Учебно-методическое пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому языку для студентов специальности «Финансы и контроль в сфере таможенной деятельности»


II. Define if the statements are true or false

:)


Download 334.13 Kb.
Page6/7
Date conversion04.09.2017
Size334.13 Kb.
TypeУчебно-методическое пособие
1   2   3   4   5   6   7

II. Define if the statements are true or false.


  1. An invoice or bill is a commercial document issued by a seller to the buyer.

  2. From the point of view of a seller, an invoice is a purchase invoice.

  3. A typical invoice contains name and contact details of the seller; tax or company registration details of seller (if relevant); name and contact details of the buyer; date that the product was sent or delivered.

  4. There are four types of invoices.

  5. In foreign trade, a pro forma invoice is a document that describes the parties involved in the shipping transaction.

  6. Commercial invoice is a customs declaration form used in international trade.

  7. Invoicing is the term used to refer to the act of delivering baggage to the port.

  8. Some invoices are no longer paper-based, but rather transmitted electronically.

    1. Using the vocabulary give the main points of the article.



TEXT D. CARNET

I. Read the text and translate all the marked words and phrases.

The ATA Carnet is an international customs document that allows the holder to temporarily (up to one year) import goods without payment of normally applicable duties and taxes, including value-added taxes. The Carnet eliminates the need to purchase temporary import bonds. So long as the goods are re-exported within the allotted time frame, no duties or taxes are due. Failure to re-export all goods listed on the Carnet results in the need to pay the applicable duties. Failure to remit those duties results in a claim from the foreign customs service to the importers home country.

Carnets apply to three broad categories of merchandise: commercial samples, professional equipment and goods for use at exhibitions and fairs. With the exception of perishable or consumable items, the product range is nearly limitless. Carnets are regularly used to facilitate movement of everything from display booths to racing yachts.

Individuals or firms wishing to use a carnet to move goods in and out of foreign countries must submit an application and the necessary collateral to their home NGA. In the US the applicant must post cash or surety bond equal to 40% of the value of the goods traveling on the Carnet.

The application, among other things, lists all countries of intended transit and all applicable goods with their assigned values. If the application is properly completed and submitted with the applicable fees the NGA will issue a carnet specifically tailored to that itinerary. The carnet document has two, green, cover leaflets denoting country of origin with instructions. Within the covers are counterfoils and vouchers for each country to be transited. The vouchers act as receipts for entry and re-export in foreign countries and are kept by foreign customs officials. The counterfoils are stamped by the foreign customs services and act as the carnet holders receipt. Upon completion of travel or expiration of the carnet's 12-month active period, the holder must return all documents to their home NGA. A review is conducted. If all documents are in order and no claims are found to be forthcoming from one of the applicable foreign countries, the collateral can be returned. If a bond was used the NGA issues notice that the bond may be canceled. If the counterfoils, including the final one showing re-entry of all applicable goods back into the country of origin, are not in order, or if a foreign customs service notifies the NGA of a violation, the carnet holder is given notice to provide proper documentation or pay the applicable duties. If they do not, the collateral or bond are used to pay the claim. Claims that can not be amicably settled between the applicable NGAs may be referred to the ICC for Dispute Resolution Services.
II. Give the summary of the article.
III. Using the vocabulary role play a dialogue between a starting businessman willing to deliver goods to EU and a customs consultant.

TEXT E. INTERNATIONAL TRADE PAYMENT

Read the article and give its summary.

1. One of the primary peculiarities of the documentary credit is that the payment obligation is abstract and independent from the underlying contract of sale or any other contract in the transaction. Thus the bank’s obligation is defined by the terms of the credit alone, and the sale contract is irrelevant. The defences of the buyer arising out of the sale contract do not concern the bank and in no way affect its liability. Article 4(a) UCP states this principle clearly. Article 5 the UCP further states that banks deal with documents only, they are not concerned with the goods (facts). Accordingly, if the documents tendered by the beneficiary, or his or her agent, appear to be in order, then in general the bank is obliged to pay without further qualifications.

The policies behind adopting the abstraction principle are purely commercial and reflect a party’s expectations: firstly, if the responsibility for the validity of documents was thrown onto banks, they would be burdened with investigating the underlying facts of each transaction and would thus be less inclined to issue documentary credits as the transaction would involve great risk and inconvenience. Secondly, documents required under the credit could in certain circumstances be different from those required under the sale transaction; banks would then be placed in a dilemma in deciding which terms to follow if required to look behind the credit agreement. Thirdly, the fact that the basic function of the credit is to provide the seller with the certainty of receiving payment, as long as he performs his documentary duties, suggests that banks should honour their obligation notwithstanding allegations of misfeasance by the buyer. Finally, courts have emphasised that buyers always have a remedy for an action upon the contract of sale, and that it would be a calamity for the business world if, for every breach of contract between the seller and buyer, a bank were required to investigate said breach.

The “principle of strict compliance” also aims to make the bank’s duty of effecting payment against documents easy, efficient and quick. Hence, if the documents tendered under the credit deviate from the language of the credit the bank is entitled to withhold payment even if the deviation is purely terminological. The general legal maxim de minimis non curat lex has no place in the field of documentary credits.

2. Advance payment (most secure for seller) is where the buyer parts with money first and waits for the seller to forward the goods.

3. Documentary Credit (more secure for seller as well as buyer) is subject to ICC's UCP 600, where the bank gives an undertaking (on behalf of buyer and at the request of applicant ) to pay the shipper ( beneficiary ) the value of the goods shipped if certain documents are submitted and if the stipulated terms and conditions are strictly complied.

Here the buyer can be confident that the goods he is expecting only will be received since it will be evidenced in the form of certain documents called for meeting the specified terms and conditions while the supplier can be confident that if he meets the stipulations his payment for the shipment is guaranteed by bank, who is independent of the parties to the contract.

4. Documentary collection (more secure for buyer and to a certain extent to seller) is subject to ICC's URC 525, sight and usance, for delivery of shipping documents against payment or acceptances of draft, where shipment happens first, then the title documents are sent to the [collecting bank] buyer's bank by seller's bank [remitting bank], for delivering documents against collection of payment/acceptance

5. Direct payment (most secure for buyer) is where the supplier ships the goods and waits for the buyer to remit the bill proceeds, on open account terms.


UNIT V. ANTI-TERRORISM ACTIVITIES OF CUSTOMS
What are the roots of terrorism?

Can you predict anti-terrorism measures employed by Customs?
TEXT A. BORDER SECURITY OVERVIEW

I. Read the article and translate the marked words and phrases.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection is America’s largest uniformed law enforcement organization and is dedicated to providing homeland security by securing our borders. Specifically, CBP prevents terrorists and their weapons from entering our shores while enforcing hundreds of U.S. trade and immigration laws.

CBP accomplishes this through an array of strategies, technologies and programs that support nearly 30,000 highly trained and dedicated officers deployed at borders and other points of entry around the U.S. and abroad. From desolate southwestern deserts to huge international commerce centers on the other side of the globe, CBP is working to do whatever is necessary to protect America and safeguard the global economy.

All CBP homeland security operations are supplemented by the Office of Anti-Terrorism that gathers and disseminates international intelligence on emerging risks and passes on that information to effected CBP locales.

A valued partner in CBP enforcement operations is its canine detection program.

Canine Programs

Over 1200 CBP canine teams expedite inspections along our borders. They work tirelessly to combat terrorist threats, stop the flow of illegal narcotics, detect unreported currency, firearms, concealed humans, smuggled agriculture products and explosives.

The CBP Canine Program remains a major component in the ability of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to interdict illegal narcotics, concealed humans, prohibited agriculture products, explosives and undeclared currency.

The CBP Canine Program has established and deployed world-class detector dog programs to augment existing technology while establishing cutting edge detection capabilities. Under these programs, the agency now provides a higher level of security and detection capability while emphasizing a seamless conduit between existing technology and the proven capabilities of detector dogs.

In order to join the Canine Program, an individual must first graduate from a CBP Academy and serve as a CBP Officer, CBP Agriculture Specialist or a CBP Border Patrol Agent for a minimum of three years. Applicants are recruited from internal job announcements and are competitively selected.

The mission of the Canine Enforcement Program is to develop, execute, and oversee the allocation, training, and support of canine resources. These valuable resources combat terrorism, interdict narcotics and other contraband while helping to facilitate and process legitimate trade and travel within the core processes of U.S. Customs and Border Protection.

The CBP Canine Enforcement Program (CEP), located within the Office of Field Operations (OFO), Cargo and Conveyance Security, is an integral part of the Agency’s counter-terrorism and narcotics interdiction strategy. The Canine Training Center Front Royal (CCFR) develops course content and provides training for CBP Officers (K9). Currently there are over 1200 OFO canine teams fulfilling the CBP mission throughout the United States. The vast majority of our resources are located along the Southwest border, from Brownsville, Texas to San Diego, California. Canine teams are also strategically assigned to other ports of entry around the country, and located at pre-clearance stations abroad.

The Canine Enforcement Program evaluates each of its teams for detection proficiency once a year. Narcotic detector dogs are tested in their actual work environments on their ability to detect the odors of marijuana, hashish, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine and ecstasy. Dogs trained to detect other odors, such as currency or non-narcotic hazardous substances, are also evaluated on their detection capabilities regularly. The officers are also evaluated, ensuring that they possess the critical handling skills necessary to successfully deploy an OFO detector dog.

Other Federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies may participate in these evaluations. The prerequisites for attendance are: the officer and his assigned canine must have successfully completed the CBP Basic Narcotic Detector Dog Course. No additional expense will be incurred by CBP as a result of the team's inclusion in the evaluation process. All outside agency requests must receive prior approval from CEP Headquarters.

The program will continue to train and equip canine teams to maintain the agency’s efforts at anti-terrorism, border security, selective targeting, interception of large loads of narcotics, detection of smuggled agriculture products and currency, advanced training of officers, and prevention measures through outreach activities to this country's youth. These efforts will be of primary importance. Through the use of risk management and strategic problem solving techniques, all aspects of the Canine Enforcement Program will continue to be improved and updated to meet the changing needs of CBP and the United States of America.

II. Using the vocabulary say whether the following statements are true or false.


  1. U.S. Customs and Border Protection is America’s largest uniformed law enforcement organization.

  2. CBP is working to do whatever is necessary to protect America and safeguard the global economy.

  3. The CBP Canine Program is dedicated to detect smugglers.

  4. The mission of the Canine Enforcement Program is to establish and deploy world-class detector dog programs.

  5. The CBP Canine Enforcement Program is located all around the USA.


TEXT B. CUSTOMS LABORATORIES AND SCIENTIFIC SERVICE

  1. Read the article and and extract the main ideas and facts.

Employees in CBP (Customs Border Protection) Laboratories and Scientific Services use cutting-edge instrumentation to provide forensic and scientific analysis in the following areas:

  • Weapons of mass destruction

  • Narcotics enforcement

  • Trade enforcement

  • Intellectual property rights

The eight laboratories, one Interdiction Technology Branch and one 24 x 7 Teleforensics Center that make up the Office of Information and Technology, Laboratories and Scientific Services are applied science at its best. The more than 200 scientists, chemists, biologists, textile analysts, physicists, forensic scientists, engineers and procurement specialists that work in CBP laboratories conduct general chemical and forensic analysis in support of CBP’s trade and anti-terrorism missions. They conduct laboratory analysis to determine the proper classification and appraisal of a commodity or product, if a product meets safety requirements, and whether a product is counterfeit. But the lab has become indispensable in the effort to detect and identify weapons of mass effect—nuclear, chemical, explosive and biological, including the deployment of sophisticated interdiction systems.

One evolving function of the laboratory is supporting CBP’s anti-terrorism mission. CBP officers and Border Patrol agents have been assigned personal radiation detectors and ports are utilizing radiation portals to screen for nuclear devices or materials that can be used in their construction.

The Forensic Services Program provides forensic and crime scene investigation support. Fingerprints are run through the Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS), a computer network that compares fingerprints to millions of prints contained in law enforcement databases. The computer provides potential matches and the percentage of a match based on certain values. However, to establish a positive match and to meet the standard for evidence in court proceedings, a fingerprint expert compares the actual inked card to the print.

All CBP laboratories have ISO 17025 (quality management) accreditation - the first government agency to receive this for its entire laboratory system. The mobile lab fleet can bring lab expertise to any location within 48 hours and most within just 24 hours. Whether it is identifying an illicit radioactive material, making sure that the pharmaceutical drugs you buy are safe, the video game you buy is authentic, or protecting our domestic trade, the CBP laboratories are working to keep America safe.




  1. Give the gist of the article.



TEXT C. ANTI-TERRORISM TRAINING: A NEW FOCUS

  1. Read the article and and extract the main ideas and facts.

In the wake of September 11, how does Customs suddenly shift its focus and become as proficient at ferreting out terrorists and their weapons as it is at finding hidden drugs? Part of the solution lies in proper training. The Office of Training and Development (OTD) stands ready to help.

OTD first responded by organizing an Anti-Terrorism Network Group last October. Internally, OTD formed a special team that meets daily to plan strategies, identify training needs, develop curricula, and coordinate all anti-terrorism training activities. The team is also building a database of resources, such as training courses, self-study materials, books, videos, and other items that can contribute to training Customs personnel on anti-terrorism matters. Acting in partnership with the Headquarters Information Resource Center, OTD is working to ensure this database can be shared with Customs training providers and others who need ready access to the most recent information on this topic.

The team is spearheading a multi-step approach to Customs anti-terrorism training. For the first phase, OTD collaborated with the offices of Public Affairs, Field Operations, Investigations, and Information Technology to produce a video, "Combating Terrorism at America's Frontline," designed to help Customs inspectors and canine enforcement officers identify and detect smuggled weapons of mass destruction (WMD). The video shows what materials terrorists might attempt to smuggle across our borders, methods of concealment, and how to respond to WMD incidents.

The second phase involves more in-depth, job-specific training across several Customs disciplines. The Laboratory and Scientific Services Division of OIT was among the first to respond, delivering WMD training to several thousand Customs officers all across the country. The Customs Service Academy conducted an anti-terrorism course in early February for inspectors assigned to outbound inspection teams. The program, covering bombs, explosives, and WMD, will probably be expanded and may include related hazardous material topics.

OTD is working with the Office of Field Operations to develop an anti-terrorism training program for Customs inspectors. This training includes practical exercises that will help inspectors identify terrorists and their weapons in both cargo and passenger operations. The training will be tailored to meet the needs of the airport, seaport, and land border environments. Customs has also accepted a proposal from the Department of Energy to conduct training for up to 144 Customs officers.

As part of the second phase of training, the Academy's existing anti-terrorism courses are being extensively reviewed and revised while new ones are being imbedded into the curricula. The Customs Academy's faculty and resident expertise plays a key role in pulling this training plan together. Greater demands on the agency have made it imperative to hire hundreds of more personnel and supplemental funding has made it possible to do so. The Academy is now preparing to accommodate three times the number of new recruits that are typically trained in a fiscal year.

The third phase of the plan involves tabletop exercises for Customs managers and supervisors. The exercises will include potential crisis scenarios, identifying and addressing areas of vulnerability for ports and other locations. Participants will have to confront the unthinkable: a car bomb on a busy bridge, nerve gas released in a crowded airport inspection area, or a container of radioactive material unloaded in a dockyard. No nightmarish incident can be ruled out. This training will help participants consider all contingencies and prepare them to react accordingly.

The tabletops are to be followed by the fourth phase, actual field exercises of emergency situations that involve other agencies and local authorities. These exercises serve as dress rehearsals for the real event. They will allow employees to refine and revise procedures outlined in their port's Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) and strengthen relations and communication links with other federal, state, and local authorities.

Together, these training programs are preparing and equipping Customs officers with the knowledge and skills needed to confront the terrorist threat - whether it's intercepting WMD, ensuring a safe and secure supply chain, or responding to emergencies that were unimaginable before September 11.



  1. Give the gist of the article.



TEXT D. U.S. CUSTOMS IMPLEMENTING NEW MARITIME ANTI - TERRORISM REGULATIONS

I. Read the article and translate the marked words and phrases.

The U.S. Customs Service is implementing February 2 a new maritime regulation designed to identify and eliminate potential terrorist threats from cargo ships before they sail for the United States, says Customs Commissioner Robert Bonner.

The Advance Manifest Regulation, or so-called "24-hour rule," will require that shippers and ocean carriers provide U.S. Customs with manifest information for oceangoing containerized cargo 24 hours in advance of "lading," that is 24 hours before it is loaded on board a vessel for shipment to the United States.

Vague descriptions of cargo on ships or blank descriptions will not be accepted, and where there is no information provided 24 hours before loading, permits to unload will be denied. The 24-hour rule applies to shipments of cargo containers from all ports outside the Untied States to ports of the United States. It is not limited to ports participating in the separate Container Security Initiative (CSI) currently being implemented or about to be implemented at many ports around the world.

CSI is a U.S. Customs Service program or initiative to prevent containerized shipping, which is the primary system of global trade, from being exploited by terrorists. "With CSI, the U.S. Customs Service has entered into partnerships with other governments to identify high-risk cargo containers and pre-screen those containers for terrorist weapons at the port of departure instead of the port of arrival”.

Referring to the new 24-hour rule, "getting the manifest information on the containers in advance of their loading is essential to this process because it provides the risk-targeting data needed to identify high-risk containers - high-risk containers for the potential threat of terrorist or terrorist weapons”.

Ten countries accounting for 17 of the top 20 ports that ship cargo container to the United States have agreed to and are implementing the Container Security Initiative. After the initiative is implemented at many of the top 20, it will be expanded beyond these ports. Countries participating in CSI with the United States are, in Europe, Spain, the Netherlands, France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom, and in Asia, they include Singapore, Japan, China, as well as the special administrative region of Hong Kong.

The Customs Service, now part of the newly formed U.S. Department of Homeland Security, has made combating terrorism its chief priority. With the CSI, the commissioner said, Customs "has entered into partnerships with other governments to identify 'high-risk' cargo containers and pre-screen those containers for terrorist weapons at the port of departure instead of the port of arrival."

II. Answer the following questions.


    1. What is "24-hour rule" and what are its purposes?

    2. What kind of information about cargo will and will not be accepted?

    3. What countries are implementing the Container Security Initiative? Why?



TEXT E. U.S. CUSTOMS AND AND BORDER PROTECTION ACTIONS TAKEN SINCE 9/11

I. Read the text and write out the vocabulary connected with the topic.

“U.S. Customs and Border Protection is addressing the terrorist threat 24-hours a day. We have a multi-layered approach that encompasses working with our foreign counterparts, employing intelligence, technology, advanced information in the field and the most professional workforce worldwide. We are aware of the terrorist threat and are evolving hourly to face it and keep America safe.” – said Robert C. Bonner, Commissioner U.S.Customs and Border Protection.



CBP uses various strategies and employs the latest in technology to accomplish its goals. We have extended our zone of security beyond our physical borders through the use of bilateral and private-sector partnerships, targeting and scrutinizing advance information on people and products coming into this country. We are cultivating “smart borders” through the use of technology and have established a layered defense strategy. And we have created “one face at the border,” a unified, recognizable presence at the border that combines and capitalizes on the authorities and skills of our diverse workforce. CBP has achieved much since its creation in March 2003. Some of the most significant accomplishments are as follows:
  • Augmented Integrated Surveillance Intelligence System (ISIS), that uses remotely monitored night-day camera and sensing systems to better detect, monitor, and respond to illegal crossings, on both the Northern and Southern borders.


  • Deployed radiation detection technology including Personal Radiation Detectors (PRDs) to more than 10, 400 CBP officers and agents, and Radiation Isotope Identification Detection System (RIIDS) to over 60 Border Patrol field locations.

  • Increased the amount of Remote Video Surveillance Systems (RVSS) which are pole mounted cameras that provide coverage 24 hours a day/7 days a week to detect illegal crossings, on both our Northern and Southern borders.

  • Deployed two Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) to support the Arizona Border Control Initiative. UAVs are equipped with sophisticated on-board sensors that provide long-range surveillance and are useful for monitoring remote land border areas where patrols cannot easily travel and infrastructure is difficult or impossible to build.

  • Implemented a Geographic Information System (GIS), a Southwest border initiative, which tracks illegal migration patterns to better deploy personnel and resources to establish control of our border.

  • Increased use of radiation portal monitors. These detection devices provide CBP with a passive, non-intrusive means to screen trucks and other conveyances for the presence of nuclear and radiological materials.

  • Encouraged use of smart and secure containers. In order to qualify as a “smart box” container, it must use a seal or other type of high-security, tamper-evident technology that meets the standards of the International Organization for Standardization. The containers must also be equipped with tamper-proof or tamper-evident container security devices.

  • Increased Border Patrol aircraft and helicopter and marine operations on the northern, southern and coastal areas to enhance our ability to protect and secure our waterways.
  • Tripled the number of Border Patrol Agents on the Northern Border before 9/11, bringing the total number of agents to 1,000 assigned to the U.S border with Canada. Currently, there are about 11,200 Border Patrol agents nationwide.


  • Established additional Border Patrol checkpoints in strategically-located zones of egress from border areas to improve border security by strengthening our “defense in depth.”

  • Deployed specially trained explosive and chemical detector dogs to conduct inspections at our Border Patrol Checkpoints.

  • Developed a set of policies and practices to ensure that – when CBP does encounter an individual, package or conveyance that presents a potential national security risk – the proper anti-terrorism procedures are followed. These procedures are designed to ensure that anti-terrorism responses involve appropriate coordination and information sharing among all relevant law enforcement and intelligence agencies, and required CBP to improve communication and coordination with other agencies such as the FBI and ICE.

  • Worked with national intelligence agencies to share data on suspicious activity and share information with CBP personnel on the front lines.

  • Expanded the use of expedited removal, already available at ports of entry, to areas between ports of entry patrolled by CBP Border Patrol Agents. This permits aliens apprehended after illegally entering the U.S. to be more efficiently and expeditiously removed from the United States.

  • Implemented NEXUS, an alternative inspection system, which allows pre-screened, low-risk travelers to be processed in an expedited manner by CBP, via a dedicated commuter lane at several Canadian land borders.

  • Used the Secure Electronic Network for Travelers Rapid Inspection (SENTRI) at ports of entry along the U.S. -Mexico border. Dedicated commuter lanes and an automated system allow motorists at selected southern land border ports to enter the United States faster.

National Targeting Center was established on October 21, 2001—before September 11, no national level targeting of people or goods crossing our borders existed. The NTC is the centralized coordination point for all of CBP’s anti-terrorism efforts. Utilizing sophisticated targeting methodology it analyzes, screens, and targets for intensive anti-terrorism inspection all passengers and cargo before arrival in the United States.

Established the 24-hour rule, which requires that CBP receive detailed electronic information on all U.S.-bound sea cargo before the cargo is loaded at the foreign port, which provides for improved targeting capability.

CBP uses advance information from the Automated Targeting System (ATS), Automated Export System (AES), and the Trade Act of 2002 Advance Electronic Information Regulations to perform transactional risk assessments, evaluate potential national security risks, and identify cargo that may pose a threat.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CBP personnel are working side by side at the NTC to protect the U.S. food supply by screening high-risk imported food shipments and implementing provisions of the Bioterrorism Act of 2002. CBP and FDA are able to react quickly to threats of bio-terrorist attacks on the U.S. food supply or to other food related emergencies.

The Aviation Transportation Security Act of 2001 (APIS) and the Enhanced Border Security and Visa Reform Act of 2002, mandated the electronic transmission of passenger and crew manifest for inbound and outbound commercial air and sea carriers to the APIS system.

The Student and Exchange Visitor System (SEVIS) was implemented in August 2003. It is an Internet/Intranet based system operated by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement that electronically captures, maintains, and monitors information relevant to each foreign student, exchange visitor, and their dependents. SEVIS provides CBP with a mechanism to facilitate the entry of bonafide students and exchange visitors and quickly identify possible status violators.

The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) continues to make electronic risk management far more effective. The ACE Secure Data Portal provides a single, centralized on-line access point to connect CBP and the trade community. CBP's modernization efforts enhance border security while optimizing the ever-increasing flow of legitimate trade.

Improved anti-terrorism training for all CBP personnel. CBP has implemented anti-terrorism training for all personnel with a special focus on training related to weapons of mass effect. This includes identifying and intercepting potential instruments of terrorism using non-intrusive inspection technology and radiation detection equipment.

Produced an agriculture fundamentals module for classes of new CBP Officers as their initiation to the agriculture component of their new training. A new agriculture procedures module will be delivered to all current CBP Officers at the nation's ports of entry.

CBP will continue its efforts to defend our borders against terrorists and their weapons through innovative use of detection technology, advanced information systems, risk-management, and collaborative ventures with the trade and foreign governments while maintaining a vigorous and welcoming tourism and commercial trade posture.

II. Using the vocabulary discuus the anti-terrorism measures taken by the US Customs.


  1. Role play a dialogue between a person sceptical about anti-terrorism measures and a Customs official.




  1. Role play a terrorist act which has ended in a failure. The participants: terrorists, smugglers, Customs officers.

UNIT VI. CUSTOMS AGAINST SMUGGLING
TEXT A. THE CONSTANT CHANGE IN CONCEALMENT METHODS

I. Read the text and be ready to answer the questions.

As the oldest federal law enforcement agency, Customs is challenged daily to eliminate the threat of drugs being smuggled into the country. Drug smugglers work hard at developing new ways to conceal the presence of narcotics in cargo; Customs officers work harder and smarter to detect those narcotics. In the past, an inspector might have been surprised to find narcotics concealed in an artifact, gas tank, or statue, but now it is a common occurrence.

Drug smugglers conceal narcotics in propane tanks, engines, and even in food products. Customs officers have found narcotics inside children's electronic games, cans of soup, and computer parts. In February of this year, Miami inspectors noticed an unusual density in cans of butter. This prompted the inspectors to x-ray the butter and find 72 kilos of cocaine concealed inside.

Whenever Customs uncovers one method of concealment by drug smugglers, it forces smugglers to look for alternatives. The better Customs is at detecting narcotics, the better smugglers try to get at hiding them. Late last year, California inspectors were examining some decorative rocks. During further examination, some of the rocks were broken open. Concealed inside were 315 kilos of marijuana, giving a whole new meaning to the concept of "yard art"!

On March 10, a lone man attempting to cross into the United States with a tombstone in the bed of a pickup truck was stopped in Otay Mesa. The driver appeared nervous and when asked about the tombstone he made up several stories. He was referred to secondary where a Customs canine narcotics dog alerted to the tombstone. When inspectors drilled the bottom of the tombstone, they uncovered several pounds of cocaine.

Customs has found there are no sacred places when it comes to smuggling narcotics. Narcotics are concealed not only inside inanimate objects but also inside animals and humans beings. In 1995, inspectors found narcotics surgically implanted in an English sheepdog who arrived at New York's JFK Airport. This poor dog was carrying ten cocaine-filled balloons implanted in his abdomen. Luckily, inspectors were able to detect the narcotics before one burst and killed him. In the following year, the Customs inspector who saved his life adopted "Cokey."

Inspectors have often found passengers trying to conceal narcotics in their luggage. But now passengers are moving more aggressively to concealing narcotics in their clothing or on their bodies. Two years ago, a passenger got caught with heroin concealed in the waistband of a pair of homemade briefs. Customs inspectors have found narcotics concealed in the soles of passengers' shoes, and in women's makeup compacts.

Drug smugglers even pay passengers to conceal narcotics and endure painful surgical implants to conceal narcotics in their legs, abdomen, and stomach. In 1998, Customs Inspectors discovered women concealing narcotics inside wigs and hairpieces. The subjects caught were found to have the wigs sewn and glued to their heads. The subjects had to be transported to medical facilities to remove the hairpieces--a hair-raising incident for all.

Customs continues to seize major loads of narcotics at all the ports of entry, despite evolving concealment methods. Customs will continue to work harder and smarter to outfox the smugglers, wherever or however they may turn up.
II. Answer the following questions.


  1. What methods do smugglers use to conceal illegal articles?

  2. What examples of smuggling are given in the article?

  3. Where can a Customs officer find concealed narcotics?



TEXT B. STRUGGLE AGAINST NARCOTICS IN THE REPUBLIC OF AZERBAIJAN

I. Read the article and using the marked words give the summary of it.

One of the main directions of the legal-protection activity the State Customs Committee of the Reoublic of Azerbaijan consists of prevention illegal drugs transportation through a customs border, not to let use of a country territory as “ a transit point”, the fulfilment of moved out duties from the “Programme (2007-2012 years) about struggle against illegal drugs, psychotropic substances and their precussors trafficking and spreading of drug addiction” approved by Decree No 2271 of President of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

There are some factors making it necessary illicit drugs trafficking is a human problem. It worries the whole world and deals a great blow to interests and morality of the state and society. It creates danger for a human life and health and causes increase of criminality and other dangerous appearances.

As a result of the favourable being geographical position, location between Asia being a producer of drugs and European countries being a consumer, having wide land, sea, air railway station of the Republic of Azerbaijan, expansion of trade relations of Azerbaijan with nearly 140 countries of the world and successful implemention of numerous great scale of the economic projects in the Republic year by year increase of number of transported cargo, means of transport and passengers year after year involve narcosmugglers and they try to use this transport infrastructure for their dirty purposes and as a “transit point” in drugs transportation through a country territory.

One of the main factors influencing on narcocondition in the world and Azerbaijan is Afghanistan factor. According to the valuations of the UN Drugs and Criminality Office in 2009 though the scale of the poppy planting is decreased 22%, illegal narcotic production is decreased 10%, narcotic production is 6900 tons in Afghanistan produced over 90% of opium in the world in 2009 caused catastrophic results and created ground for other countries “narcoaggression”. According to information of the same Office in former years the volume of illegally produced opium reserves is 10 thousand tons and it is enough for meeting need of drug addicts during 2 years in the world.

The State Customs Committee with the object of provision of fulfilment their duties in the struggle direction against illicit drugs trafficking implemented some expedient measures in expansion of customs authorities material-technical basis, international cooperation and information exchange, improvement of cadres professional preparation, strengthening of operational-investigation activity, application direction of rational methods and management system of risk. Thus, customs aithorities were provided with buildings and installations meeting modern requirements, technical control means, monitors, narcotests, endoscopes, narcodetectors, means of transport and communication means and other some plant inventories.

Up to the last periods there were difficulties in inspection of cargoes with big size. For liquidation of these difficulties 4 numbers mobile scanners were attained. This activity is being countinuosly carried out. By learning use of technical means measures are implemented by customs authorities.

With the object of improvement of customs employees professionalism regional conferences and seminars on struggle against illegal drugs trafficking were held not only for Azerbaijan for customs officials, but also for neighbour region states customs employees in the Regional Training Centre of the World Customs Organization in Baku.

With the object of the further strengthening and rational increase of the struggle measures against drugs smuggling the mutual cooperation with customs services of other states and especially states having the same border, Russia and Turkey and information exchange were expanded. In this direction joint operational-investigation measures were implemented.

The mutual cooperation and joint activity with side by side other states, connected organizations, legal-protection organs, the Ministry of National Security, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the State Border Service were strengthened by the State Customs Committee of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

Employees of the State Customs Committee actively took part in the preparation and improvement of the normative legal basis related with drugs trafficking in the organization and holding of abolition measures of confiscated drugs for republic in the composition of being formed Abolition commission by the State Commission For Strugge Against Drug Addiction and Illegal Drugs Trafficking of the Republic of Azerbaijan, held scientific-practical conferences on “Young people say no to drugs”.

Taking necessity of the international cooperation in the struggle against illegal drugs trafficking being human misfortune by the State Customs Committee into account for joint activity close cooperation was carried out with WCO, Interpol, European Union, CIS, ECO, GUAM, UN Office for Drugs and Criminality, in South East Europe Cooperation Initiative (SECI) existing international organizations, organizations and communities. Bilateral and polysided contracts, agreements, memoranda, working protocols were signed and joint measures were implemented with customs services of Russia, Iran, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Turkmanistan, Georgia, Austria, USA, Belgium, Bulgaria, Creat Britain, Estonia, France, Lithuania, Lebanon, Moldova, Netherland, Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Kyzghyztan, Ukraine, Greece, Italy, China, Poland and other States.

Employees of the State Customs Committee gave information about planting and production of drugs and exportation them to other countries in the territories out of control in occupied Nagorni Karabakh and neighbouring districts to participants in all international measures.

Taking rationality of service investigation dogs application in the struggle against illegal drugs trafficking all over the world into account the Cynological Centre with all training equipments and medicinal technical installations answering the most modern standars requirements was created for 100 service dog`s training and veterinary examination. At Present 39 service dogs are applied in the daily activity for narcotic searching in the Cynological Centre. Besides this located dogs in the Centre are also successfully applied by customs services of Turkey, Bulgaria and Moldova.

According to opinion of specialist from 1 kg heroin 10.000 doze is received. It is possible to make dependent 170 men on drigs by 100 grammes heroin.

In comparison with previous years amount of captured opium and hashish considering “heavy” increased, on the contrary amount of marijuana decreasing 380 times from 143.6 kilogrammes in the 2005 th year, but in the 2009 th year it was only 377 grammes.

Thus, on July 30, 2007 while implementing the customs inspection of the suitcase belonging to the citizen of the Ukraine, passenger trying to fly by Baku-Urumchu flight I.Krasnyuk hidden inside of it 3115 grammes, on December 5, 2007 while implementing the customs inspection of the suitcase belonging to the citizen of the Republic of Azerbaijan trying to fly by Baku-Moscow-Shanghai flight N.Guliyev 2622 grammes heroin was detected by employees of the Head Customs Office in the Air Transport. In connection with the last as a result of the implemented urgent operational-investigation measures 2500 grammes heroin was detected in different flats in Baku city and citizens Mali, Ghana, Nigeria were stopped.

One of the problems rousing interest and demanding special attention, in service activity of customs authorities are special hide methods using in smuggling of drugs. Hide methods are many-coloured and numerous used by narcosmugglers.

Last years with the object of secretly illegal transportation drugs through a customs border specially made secret places in air balloons, fuel tanks, spare wheels, cargo places, empty places, tape-recorders of motor wehicles, inside of a body, intestine emptiness, hide inside of fruit, washing powder, underclothes, heel of shoes, inside cigarettes and match boxes, double side suitcases, gas balloons, vacuum cleaners, emptiness of other musical centers, shampoo, post sendings, emptiness of ventilator and ceiling of carriages and other hide methods were widely used.

Information about interesting hide methods for detected many facts by Azerbaijan customs authorities as an example were broadcasted all member customs services by the World Customs Organization.

With the object of building reliable shield in front of illegal drugs international trafficking by improving forms and methods of struggle against narcotics the implementation of the complex measures is being continued by customs authorities of the Republic of Azerbaijan.


TEXT C. HMT/CE1 TOBACCO SMUGGLERS TOLD – YOUR TIME IS UP

I. Read the article and say what anti-smuggling measures are taken by the UK Customs.

Tackling Tobacco Smuggling, the Government's anti-smuggling strategy published today, sets out the new package which includes:



  • nearly 1000 more Customs officers, working at ports and inland

  • additional specialist investigators and intelligence staff

  • additional x-ray scanners

  • tougher sanctions and penalties

  • a public awareness campaign.

This £209 million package will put nearly 1000 more Customs officers on the front line, providing them with the best technology and the most effective sanctions to combat and defeat tobacco smugglers. Our aim is to reverse the trend in cigarette smuggling over three years, and in the longer term get smuggling below current levels.

All those involved in tobacco smuggling - from the smugglers to the distributors - should be under no illusions. We will catch you, we will seize your smuggled goods and the vehicles you use, and we will punish you with the most severe penalties. Your time is up.

Evidence shows that anti-smoking strategies need to be comprehensive and cross-Government if they are to succeed. There is a strong health case for year-on-year real terms increases in the price of cigarettes and tobacco to support our objectives and we welcome the Chancellor's decision to continue with tax increases in this Budget.

Increasing taxes, cutting smuggling and offering new support and advice to smokers who want to give up will have a huge impact on cutting smoking related deaths and improving the health of thousands.

Current estimates are that 1 in 5 cigarettes smoked in the UK are smuggled. The availability of cheaper smuggled cigarettes increases total cigarette consumption. This undermines the Government's health objective of reducing smoking which kills over 120,000 people every year. Without action it is estimated that as many 1 cigarette out of 3 could be smuggled in the near future.

The Chancellor commissioned Martin Taylor to evaluate the way in which tobacco smuggling was being combated. He reported in November 1999 and recommended measures to increase detection; measures to increase the risk and reduce the reward for smugglers; and measures to act on the public perception.

The Government published its anti-smuggling strategy today in response to Martin Taylor's advice. The strategy aims to increase massively the chances of those involved in smuggling getting caught and hitting criminals with severe penalties.

The Government is committing up to £209 million over the next three years to tackle smuggling. Funding for the full strategy consists of:


  • £90 million extra funding for Customs to be spread over the next three years, announced for the first time today;

  • £23 million from the capital modernisation fund, as set out in the PBR;

  • £96 million provisionally set aside for 2001-02 and 2002-03, following the conclusions of reviews of cooperation between law enforcement agencies (part of the Spending Review 2000).

The strategy used by the Customs involves:

  • increasing the number of seizures all along the supply chain;

  • improving intelligence to optimise interception rates and disrupt inland distribution;

  • targeting measures to apply effective sanctions to those involved in inland distribution;

  • increasing use of asset confiscation to remove the economic rewards of smuggling;

  • enhancing inter-agency working at home and abroad;

  • deploying extra resources - both human and technological;

  • ensuring the public and potential smugglers are in no doubt about the consequences of their actions.

The Government's investment will put up to nearly 1000 more frontline staff to tackle tobacco smuggling:-

  • 520 extra staff in key locations. They will work in high risk border and inland locations increasing Customs anti-smuggling activities, 170 of whom will be dedicated to combating smuggling at the Channel ports;

  • 95 intelligence staff will be located both in the UK and overseas;

  • 310 investigation staff will break up the large scale organised smuggling gangs;
  • 30 more will be in Customs Solicitors Office to handle increase in commercial fraud cases.

This investment - together with the measures announced in the Pre Budget Report such as the introduction of cigarette and tobacco pack marks will reverse the upward trend in cigarette smuggling into the UK within three years and in the longer term have smuggling below current levels. Compared with taking no action, the strategy will reduce smuggling by over a third by 2002-3.

It will support the Government's objective to reduce levels of smoking which causes over 120,000 deaths every year. It will also tackle the serious criminality around tobacco smuggling. It will raise £2.3 billion of revenue over three years - including indirect effects this increases to over £3 billion over three years.

The Government has also announced further details of the national network of x-ray scanners. These scanners will be a mixture of permanent, relocatable and mobile scanners. Scanners will make apparent to Customs concealments of cigarettes (and other contraband) in minutes rather than hours. This will substantially increase successful interception of smuggled cigarettes by allowing more examinations of high risk or targeted traffic.

These additional resources will be supported by new, harder sanctions and penalties as indicated in the Pre-Budget Report. This will include, from 1 April 2001, a compulsory pack mark on tobacco products clearly indicating that UK duty has been paid. Pack marks will make identification of smuggled tobacco easier. Anyone buying or selling tobacco will know immediately whether they are dealing with legitimate goods and it will make it easier for the police and trading standards officers to help Customs in their enforcement role.

New offences will enable quick and effective prosecution of anyone found selling or dealing in unmarked tobacco. At the same time new criminal offences subject to a fine of up to £5000 will be introduced for possessing, selling or dealing in unmarked cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco or permitting premises to be used for such activity.


NEWS CAPSULE
Read the following pieces of news. Pay attention to new customs vocabulary.
CBP Officers in Arizona Find Crystal Meth in Can of Powdered Milk

Nogales, Ariz. — U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers stopped a drug smuggling attempt when they seized 1.5 pounds of crystal methamphetamine in a can of powdered milk.

On February 2 at about 12:30 p.m., CBP officers were screening pedestrians at the DeConcini Morley Gate at the Nogales port of entry. CBP officers became suspicious of a woman who was identified as a United States citizen and resident of Nogales, Ariz.

CBP officers searched the woman’s belongings and found that the can of powdered milk she was carrying had a plastic bag of crystal meth concealed in the bottom of the can. The crystal meth weighed more than 1.5 pounds and had an estimated street value of more than $70,000.

CBP officers seized the crystal meth. The woman was turned over to the custody of Immigration and Customs Enforcement for further investigation and prosecution.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection is the unified border agency within the Department of Homeland Security charged with the management, control and protection of our nation's borders at and between the official ports of entry. CBP is charged with keeping terrorists and terrorist weapons out of the country while enforcing hundreds of U.S. laws.


CBP officers in New Mexico check a young pedestrian's backpack and discovered five pounds of marijuana.

Officers removed a total of five packages from the backpack. The contents of the packages tested positive for marijuana. The juvenile drug smuggler, a U.S. citizen originally from Surprise, Ariz., was remanded for prosecution.

“Young teens are often enticed to become involved in drug smuggling without realizing that the consequences of their actions can impact their lives for years to come,” said Charles Wright, CBP Columbus port director. “The message this seizure sends is that CBP officers at Columbus port are vigilant and thorough in their examination of all arriving people, regardless of age.”

CBP officers working at the Columbus and Antelope Wells ports of entry have made nine marijuana seizures and four seizures of smuggled prescription medications since the beginning of the year. During the same time a year ago CBP officers at the two ports had made a single drug seizure.

While anti-terrorism is the primary mission of U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the inspection process at the ports of entry associated with this mission results in significant numbers of enforcement actions in all categories.

U.S. Customs and Border Protection is the unified border agency within the Department of Homeland Security charged with the management, control and protection of our nation's borders at and between the official ports of entry. CBP is charged with keeping terrorists and terrorist weapons out of the country while enforcing hundreds of U.S. laws.



CBP Officers Seize More than 6 Tons of Marijuana in January at World Trade Bridge

Laredo, Texas – U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers at the Laredo port of entry seized more than six-and-a-half tons of marijuana at World Trade Bridge during the month of January. The total estimated street value for the narcotics seized is more than $13 million.

Since the beginning of 2010, CBP officers at the World Trade Bridge have been busy processing significant volumes of commercial shipments and empty commercial conveyances that enter via that commercial border crossing. CBP officers have intercepted several sizeable loads of marijuana, including two during the last two weeks.

The latest seizure was for 2,650 pounds of marijuana. The 91 bundles of narcotics were detected in a false wall of an empty trailer. The marijuana is valued at more than $2.6 million.

At the World Trade Bridge, 5,415 pounds of marijuana was found in a shipment of auto parts.

Another seizure of 5,415 pounds of marijuana, the largest for this month, was found just days before the last seizure. The 144 bundles of marijuana were found co-mingled within a commercial shipment of auto parts. This load of marijuana has an estimated street value of more than $5.4 million.

Factoring in these two latest seizures of marijuana, CBP officers at the World Trade Bridge have intercepted a total of more than 13,000 pounds of marijuana for the month of January 2010.

“Six-and-a-half tons of marijuana confiscated in a month is quite an accomplishment. It is a testament to the commitment of all of our CBP officers who dedicate themselves to the facilitation of legitimate cargo while protecting our country against the threat of bulk loads of narcotics at our commercial crossings,” said Gene Garza, CBP port director in Laredo.


CBP Officers at New Mexico Port Nab 14-Year-Old Drug Smuggler

Columbus, New Mexico – U.S. Customs and Border Protection officers working at the Columbus, N.M. port of entry seized 5.3 pounds of marijuana Thursday morning. The drugs were hidden in a backpack being carried by a 14-year-old girl.

The seizure was made just before 7 a.m. when the juvenile entered the port from Mexico as a pedestrian. CBP officers selected the girl for a secondary exam and while searching her backpack they spotted several rectangular packages.

Customs seizes fake rugby World Cup t-shirts

New Zealand Customs Service is warning people to watch out for counterfeit merchandise for next year's rugby World Cup after seizing a large quantity of fake t-shirts. Customs detained more than 1000 trademark-infringing t-shirts in December.

Exploitation by counterfeiters threatened the future global development of rugby, Rugby World Cup general manager Ross Young said. "The sport relies on the revenue stream generated by the sale of official merchandise and the greed of these counterfeiters significantly undermines this." The clothing was being sold through discount shops, markets and the internet, Customs group manager (investigations and response) Bill Perry said. "[Consumers] are purchasing what they believe is the real thing when in fact they are buying an inferior product." Genuine items would be sold by Canterbury or Sportfolio, Mr Perry said.

Tips for spotting fake Rugby World Cup 2011 merchandise:

* Genuine t-shirts retail for about $40 and will have Canterbury or Sportfolio labelling.

* Examine the quality, such as whether seams are sewn straight.

* Check labels and packaging for mis-spellings, or mis-printings.

* It is unlikely genuine merchandise will be sold at street markets, car boot sales, or discount type shops.

* Be wary of buying merchandise from the internet - ask for proof that the items are genuine.





1   2   3   4   5   6   7

Гладко М.А.

Учебно-методическое пособие по профессионально-ориентированному английскому языку для студентов специальности «Финансы и контроль в сфере таможенной деятельности» = English Reader for Students Majoring in Customs / М.А. Гладко. - БГЭУ, 2010. – 97c.

:)


The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2017
send message

    Main page

:)