that companies aren't interested in systems and technologies. They're interested in solutions. Solutions to help make international or cross-border trade more consistent, efficient, profitable, competitive, visible, or secure. Solutions that support your corporate strategies, make optimal use of your existing resources, and fit with your IT infrastructure.

Exceptional functionality requires a commitment to R&D.

The result of almost 30 years of research and development, MSR Customs systems and technologies anticipate emerging business models, regulatory requirements, and user and IT expectations. They readily accommodate regulatory and business changes, and contain a wealth of input from thousands of multi-national and national corporations, consulting firms, customs brokers, and government agencies.

Regardless of industry, cross-border and international trade is one of the largest and most complex interweavings of regulatory and business requirements, processes, and content. MSR Customs systems and technologies were designed to support and optimize this interweaving.

Its patented architecture realizes two concepts. The first is that the export of one country is the import of another. The second is that a single platform provides a consistent unified view for connecting to and capitalizing on corporate data.

MSR Customs solutions are fully loaded with functions and content to help you realize all the benefits of modern, automated import and export processes in a startlingly cost-effective way. They can be deployed in-house, integrated with your internal ERP systems (SAP, Oracle, Baan...), hosted at the MSR Data Centre, or shared with the MSR Customs brokerage group.

Enhancing Intelligence of Australia

Enhancing intelligence and targeting capabilities has been a priority for Customs. The main initiatives under this program of work included:

  • enhancement of the Frontline Program

  • negotiation of two new placements for overseas postings

  • initiatives aimed at working more closely with overseas law enforcement agencies

  • establishing Joint Airport Intelligence groups and Joint Airport Investigations Teams

  • a major review of Customs intelligence functions.

In a significant first for law enforcement in the Pacific region, Australian Customs and New Zealand Police have come together to assist in the development and provision of ongoing support to a joint Samoa Customs/Police detector dog program. In an effort to combat a growing drug problem in the small Pacific nation, the Samoan government requested the support of both Australia and New Zealand in providing, training, deploying and supporting detector dogs based in the capital of Samoa, Apia.

Samoan Customs and Police agencies will be sharing training aids, operational environments, taskings and a purpose built kennel facility designed specifically for Samoa by Australian Customs.

In May 2007, two new narcotic detector dogs were provided to our Samoan counterparts. One bred and trained by Australian Customs, detector dog 'Quizzy' and one trained by the New Zealand Police, detector dog 'Frodo'.

Officers from Samoa and American Samoa Customs agencies were given specialist handler training in Australia from February to April 2007. Instruction in the safe handling of narcotics was also provided for the Samoan Customs officer responsible for control of training aids for the new program.

The detector dog teams will be undertaking a variety of intelligence-based tasks in Samoa's border and domestic police environments. They have been trained to search people, luggage, cargo and articles at the Apia International airport, shipping port and post office. They also carry out activities in support of general policing duties throughout Samoa.

Andrew Frugtniet, Acting Director Australian Customs Specialist Enforcement Programs, and Brett Matthews, Senior Detector Dog Instructor, travelled to Samoa for the dog handover and commencement of the program. This project highlights Australian Customs commitment to restricting the movement of illicit drugs in the Asia-Pacific region. It also emphasises the close cooperation undertaken by Australian and New Zealand law enforcement programs supporting and strengthening the region's border security measures. Samoan Customs will be screening passengers and freight bound for Australia and New Zealand and working cooperatively with the American Samoa detector dog program.


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Гладко М.А.

Учебно-методическое пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому языку для студентов специальности «Финансы и контроль в сфере таможенной деятельности» = English Reader for Students Majoring in Customs / М.А. Гладко. - БГЭУ, 2010. – 97c.

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