Учебно-методическое пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому языку для студентов специальности «Финансы и контроль в сфере таможенной деятельности»


I. There are some questions usually asked about the service of customs dogs. Here they are. Read them and retell



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I. There are some questions usually asked about the service of customs dogs. Here they are. Read them and retell.


What are Customs detector dogs trained to look for?

Customs detector dogs are trained to detect drugs and explosives.

How long does it take to train a detector dog?

The handlers and their detector dogs attend an intensive three-month training course in either drugs or explosives detection.

Where do Customs detector dogs live?

Detector dogs are kennelled at the home of their handler.

How many years does a detector dog work for?

This can vary, but normally detector dogs retire around eight years of age.

Where do the dogs go when they retire?

In some cases the handler may keep the dog as a pet when it retires. If it is not practical for the handler to keep the dog as a pet, a suitable family home is found for the dog.

Are drug detector dogs addicted to drugs?

The dogs are not addicted to drugs and never actually come into direct contact with any drug substances.

Why does the detector dog want to search for drugs or explosives?

The dog sees searching for drugs and explosives as a game. When the dog locates the drugs or explosives it is rewarded with its favourite toy. The dog only receives this toy when it locates the target odours it has been trained to detect.

What areas do Customs detector dog teams work in?

Drug detector dog teams work at international airports throughout the country. They also work at the International Mail Centre, search ships, small craft and  cargo, and assist on Customs and Police search warrants. Detector dog teams also assist other government departments.

How does someone apply to become a Customs detector dog handler?

To become a Customs detector dog handler, you will first need to join the New Zealand Customs Service and gain experience as a Customs officer.

Customs officers can then apply to become detector dog handlers after gaining several years' experience within the various operational areas of Customs.

Where does Customs find detector dogs?

Purebred Labrador dogs are bred at the Australian Customs Service Breeding and Development Centre in Melbourne and sent to New Zealand when they are aged between 12-24 months for training as detector dogs.
II. Read the text about detector dogs in Australia. Pay attention to pronunciation of the names of countries (consult the dictionary).

Australian Customs Service breeds and trains labradors to detect illegal drugs, firearms, explosives and hazardous chemical precursors associated with the manufacture or deployment of chemical weapons. Each year these dogs are responsible for hundreds of detections.

Detector dog teams operate nationwide and search sea and air cargo, aircraft baggage, international mail, ships, buildings and people.

The Customs Detector Dog Training Centre in Canberra, trains narcotic, firearms and explosives detector dog teams for Australian Customs and a range of federal, state and territory agencies including police, military and corrective services. The Centre also provides training to law enforcement agencies from China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Samoa, Guam and Saipan.

The Customs National Breeding and Development Centre in Melbourne supplies suitable labradors not only to Customs but to Australian federal, state and territory agencies, and countries including the United States of America, Indonesia, China, Japan, New Zealand, Guam, Papua New Guinea and Thailand.

By the early 1990s, the growth in the Detector Dog Program had led to difficulties in sourcing sufficient quality dogs to supply the program. The solution was the development of the Customs detector dog breeding program to produce a reliable, high quality supply of dogs. This development included research into the best breed of dog to meet the requirements of Customs across a range of criteria, with the Labrador breed being selected for their focus, versatility, temperament, and strong hunt and retrieve drives.

An intensive three-year study, conducted in conjunction with the University of Melbourne and the Royal Guide Dogs Associations of Australia at the Customs National Breeding and Development Centre in Melbourne, identified the required genetics for breeding and the best environmental influences for development of detector dogs. This breeding program is now the only source for Australian Customs detector dogs and is one of only a handful of specialized Detector Dog Breeding Programs in the world. Today, many other agencies use dogs bred by Customs. Customs bred dogs have been deployed in a variety of fields including arson detection, food detection or explosives/firearms detection. Australian Drug Detector Dogs have been provided to various nations under Regional Assistance Programs managed by AusAID (the Australian Federal Government Overseas Aid Agency).

III. Give the summary of the text.

TEXT E. K9 CENTER

I. Read the text and give the gist of it using the marked words and phrases.

The fight against illegal drugs is a frustrating one. They have invaded our schools and workplaces and are generally an ever-present problem facing employers, parents and sadly children. To help in this fight K9 Centre can provide drug detection dogs that are trained to actively seek out drugs in all environments. The dogs are trained to indicate the presence of drugs no matter the quantity and to maintain that proficiency they undergo maintenance training regularly. Our first drug dog commenced training for service with Junee Prison NSW, the first privately owned prison in Australia, managed at that stage by ACM (Australasian Correctional Management). We train our dogs on real odour not pseudo. The dogs are trained on the pure odour of Heroin, Cocaine, Methamphetamine, Amphetamine, LSD, Ecstacy, Marijuana and Hashish. We can provide the services of a drug dog and handler to conduct searches to the clients requirements. As we are not Police Officers we have no powers to arrest or detain any person. Our search services are limited to detecting the odour of drugs in a given area as set out by the client. While a search is conducted the drug dog team will be accompanied by a representative of the client. If an odour is found the dog will indicate its location and the dog handler will then inform the representative that the drug dog has indicated the presence of a drug odour. The action taken after that is entirely up to the client. This is where our services end. Drug dogs are an effective deterrent when trained and deployed correctly. They can be deployed overtly or discreetly depending on client requirements. They are never aggressive. They are not dual trained protection/drug dogs. They love the work and look for the drugs because they want their ball or toy reward. Our dogs are very approachable and interact with other dogs and people making them totally safe in public.

K9 Centre.com can provide detection dogs, and/or training, to the client’s requirements, anywhere in the world. We have the experience and the qualified staff to implement the right K9 solution for your piece of mind.

All our detection dogs are trained to the clients specific needs. We can supply explosive and drug detection dogs and offer a consultancy service for each of these areas at an international standard. Our goal is to provide the right dog for the right situation. We can help you remedy any operational problems you may be having or we can start your specialist dog unit from scratch. The dogs/bitches trained by The K9 Centre are hand selected for their suitability and then fully trained to an operational level. As there is the possibility that an explosive device could be made up any number of different explosive materials it is important to train an explosive detection dog to detect the core scents found in all combinations. We believe that it is important to train the canines to detect both trace samples as well as bulk samples of any given scent in all situations and environments. The K9 Centre trains their explosive detection dogs to detect all explosives (our dogs are NOT trained on simulated odours) that are required to make all possible combinations available on the market today in both the military and commercial sectors.
II. Answer the following questions:


  1. What fight does this article speak about?

  2. What are the objectives of K9 Center?

  3. How are dogs usually trained?

  4. Describe how the procedure of detecting illegal substances.

  5. What services does K9 Center provide?


UNIT IV. EXPORT-IMPORT CUSTOMS DOCUMENTATION

What customs documents do you know?

What is their purpose?
TEXT A. A LETTER OF CREDIT

I. Read the text and translate all the marked words and phrases.

After a contract is concluded between buyer and seller, buyer's bank supplies a letter of credit (LC) to seller. Seller consigns the goods to a carrier in exchange for a bill of lading. Seller provides bill of lading to bank in exchange for payment. Seller's bank exchanges bill of lading for payment from buyer's bank. Buyer's bank exchanges bill of lading for payment from the buyer. Buyer provides bill of lading to carrier and takes delivery of goods.

A standard, commercial letter of credit is a document issued mostly by a financial institution, used primarily in trade finance, which usually provides an irrevocable payment undertaking.

The LC can also be source of payment for a transaction, meaning that redeeming the letter of credit will pay an exporter. Letters of credit are used primarily in international trade transactions of significant value, for deals between a supplier in one country and a customer in another. They are also used in the land development process to ensure that approved public facilities (streets, sidewalks, stormwater ponds, etc.) will be built. The parties to a letter of credit are usually a beneficiary who is to receive the money, the issuing bank of whom the applicant is a client, and the advising bank of whom the beneficiary is a client. Almost all letters of credit are irrevocable, i.e., cannot be amended or cancelled without prior agreement of the beneficiary, the issuing bank and the confirming bank, if any. In executing a transaction, letters of credit incorporate functions common to giros and Traveler's cheques. Typically, the documents a beneficiary has to present in order to receive payment include a commercial invoice, bill of lading, and documents proving the shipment was insured against loss or damage in transit. However, the list and form of documents is open to imagination and negotiation and might contain requirements to present documents issued by a neutral third party evidencing the quality of the goods shipped, or their place of origin.

The English name “letter of credit” derives from the French word “accreditation”, a power to do something, which in turn is derivative of the Latin word “accreditivus”, meaning trust. ‘The Application any defence relating to the underlying contract of sale. This is as long as the seller performs their duties to an extent that meets the requirements contained in the LC.

For example, a business called the InCosmetika from time to time imports goods from a business called ACME, which banks with the ABC Bank. InCosmetika holds an account at the Commonwealth Bank. InCosmetika wants to buy $500,000 worth of merchandise from ACME, who agrees to sell the goods and give InCosmetika 60 days to pay for them, on the condition that they are provided with a 90-day letter of credit for the full amount. The steps to get the letter of credit would be as follows:

InCosmetika goes to The Commonwealth Bank and requests a $500,000 letter of credit, with ACME as the beneficiary.

The Commonwealth Bank can issue an LC either on approval of a standard loan underwriting process or by InCosmetika funding it directly with a deposit of $500,000 plus fees which are typically between 1% and 8% of the face value of the LC.

The Commonwealth Bank sends a copy of the LC to the ABC Bank, which notifies ACME that payment is available and they can ship the merchandise InCosmetika has ordered with the full assurance of payment to them.

On presentation of the stipulated documents in the letter of credit and compliance with the terms and conditions of the letter of credit, the Commonwealth Bank transfers the $500,000 to the ABC Bank, which then credits the account of ACME for that amount. Note that banks deal only with documents required in the letter of credit and not the underlying transaction.

Many exporters have mistakenly assumed that the payment is guaranteed after receiving the LC. The issuing bank is obligated to pay under the letter of credit only when the stipulated documents are presented and the terms and conditions of the letter of credit have been met.

LC being an irrevocable undertaking of the issuing bank makes available the Proceeds, to the Beneficiary of the Credit provided, stipulated documents strictly complying with the provisions of the LC, UCP 600 and other international standard banking practices, are presented to the issuing bank, then:

i.if the Credit provides for sight payment – by payment at sight against compliant presentation

ii.if the Credit provides for deferred payment – by payment on the maturity date(s) determinable in accordance with the stipulations of the Credit; and of course undertaking to pay on due date and confirming maturity date at the time of compliant presentation

iii.a.if the Credit provides for acceptance by the Issuing Bank – by acceptance of Draft(s) drawn by the Beneficiary on the Issuing Bank and payment at maturity of such tenor draft, or

iii.b. if the Credit provides for acceptance by another drawee bank – by acceptance and payment at maturity Draft(s)drawn by the Beneficiary on the Issuing Bank in the event the drawee bank stipulated in the Credit does not accept Draft(s) drawn on it, or by payment of Draft(s) accepted but not paid by such drawee bank at maturity;

iv. if the Credit provides for negotiation by another bank – by payment without recourse to drawers and/or bona fide holders, Draft(s) drawn by the Beneficiary and/or document(s) presented under the Credit, (and so negotiated by the nominated bank )

Some of the Documents Called for under a LC:


  • Financial Documents

  • Bill of Exchange, Co-accepted Draft

  • Commercial Documents

  • Invoice, Packing list

  • Shipping Documents

  • Transport Document, Insurance Certificate, Commercial, Official or Legal Documents

  • Official Documents

  • License, Embassy legalization, Origin Certificate, Inspection Cert , Phyto-sanitary Certificate

  • Transport Documents

  • Bill of Lading (ocean or multi-modal or Charter party), Airway bill, Lorry/truck receipt, railway receipt, CMC Other than Mate Receipt, Forwarder Cargo Receipt, Deliver Challan...etc

  • Insurance documents (Insurance policy, or Certificate but not a cover note).


II. Answer the questions:

  1. What is a letter of credit?

  2. Can a LC be a source of payment for a transaction?

  3. In what spheres is LC used?

  4. Are all LC irrevocable?

  5. What documents should a beneficiary present in order to receive payment?

  6. What is the origin of LC?

  7. Give an example showing how LC works.

  8. Is payment guaranteed after receiving the LC?

  9. What documents are called under LC?




  1. Using the vocabulary give the main points of the article.



TEXT B. RISKS IN LC SITUATIONS

Read the article and give the summary of it.

Fraud Risks

The payment will be obtained for nonexistent or worthless merchandise against presentation by the beneficiary of forged or falsified documents. Credit itself may be forged.


Sovereign and Regulatory Risks

Performance of the Documentary Credit may be prevented by government action outside the control of the parties.


Legal Risks

Possibility that performance of a Documentary Credit may be disturbed by legal action relating directly to the parties and their rights and obligations under the Documentary Credit



Force Majeure and Frustration of Contract

Performance of a contract – including an obligation under a Documentary Credit relationship – is prevented by external factors such as natural disasters or armed conflicts



Risks to the Applicant

  • Non-delivery of Goods

  • Short Shipment

  • Inferior Quality

  • Early /Late Shipment

  • Damaged in transit

  • Foreign exchange

  • Failure of Bank viz Issuing bank / Collecting Bank

Risks to the Issuing Bank

  • Insolvency of the Applicant

  • Fraud Risk, Sovereign and Regulatory Risk and Legal Risks

Risks to the Reimbursing Bank

no obligation to reimburse the Claiming Bank unless it has issued a reimbursement undertaking.



Risks to the Beneficiary

  • Failure to Comply with Credit Conditions

  • Failure of, or Delays in Payment from, the Issuing Bank

  • Credit Issued by Party other than Bank

Risks to the Advising Bank

The Advising Bank’s only obligation – if it accepts the Issuing Bank’s instructions – is to check the apparent authenticity of the Credit and advising it to the Beneficiary



Risks to the Nominated Bank

Nominated Bank has made a payment to the Beneficiary against documents that comply with the terms and conditions of the Credit and is unable to obtain reimbursement from the Issuing Bank


Risks to the Confirming Bank

If Confirming Bank’s main risk is that, once having paid the Beneficiary, it may not be able to obtain reimbursement from the Issuing Bank because of insolvency of the Issuing Bank or refusal of the Issuing Bank to reimburse because of a dispute as to whether or not payment should have been made under the Credit


TEXT C. INVOICE

I. Read the text and translate all the marked words and phrases.

An invoice or bill is a commercial document issued by a seller to the buyer, indicating the products, quantities, and agreed prices for products or services the seller has provided the buyer. An invoice indicates the buyer must pay the seller, according to the payment terms. The buyer has a maximum amount of days to pay these goods and are sometimes offered a discount if paid before.



From the point of view of a seller, an invoice is a sales invoice. From the point of view of a buyer, an invoice is a purchase invoice. The document indicates the buyer and seller, but the term invoice indicates money is owed or owing. In English, the context of the term invoice is usually used to clarify its meaning, such as "We sent them an invoice" (they owe us money) or "We received an invoice from them" (we owe them money).

A typical invoice contains:

  • The word invoice or Tax Invoice if in Australia.

  • A unique reference number (in case of correspondence about the invoice)

  • Date of the invoice

  • Tax payments if relevant (e.g. GST and Vat Tax)

  • Name and contact details of the seller

  • Tax or company registration details of seller (if relevant)[e.g. Australia Business Number (ABN) for Australian businesses.]

  • Name and contact details of the buyer

  • Date that the product was sent or delivered

  • Purchase order number (or similar tracking numbers requested by the buyer to be mentioned on the invoice)

  • Description of the product(s)

  • Unit price(s) of the product(s) (if relevant)
  • Total amount charged (optionally with breakdown of taxes, if relevant)


  • Payment terms (including method of payment, date of payment, and details about charges late payment)

There are different types of invoices:

Pro forma invoice - In foreign trade, a pro forma invoice is a document that states a commitment from the seller to provide specified goods to the buyer at specific prices. It is often used to declare value for customs. It is not a true invoice, because the seller does not record a pro forma invoice as an accounts receivable and the buyer does not record a pro forma invoice as an accounts payable. A pro forma invoice is not issued by the seller until the seller and buyer have agreed to the terms of the order. In few cases, pro forma invoice is issued for obtaining advance payments from buyer, either for start of production or for security of the goods produced.

Credit memo - If the buyer returns the product, the seller usually issues a credit memo for the same or lower amount than the invoice, and then refunds the money to the buyer, or the buyer can apply that credit memo to another invoice.

Commercial invoice - a customs declaration form used in international trade that describes the parties involved in the shipping transaction, the goods being transported, and the value of the goods. It is the primary document used by customs, and must meet specific customs requirements, such as the Harmonized System number and the country of manufacture. It is used to calculate tariffs.

Debit memo - When a company fails to pay or short-pays an invoice, it is common practice to issue a debit memo for the balance and any late fees owed. In function debit memos are identical to invoices.

Self-billing invoice - A self billing invoice is when the buyer issues the invoice to himself (e.g. according to the consumption levels he is taking out of a vendor-managed inventory stock).


Timesheet - Invoices for hourly services such as by lawyers and consultants often pull data from a timesheet. A Timesheet invoice may also be generated by Operated equipment rental companies where the invoice will be a combination of timesheet based charges and equipment rental charges.

Invoicing - The term invoicing is also used to refer to the act of delivering baggage to a flight company in an airport before taking a flight.

Statement - A periodic customer statement includes opening balance, invoices, payments, credit memos, debit memos, and ending balance for the customer's account during a specified period. A monthly statement can be used as a summary invoice to request a single payment for accrued monthly charges.

Progress billing used to obtain partial payment on extended contracts, particularly in the construction industry (see Schedule of values)


Collective Invoicing is also known as monthly invoicing in Japan. Japanese businesses tend to have many orders with small amounts because of the outsourcing system (Keiretsu), or of demands for less inventory control (Kanban). To save the administration work, invoicing is normally processed on monthly basis.

Some invoices are no longer paper-based, but rather transmitted electronically over the Internet. It is still common for electronic remittance or invoicing to be printed in order to maintain paper records. Standards for electronic invoicing varies widely from country to country. Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) standards such as the United Nation's EDIFACT standard include message encoding guidelines for electronic invoices.

The United Nations standard for electronic invoices ("INVOIC") includes standard codes for transmitting header information (common to the entire invoice) and codes for transmitting details for each of the line items (products or services). The "INVOIC" standard can also be used to transmit credit and debit memos. The "IFTMCS" standard is used to transmit freight invoices.




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Гладко М.А.

Учебно-методическое пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому языку для студентов специальности «Финансы и контроль в сфере таможенной деятельности» = English Reader for Students Majoring in Customs / М.А. Гладко. - БГЭУ, 2010. – 97c.



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