Учебное пособие может быть использовано при подготовке студентов к промежуточной и итоговой аттестации, а также в процессе их самостоятельной работы по овладению рядом общекультурных



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РОСЖЕЛДОР
Государственное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«Ростовский государственный университет путей сообщения»
(РГУПС)

МЕТОДИЧЕСКОЕ ОБЕСПЕЧЕНИЕ

САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ СТУДЕНТОВ

ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНАМ КАФЕДРЫ

«ИНОСТРАННЫЕ ЯЗЫКИ»

(Английский язык)


Часть 1

Ростов-на-Дону


2010
УДК 42 (07) + 06
Методическое обеспечение самостоятельной работы студентов по дисциплинам кафедры «Иностранные языки». (Английский язык). – Ч. 1./ Рост. гос. ун-т путей сообщения. – Ростов н/Д, 2010. – 242 с.
В коллективном учебном пособии представлены контрольные работы и задания для самостоятельной работы студентов очной и заочной форм обучения всех направлений подготовки по дисциплинам кафедры «Иностранные языки»: «Иностранный язык» (английский, немецкий, французский и испанский), Русский язык и культура речи», «Речевая коммуникация».

Учебное пособие может быть использовано при подготовке студентов к промежуточной и итоговой аттестации, а также в процессе их самостоятельной работы по овладению рядом общекультурных, профессиональных и коммуникативно-ориентированных компетенций.



Авторский коллектив:




Контрольные работы по английскому языку:

Аврускина Е.Б., Бандурина И.А., Бессарабова О.Н., Горюнова Е.Р., Григорянц Л.Е., Исаева Т.Е., Колесниченко А.Н., Майорова Э.Е., Недоспасова Л.А., Нестерук Е.В., Первухина С.В., Ражина В.А., Симонова О.Б., Свиридова Л.А., Сорокина М.М, Хлебникова М.В.

Рецензент: к.ф.н., доцент М.Н. Черкасова

Научный редактор д-р пед. наук проф. Т. Е. Исаева

Ответственный редактор преп. А. В. Тактарова


© Ростовский государственный университет

путей сообщения, 2010

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ


ВВЕДЕНИЕ …………………………………………………………......…
Требования, предъявляемые к контрольной работе……………………..

Контрольные работы по английскому языку:

Вагоны. Локомотивы. Электрический транспорт железных дорог…….


Менеджмент (Управление персоналом)……………………………….…
Документоведение и архивоведение……………………………………..
Туризм / Сервис / Социальная работа……………………………………
Экономика и управление на предприятии. (Деловой английский)……………………………………………………………...…
Юриспруденция……………………………………………………………
Информационные системы…………………………………………..……
Строительство железных дорог, путь и путевое хозяйство / Строительство……....…………………………………………………...…
Для железно-дорожных и инженерных специальностей…………..……



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ТРЕБОВАНИЯ, ПРЕДЪЯВЛЯЕМЫЕ К КОНТРОЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЕ

Каждый вариант контрольной работы состоит из нескольких заданий. Студент должен выполнить один из вариантов контрольного задания в соответствии с последними цифрами студенческого шифра: студенты, шифр которых оканчивается на 1, выполняют вариант № 1, на 2 – вариант № 2 и т. д.

1. Выполнять письменную работу следует в отдельной тетради. На обложке тетради пишется фамилия, инициалы, шифр, адрес, вариант контрольной работы. В конце работы необходимо указать список использованной литературы.

2. Контрольная работа должна быть написана самостоятельно, аккуратным, четким почерком. При выполнении контрольной работы необходимо оставлять в тетради широкие поля для замечаний, объяснений и методических указаний рецензента.

3. Преподаватель, принимающий зачёт (экзамен), оставляет за собой право задать дополнительные или уточняющие вопросы по заданиям, выполненным не в полном объёме или с ошибками, потребовать объяснить позицию автора контрольной работы, если она вызывает сомнения.

КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ РАБОТЫ ПО АНГЛИЙСКОМУ ЯЗЫКУ




ВАГОНЫ. ЛОКОМОТИВЫ. ЭЛЕКТРИЧЕСКИЙ ТРАНСПОРТ ЖЕЛЕЗНЫХ ДОРОГ

Контрольная работа №1


Для того чтобы правильно выполнить работу, необходимо повторить следующий материал по грамматике английского языка:

  1. Словообразование – основные словообразовательные суффиксы.

  2. Видовременные формы глагола в активном залоге.

  3. Модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.

  4. Многозначность глаголов “to be”, “to have”.

Вариант 1


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. We have been reading the newspaper for two hours.

  2. They discussed every detail of the building.

  3. During the last few years we have witnessed remarkable progress in the space research techniques.

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, заменив модальные глаголы их эквивалентами.



  1. People cannot see well in the evening.

  2. You may come in and sit down.

  3. My friend must go to work tomorrow.

Задание 3. Определите значения глаголов to be, to have в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многофункциональность этих глаголов.



  1. I have good work.

  2. You were to help me.

  3. They have already done it.

Задание 4. Определите по суффиксу, какой частью речи являются следующие слова. Переведите их.

- equal

- productivity


- presence

- lengthen

- crystallize

- effective

- useful
Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.
HISTORY OF TRANSPORT
Transportation takes us where we want to go, and bring us nearly everything we eat, wear, and use in daily life. Developments in transportation have cut travel time greatly in the past 200 years. In 1800, it often took a businessman a month to travel by sailing ship from London to New York City. Today, he can fly this distance by jet airliner in only few hours.

The airplane has made New York City closer in time to Sydney, Australia, than it was to Montreal, Canada, only a hundred years ago. Americans and Canadians can easily travel to Europe and back on a two week vacation. Modern transportation also makes it possible to travel in comfort. The pioneers jolted westward over rough trails in springless wagons with wooden wheels. Today, tourists ride on raved roads over the same routes in automobiles and buses with wheels that have soft, air-filled tires.

Passengers of the first trains sat on hard wooden seats and often choked in clouds of smoke and dust. Many of today’s trains have soft reclining seats. Air conditioning may keep the air clean and cool, and dining cars serve tasty meals.

Transportation would not be possible without communication. Automobiles and trucks could not travel on crowded streets and highways without street signals and traffic lights. Automatic block signals and other means of communication enable railroads to operate safely. Light houses and radio compasses provide information for ships at sea. Airplanes cannot land and take off safely without radio, radar and other electronic devices.


Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы согласно тексту.
  1. In what way does transportation affect our lives?


  2. What is the difference between modern travelers and travelers of the previous centuries?

  3. What means of communication can help transport to operate safely?

Вариант 2


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Considerable changes are currently taking place in the organization of research.

  2. By the first of September he will have been working at our university for 10 years.

  3. Many new houses are built in our city.

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, заменив модальные глаголы их эквивалентами.



  1. In order to see certain stars we must use a telescope.

  2. The students must continue the experiment.

  3. Mercury may receive more heat and light than any other planet.

Задание 3. Определите значения глаголов to be, to have в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многофункциональность этих глаголов.



  1. The students are at the Institute.

  2. We had to meet him at the railway station.

  3. What are you doing now?

Задание 4. Определите по суффиксу, какой частью речи являются следующие слова. Переведите их.

- strengthen

- breakage

- wonderful

- humanity

- characterize

- happiness

- productive
Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

KINDS OF TRANSPORTATION

There are three main kind of transportation: land, water and air. Each has advantages and disadvantages. For example, trucks and trains can operate in storms that may ground airliners or keep ships in harbours. Weather and geographical conditions may also determine the type of transportation used in a region.

On land, the chief forms of transport are automobiles, railroads, trucks, and pipelines. Railroads haul about half of the freight transported in the world. Trucks carry about a fifth of this freight, and pipelines transport a little less than a fifth. Boats, barges, and airliners transport the remaining freight. Railroads have equal or greater importance in the transportation of freight in Russia, Europe, and other areas. In addition to hauling freight, most railroads provide passenger service between cities and towns. Commuter trains transport thousands of persons daily between their homes in suburban areas and large cities.

Railroads move every type of material, but are best suited to haul great quantities of heavy freight. For this reason, railroads play an important role in transporting coal, iron, ore, grain, timber, and other heavy products. Trains can haul freight cheaply because a single locomotive can pull as many as 200 freight cars.

Trucks cost relatively more than railroads for transportation because, they require more power and more men to move the same amount of freight. But trucks can travel wherever there are roads. Special trucks used in mining, drilling oil wells, and laying pipelines can operate even in areas that lack roads.


Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы согласно тексту.


  1. What are the main kinds of land transport?

  2. For what kind of freight are railroads suited best of all?

  3. What are the main disadvantages of air transport?

Вариант 3


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. By the first of March you will have been working in our shop for two years.

  2. Science is becoming a leading factor of progress of mankind.

  3. The operator will start the engine.

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, заменив модальные глаголы их эквивалентами.



  1. He may use any transmitter for this system.

  2. The engineers must investigate new means of radio communication.

  3. I can do this work just now.

Задание 3. Определите значения глаголов to be, to have в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многофункциональность этих глаголов.



  1. She has just come by car.

  2. They were at the conference on Monday.

  3. He had to make an important decision recently.

Задание 4. Определите по суффиксу, какой частью речи являются следующие слова. Переведите их.

- valuable

- organize

- dependency

- broaden

- useless

- safety


- different

Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

PROBLEMS OF TRANSPORTATION

Many problems must be overcome in the task of transporting people and materials from one place to another. Transportation services must be able to operate day and night, the year round, in all kinds of climate and weather. They must be able to operate over mountains and rivers, and through snow and storms.

On land, snow and ice often block railroads and highways. In extreme northerly regions it is difficult to build railroads and highways because the ground stays permanently frozen short distance below the surface. During the summer, the surface of such ground thaws and becomes a muddy bog. In winter, the extremely low temperatures in these areas make steel rails so brittle that they can break easily.

In rainy tropical regions, dense jungles must be cleared before railways and roads can be built. In these regions, railroads must use steel ties and telegraph poles. Wooden poles and ties rot in tropical climates. In desert regions, such as the Sahara and Gobi, and the southwest of the United States, extremely high daytime temperatures cause transportation equipment to overheat and break down. Drifting sands blows into machinery, and may block roads and railway tracks.

But weather is the greater threat to air transportation. Small aircraft caught in violent storms must either fight their way through or find a safe landing place. All pilots consult weather reports and maps before taking off, so they can avoid bad weather conditions. Since 1940’s radio, radar, and other electronic devices have made flying safer.

Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы согласно тексту.


  1. What are the main problems of land transport in desert regions?

  2. In what way does the weather influence air transport?

  3. What are the main problems of transportation in extremely northerly regions?

Вариант 4


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The plan of the building was discussed several times.

  2. We had been discussing this problem for some time, when you came to the meeting.

  3. How long does it take you to get home from work?

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, заменив модальные глаголы их эквивалентами.



  1. The designers can improve the operation of these receivers.

  2. The students may use all the laboratory equipment.

  3. He must take part in this work.

Задание 3. Определите значения глаголов to be, to have в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многофункциональность этих глаголов.



  1. The students have to take five examinations.

  2. Our institute was founded in 1929.

  3. I haven’t seen you for ages.

Задание 4. Определите, какой частью речи являются следующие слова. Переведите их.

- greatness

- atmospheric

- revolutionize

- powerful

- lighten

- dependant

- active
Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

FROM THE HISTORY OF RAILWAYS

By the 18th century workers in several mining areas had discovered that movement of a loaded wagon was easier if its wheels ran on, and were guided by, a crude track of metal plates because friction was thereby reduced. The wagonways served only to move goods from their source to the nearest waterway, then the principal means of bulk transport. The onset of the Industrial Revolution in early 19th century Europe demanded more efficient means of moviwng raw materials to the new factories and finished goods from them. The solution was pioneered by Richard Trevithick, a Cornish engineer. In 1804 he successfully adapted the steam engine to drive a wheeled locomotive that hauled wagons at the Pen-y-Darren ironworks, South Wales.

The world’s first public steam railway, the Stockton & Darlington in north-east England, engineered by George Stephenson, was opened in 1825. For some years this railway carried only freight, and also made some use of horses. The first public railway to carry both passengers and freight, and to be worked entirely by steam locomotives, was the Liverpool & Manchester, opened in 1830.

The commercial, financial and technical success of the Liverpool & Manchester transformed the concept of a railway, and not only in Britain. Previously regarded as a short –haul medium of primary benefit to mining, it was now seen as capable of revolutionizing long-haul transport, both of passengers and freight. And from the mid-1830s onward inter-city railway construction developed rapidly in Britain and Continental Europe.

Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы согласно тексту.

1. Who was the pioneer of creation of steam engine on railway?


  1. When and where was the first public railway opened?

  2. Who organized this railway?

Вариант 5


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. How long have you been working here?

  2. The world of physical theory is developing at a very high rate.

  3. In our experiment we shall apply the latest instruments.

Задание 2. Перепишите следующие предложения, заменив модальные глаголы их эквивалентами.



  1. I must get up early every day.

  2. The students may conduct experiments in this field of science.

  3. He can use any transmitter for this system.

Задание 3. Определите значения глаголов “to be”, “to have” в следующих предложениях. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на многофункциональность этих глаголов.



  1. The designer was to use low weight equipment.

  2. They didn’t have to analyse these data.

  3. He wasn’t at work yesterday.

Задание 4. Определите, какой частью речи являются следующие слова. Переведите их.

- widen

- efficiency



- relative

- magnetize

- important

- usage


- activity
Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

RAILROAD


The railroad made it possible to carry goods and people overland for long distances at high speed. Railroads were first built in Great Britain and in the 19th century, as the Industrial Revolution developed, the railroads were the most important and fastest growing form of transportation.

There were railroads long before there were railroad engines or locomotives. As early as the 16th century, wagon-ways made of wooden rails were used to convey wagons loaded with coal from the mines in Durham and Northumberland in northeast England. It was found that horses could pull heavier loads along a smooth track than a rough road.

Later, iron plates were used to protect the wood and around 1800 L-shaped rails came into use for guiding the wagon wheels. These “plate-ways” and “tramways” were also used in South Wales and it was there in 1804 that the Cornish mine owner Richard Trevithick worked on a steam locomotive able to haul a load of 20 tons. With the development of steam engine, the way was open for the start of the railroad age.

In Russia the beginning of railway construction may be traced as far back as the second half of the 18th century, when the country was awakening from the long slumber of the Middle Ages. Since capitalism was gaining ground in Russia, new industrial enterprises began to spring up all over the country and then the existing machines could not cope with the ever increasing demands of the mines. The first steam locomotive in Russia was constructed by the Cherepanovs, father and son, who were considered to be the most skilled and most talented workmen of their time.

Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы согласно тексту.


  1. Where were the first railways used?

  1. Why did Russia begin rapid construction of railways?

  2. Who were the pioneers of creation a steam locomotive in Russia?

Контрольная работа № 2


Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить работу, необходимо повторить следующий материал по грамматике английского языка:

  1. Словообразование – основные словообразовательные суффиксы.

  2. Видовременные формы глагола в пассивном залоге.

  3. Степени сравнения прилагательных.

Вариант 1


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The operation of the receiving station is influenced by a number of factors.

  2. During the last several years some attempts have been made to classify the elementary particles.

  3. A conference on those problems is being hold now.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассив.



  1. The policeman fined the driver for exceeding the speed limit.

  2. The looked for him everywhere.

  3. They have told us a lot of interesting things.

Задание 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя соответствующую форму прилагательного.



  1. The new cinema in our district (big) than the old one.

  2. The problem is (important) than you think.

  3. This is (beautiful) view I have ever seen in my life.

Задание 4. Образуйте прилагательные, используя следующие суффиксы: -ic, -al, -ive, -able, -ible, - ful.

- magnet

- electric

- achiev(e)

- compress

- doubt

- attract

Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES

A disadvantage of the steam locomotive, which loomed larger as 20th-century road transport competition put pressure on railway costs, was its limited availability for continuous work, because of the frequency of its need for servicing. Diesel-traction engines need less attention, while electric-traction engines can run continuously for a period of days; thus to work a given number of trains, an electrified railway needs the fewest locomotives or self-powered railcars.

Steam’s demise was signaled in the early 1930s, when the US and German industry almost simultaneously developed high-power diesel engines of a size and weight capable of use in a rail vehicle. By 1958, 90 per cent of the traffic of the principal US railways was hauled over 27,600 diesel locomotives, and only 1,700 steam locomotives were left.

The diesel locomotive mostly takes the form of a mobile power station, in which the diesel engine drives a generator providing current for electric traction motors. It has all but eliminated steam worldwide on lines with insufficient traffic to repay the high first cost of electrification. A continuous output of 5,000-6,000 hp is now obtainable from a single diesel-electric locomotive.
Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы по тексту.


  1. What do you know about the disadvantages of steam locomotives?

  2. What can you say about the advantages of diesel locomotives?

Вариант 2

Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.


  1. Your order will be fulfilled in five days’ time.

  2. In recent years much of our interest has been centered round the problem of the evolution of the comets.

  3. The work of Rutherford was followed by great research work of many other scientists.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассив.



  1. I am sure we’ll settle the matter very easily.

  2. Industrial pollution ruined our city.

  3. Thousands of people attended this meeting.

Задание 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя соответствующую форму прилагательного.



  1. My son is two years (old) than my daughter.

  2. It was (bad) mistake I’ve ever made.

  3. The Thames is (short) than the Volga.

Задание 4. Образуйте прилагательные, используя следующие суффиксы: -ic, -al, -ive, -able, -ible, - ful.

- еlectron

- spectr(um)

- decis(ion)

- change


- exhaust

- peace
Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.


RAILWAY BUILDING AFTER WORLD WAR I

After World War I, new railway building in the developed world was mostly of underground city and suburban railways until the construction of new high-speed inter-city passenger lines was initiated by Japan in the 1960s. But in the developing world – especially in India, the Soviet Union and China, where trains remained the prime movers of passenger and freight – extension of the traditional railway network continued throughout the 20th century. Between 1950 and 1990 China doubled its length of railway, constructing a succession of new main lines; it was still building at an annual rate of over 400 km in the 1990s, aiming to have an 80,000-rm network in place by the year 2000.

Continual advances in the size, power and speed of the steam locomotive in the railway’s first 100 years had their most impressive results in North America. In the 1920s the requirement on some US railways for haulage of 4,000-5,000-tonne freight trains up lengthy grades in mountainous country prompted the development of the articulated steam locomotive. In this type, one long boiler supplied two separate engines that pivoted independently of each other so that the lengthy locomotive could negotiate curves comfortably. The final examples of this type, which with their big multiwheeled tenders carrying coal and water grossed over 500 tones, could sustain an output of 7,000-8,000 hp.

Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы согласно тексту.


  1. What can you say about the railway construction after World War I?

  2. In what countries does the traditional railway network continue to develop?

Вариант 3


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. The experiment will be described in several journals.

  2. A few improvements have lately been recommended to facilitate the experiments on atomic collisions.

  3. Some singers were being interviewed when I switched on the radio.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассив.



  1. The earthquake ruined several big cities.

  2. We haven’t solved the problem yet.

  3. A discussion will follow the lecture.

Задание 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя соответствующую форму прилагательного.



  1. This road is about mile (long) than that one.

  2. Their team is definitely (good) in the world.

  3. Today the weather is (cold) than it was yesterday.

Задание 4. Образуйте прилагательные, используя следующие суффиксы: -ic, -al, -ive, -able, -ible, - ful.

- аtom

- culture



- attract

- vary


- success

- convert


Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

THE ELECTRIFICATION OF RAILWAYS

Experiments with electrical railways were started by Robert Davidson in 1838. He completed a battery-powered carriage capable of 6.4 km/h (4 mph). The Giants Causeway Tramway was the first to use electricity fed to the trains en-route, using a third rail, when it opened in 1883. Overhead wires were taken into use in 1888. The first conventional electrified railway was the Roslag Line in Sweden. During the 1890s, many large cities, such as London, Paris and New York used the new technology to build rapid transit for urban commuting.

Widespread trunk-route electrification in the developed world followed World War II. Continental European countries restoring war-damaged main lines took the opportunity to electrify them.

Then in the 1950s the French perfected an electrification system making direct use of 25-k V alternating current at the industrial frequency. This is only secured marked improvement of an electric locomotive’s performance, but cut the capital cost of electrification, which now become economically feasible for lines with lower traffic levels, in the developing as well as the developed world. Much of the extensive railway building in China and the former USSR since 1950 has been accompanied by electrification.

Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы согласно тексту.


  1. When did electrification of railways begin?

  2. What were the results of electrification?

Вариант 4


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. I was asked to fill in the form in both Russian and English.

  2. During the last decades a great number of researches have been involved in the study of cancer problems.

  3. The lists are still being typed.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассив.



  1. The flood has seriously damaged the city library.

  2. They are interviewing the delegates.

  3. We shall do the work in the evening.

Задание 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя соответствующую форму прилагательного.



  1. You were ten minutes (late) than we were.

  2. Chinese is (difficult) than English.

  3. The Caucasus are (high) mountains in Europe.

Задание 4. Образуйте прилагательные, используя следующие суффиксы: -ic, -al, -ive, -y, -ous, - ful.

- vary

- rain


- realist

- electric

- act

- wonder
Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.

RAILWAY EVOLUTION IN THE 20th CENTURY

In the 20th century’s last quarter railway evolution has been marked chiefly by reaction in the developed world to the strength of road and air competition; by exploitation of electronics; and by a rapid spread of “Metro” (urban) systems, in the developing as well as the developed countries. In rural areas with good roads, the railway can no longer match the car, bus, or, lorry, either in cost or convenience, for local transport. The result in Europe has been steady closure of local railways since World War II.

In Western Europe, population centers are much more closely spaced; there, modernization of track and signaling, plus new traction technology, have enabled sustained running speeds of 160 or even 200 km/h. This has kept trains on historic main lines competitive in speed with planes and private cars for inter-city journeys.

These inter-city trains have been helped to retain enough traffic for viability by great improvements in comfort: advances in running gear and elimination of rail joints by long-welding has made passenger carriages very smooth riding; and interiors are often air-conditioned and sound-insulated.

Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы согласно тексту.


  1. What new types of transport appeared in the last quarter of the 20th century?

  2. What improvements appeared in passenger service in Western Europe?

Вариант 5


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. Valuable information has been obtained in recent years on the age and composition of the moon.

  2. The application of quantum generators in this branch of industry is being investigated.

  3. The tourists are asked to be in the hotel lobby at exactly ten.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассив.



  1. The fire has done a lot of damage.

  2. We test each piece of equipment very carefully.

  3. They will build a stadium here in the near future.

Задание 3. Раскройте скобки, употребляя соответствующую форму прилагательного.



  1. The question was (long) than the answer.

  2. The problem is (important) than you think.

  3. Which is (beautiful) place in this part of the city?

Задание 4. Образуйте прилагательные, используя следующие суффиксы: -ic, -al, -ive, -able, -ous, - ful.

- cosm(os)

- univers(e)

- suit

- continue



- use

- conduct


Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PASSENGER TRAINS

The development of the modern inter-city passenger trains began in the 1869s, when George Pullman persuaded US railway companies to let him run his own sleeping cars, and later the dining cars in their trains. G. Pullman built his first car remodeling a stage-coach body for this purpose. This car didn’t look like the cars we are familiar with and was much simpler in design. However, it proved to be so much suitable for long distance travel that passengers gladly paid the extra money for travelling in it. These carriages, on which a supplementary Pullman fare was charged, set standards of comfort previously unknown on trains.

Pullman’s initiative was copied in Europe by a Belgian, Georges Nagelmakers, the founder in 1876 of the International Sleeping Car Company. As a result, by the century’s end the furnishing, facilities, and cuisine of long-haul US and some European international trains (such as the Orient Express) justified their description as “hotels on wheels”.

As the century ended, railways were driven by their passengers’ enthusiasm for travel to begin significant improvement in the comfort and speed of their ordinary trains, in all classes of accommodation.

Задание 6. Ответьте письменно на вопросы согласно тексту.


  1. What is George Pullman famous for?

  2. Why are European international trains called “hotels on wheels”?

Контрольная работа № 3


Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить работу, необходимо повторить следующий материал по грамматике английского языка:

  1. Многозначность слов “it”, “one”.

  2. Инфинитив и его формы. Сочетание модальных глаголов с перфектным инфинитивом.

  3. Объектный инфинитивный оборот.

  4. Субъектный инфинитивный оборот.

Вариант 1


Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значения слов “it”, “one и переведите предложения на русский язык.

  1. To locate target on the surface of the sea or on the ground, it is necessary to determine not only in which direction it lies, but also how far way it is.

  2. One watt is the power due to a current of one ampere at tension of one volt; therefore watts equal volts times amperes.

  3. A new science, radio astronomy emerged it is very closely allied to astronomy, astrophysics and physics.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассивный залог. Переведите полученные предложения.



  1. We must purify the solution.

  2. Other factors may affect the process.

  3. These organelles may accumulate energy.

  4. They must have underestimated the result.

  5. They should have included other works in the review.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на сочетание модальных глаголов с перфектным инфинитивом.


  1. Your assistants must have brought the journal you wanted to look through.

  2. This student is late, he may have missed the train.

  3. It must have been known for centuries that a colored glass is cooler at the bottom of a pot than a colorless glass.

  4. Jonson’s data published in 2002 could have been used in our work but they lacked precision.

Задание 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на объектный инфинитивный оборот.



  1. Unfortunately everyone knew him to have done it on purpose.

  2. The engineers consider this device to be the simplest and oldest type of accelerator.

  3. We thought these superconductive materials to be produced in China.

Задание 5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на субъектный инфинитивный оборот.



  1. Electronics is thought to be a young science.

  2. The electric generator is known to be a machine that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  3. Alpha rays are considered to be positively charged helium atom.

  4. Shakespeare is known to have been an actor and playwright in one of the leading companies of players at the end of 1580.

Задание 6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.


TRAINS

A train is a connected series of rail vehicles that move along the track. Propulsion for the train is provided by a separate locomotive or from individual motors in selfpropelled multiple units. Most trains carry a revenue load, although non-revenue cars exist for the railway’s own use, such as for maintenance-of-way purposes. The railroad engineer or engine driver controls the locomotive or other power cars, although people movers and some rapid transits are driverless.

Traditionally, trains are pulled using a locomotive. This involved a single or a multiple powered vehicles being located at the front of the train and providing sufficient adhesion to haul the weight of the full train. This remains dominant for freight trains, and is often used for passenger trains. A push-pull train has the end passenger car equipped with a driver’s cab so the engineer can remote control the locomotive. This allows one of the locomotive hauled trains drawbacks to be removed, since the locomotive need not be moved to the end of the train each time the train changes direction. A railroad car is a vehicle used for haulage of either passengers or freight.

A multiple unit has powered wheels throughout the whole train. This is used for rapid transit and tram systems, as well as many both short- and long-haul passenger trains. A railcar is a single, self-powered car. Multiple units have a driver’s cab at each end of the unit, and were developed following the ability to build electric motors and engines small enough to build under the coach. There are only a few freight multiple units, most of which are high-speed post trains.

Задание 7. Составьте пять вопросов к тексту.
Вариант 2
Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значения слов “it”, “one” и переведите предложения на русский язык.


  1. There are no new radio techniques for investigating comets directly, but their close relation to meteors makes it desirable to describe their main features.

  2. When one talks over a telephone, it is not the sound of the voice that travels over the wire, it is an electric current.

  3. It does not mean that in all the applications of induction heating only the surface of the body is heated.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассивный залог. Переведите полученные предложения.



  1. We must dilute the acid.

  2. Ultraviolet radiation may produce ionization.

  3. We can control the process.

  4. They must have overlooked their possibility.

  5. They could have estimated this contribution more precisely.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на сочетание модальных глаголов с перфектным инфинитивом.



  1. Your friend must have forgotten your promise.

  2. To get better results another method ought to have been applied.

  3. They said that the first telescope can have been invented by a Dutch worker.

  4. The magnetized body may have exerted some attractive or respulsive force on the other one.

Задание 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на объектный инфинитивный оборот.



  1. This is quite the wrong view to take.
  2. He considers this device to be made on semiconductors.


  3. The engineers wanted this phenomenon to be investigated in their laboratory.

Задание 5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на субъектный инфинитивный оборот.



  1. An electric cell is believed to consist of an electrolyte and two electrodes.

  2. This voltage source was supposed to supply current for this circuit.

  3. Due to these experiments this substance was shown to be a good conductor.

  4. It appeared to be quite another man.

Задание 6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.


MOTIVE POWER

Steam locomotives are locomotives with a steam engine that provides adhesion. Coal, petroleum, or wood is burned in a firebox. The heat warms up water in the fire-tube boiler to create pressurized steam. The steam travels through the smoke box before leaving via the chimney. In the process it powers a piston that transmits power directly through a connecting rod and a crankrip on the driving wheel or to a crank on a driving axle. Steam locomotives have been phased out in most parts of the world for economical and safety reasons.

Electric locomotives draw power from a stationary source via overhead wire or a third rail. Some also or instead use a battery. A transformer in the locomotive converts the high voltage, low current power to low voltage, high current used in the electric motors that power the wheels. Modern locomotives use three-phase alternating current induction motors. Electric locomotives are the most powerful traction. They are also the cheapest to run and provide les noise and no local air pollution. However, they require high capital investments both for the catenary and the supporting infrastructure. Accordingly, electric traction is used on urban systems, lines with high traffic and for high-speed rail.

Diesel locomotives use a diesel engine as the prime mover. The energy transmission may be either diesel-electric, diesel-mechanical or diesel hydraulic, but diesel-electric is dominant. Electro-diesel locomotives are built to run as diesel-electric on unelectrified sections and as an electric locomotive on electrified sections.

Alternative methods of motive power include magnetic levitation, horse-drawn, cable, gravity, pneumatics and gas turbine.

Задание 7. Составьте пять вопросов к тексту.
Вариант 3
Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значения слов “it”, “one” и переведите предложения на русский язык.


  1. It is the gas turbine engine, which has been responsible for the revolution in aircraft.

  2. The sailors found it difficult to wash off this ash and soon they were suffering from the first symptoms of radiation sickness.

  3. When put together in a molecule, these tiny fragments do not form a rigid structure, but one that can vibrate, rotate and perform other relative motions about its center of mass.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассивный залог. Переведите полученные предложения.



  1. This mechanism may involve an unknown factor.

  2. We must regulate the temperature conditions.

  3. The structural changes can produce a marked effect.

  4. They may have disregarded smaller defects.

  5. They might have neglected smaller errors.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на сочетание модальных глаголов с перфектным инфинитивом.



  1. These students must have written their prices already.

  2. The operator should have test the trouble caused due to the overheated conductor.

  3. You could not have seen him there because he left the place two months ago.

  4. These important results might have been easily overlooked, as they were published in a popular scientific journal.

Задание 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на объектный инфинитивный оборот.


  1. Scientists expect microminiaturization to be widely used in future.


  2. Every student knows two kinds of electric charges to exist.

  3. This is my purpose in this paper to describe all the parts of this engine in detail for you to understand what a complicated mechanism it is.

Задание 5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на субъектный инфинитивный оборот.



  1. The value of the output voltage of the cell was found to depend only on the material used.

  2. The secondary coil of the transformer is assumed to have more turns than the primary one.

  3. Cadmium was reported to be useful application in transistor.

  4. He is said to have been met by a man who led him to the place his friend where expecting him at.

Задание 6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.


PASSENGER TRAINS

A passenger train travels between stations where passengers may embark and disembark. The oversight of the train is the duty of a conductor. Passenger trains are part of public transport, often make up the stem of the service, with buses feeding to stations.

Intercity trains are long-haul trains that operate with few stops between cities. Trains typically have amenities such as a dining car. Some lines also provide over-night services with sleeping cars. Some long-haul trains have a specific name. Regional trains are medium distance trains that connect cities with outlying, surrounding areas, or provide a regional service. Airport rail links quick access from city centres to airports.

Rapid transit is built in large cities and has the highest capacity of any passenger transport system. It is grade separated and commonly built underground or elevated. At street level, smaller trams can be used. Light rails are upgraded trams that have step-free access, their own way and sometimes sections underground. Monorail systems operate as elevated, medium capacity systems. A people mover is a driverless, grade-separated train that serves only a few stations, of as a shuttle.

High-speed rail operate at much higher speeds than conventional railways, the limit being regarded at 200 to 320 km/h. High-speed trains are used mostly for long-haul service, and most systems are in Western Europe and East Asia. The speed record is 574.8 km/h, set by a modified French Magnetic levitation trains such as the Shanghai airport train use under-riding magnets which attract themselves upward towards the underside of a guideway, and this line has achieved somewhat higher peak speeds in day-to-day operation than conventional high-speed railways, although only over short distances.

Задание 7. Составьте пять вопросов к тексту.


Вариант 4
Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значения слов “it”, “one” и переведите предложения на русский язык.


  1. From this experiment it is clear that these devices are low power ones.

  2. One would like to know, for example, that the effect of the ambient atmosphere is on the slow-state density and energy distribution.

  3. It is very easy to receive a fatal chock when working on the transmitter final stage, particularly when neutralizing it.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассивный залог. Переведите полученные предложения.



  1. This defect may account for the discrepancy in the results.

  2. We must subject the material to special treatment.

  3. The environmental conditions can bring about such changes.

  4. They may have postponed the further work.

  5. They must have overestimated the potentialities of this technique.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на сочетание модальных глаголов с перфектным инфинитивом.



  1. The experiment must have been done in a wrong way because the obtained data are in contradiction with Lenz’s law.

  2. There are so many mistakes in your exercises! You should have been more attentive.

  3. He cannot have entrusted this scientific work to a man he has known for such a short period of time.

  4. These events might not have been detected much earlier for the lack of precise documents.

Задание 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на объектный инфинитивный оборот.


  1. They supposed the greater part of energy to be used for supplying plants in that region.

  2. We know scientists to study this problem.

  3. Maxwell found the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves to be equal to the ratio of electromagnetiс to the electrostatic of charge.

Задание 5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на субъектный инфинитивный оборот.



  1. This scientist is expected to make report on the fundamentals of radio engineering.

  2. The designer is said to construct a new device by using semiconductors.

  3. The antenna was found to receive only a small part of energy radiated by the transmitter.

  4. The years that he had spent abroad seemed to have taught him much.

Задание 6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.


A BRITISH STEAM LOCOMOTIVE-HAULED TRAIN

The development of the steam engine spurred ideas for mobile steam locomotives that could haul trains on tracks. The first patented by James Watt in 1794. In 1804, Richard Trevithick demonstrated the first locomotive-hauled train. Accompanied with Andrew Vivian, it ran with mixed success, breaking some of the brittle cast-iron plates. Two years later, the first passenger horse-drawn railway was opened nearby between Swansea and Mumbles. In 1825 George Stephenson built the locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, north east England, which was the first public railway in the world. In 1829 he built The Rocket which was entered in and won the Rainhil Trials. This success led to Stephenson establishing his company as the pre-eminent builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the United Kingdom, the United States and much of Europe. In 1830, the first intercity railway, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened. The gauge was that used for the early wagonways, and had been adopted for the Stockton and Darlington Railway.

The 1,435 mm width became known as the international standard gauge, used by about 60% of the world’s railways. This spurred the spread of rail transport outside the UK. The Baltimore and Ohio that opened in 1830 was the first to evolve from a single line to a network in the United States. In 1867, the first elevated railway was built in New York. The symbolically-important first transcontinental railway was completed in 1869.

Задание 7. Составьте пять вопросов к тексту.
Вариант 5
Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на значения слов “it”, “one” и переведите предложения на русский язык.


  1. It is well known that radioactive isotopes can be used very effectively in medicine for the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases.

  2. One of the most important things for the pilot to know how high he is flying.

  3. One should know that geometry treats of the properties, construction, and measurements of lines, surfaces and solids.

Задание 2. Перефразируйте следующие предложения, употребляя пассивный залог. Переведите полученные предложения.



  1. We must slow this reaction.

  2. This radiation dose can damage the cells.

  3. These conditions may affect the course of the reaction.

  4. They could have reorganized the physics department long ago.

  5. They must have violated the conservation law.

Задание 3. Переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на сочетание модальных глаголов с перфектным инфинитивом.



  1. That post-graduate may have passed the exam on his speciality.

  2. The stone, which drew iron to it, must have been magnetized.

  3. The definition of this event suggested by Smith lacked clarity; otherwise it could have been taken for general use.

  4. This work might not have been completed for the support and encouragement of colleagues.

Задание 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на объектный инфинитивный оборот.



  1. We consider nuclear energy to be the prime source of heat energy.
  2. The designers assume the system operation to be improved as a result of replacing some of its parts.


  3. The teacher expected him to make this experiment successfully.

Задание 5. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на субъектный инфинитивный оборот.



  1. Atomic nuclei are believed to be composed of protons and neutrons.

  2. Yablochkov is known to be the inventor of the electric candle.

  3. All the members of the committee are reported to have been enthusiastic about the plan.

  4. Substances are known to burn when they unite with the oxygen of the air.

Задание 6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.


FREIGHT TRAINS

A freight train hauls cargo using freight cars specialized for the type of goods. Freight trains can be very efficient, with economy of scale and high energy efficiency. However, their use is reduced by lack of flexibility, often by the need of transshipment at both ends of the trip due to lack of tracks to the points of pick-up and delivery. Authorities often encourage the use of cargo rail transport due to its environmental profile.

Container trains have become the dominant type in the US for non-bulk haulage. Containers can easily be transshipped to other models, such as ships and trucks, using cranes. This has succeeded the boxcar (wagonload), where the cargo had to be loaded and unloaded into the train manually. In Europe the sliding wall wagon has largely superseded the ordinary covered wagons. Other types of cars include refrigerator cars, stock cars for livestock and auto racks for road vehicles. When rail is combined with road transport, a roadrailer will allow semi-trailers to be driven onto the train, allowing for easy transition between road and rail.

Bulk handling represents a key advantage for rail transport. Low oven zero transshipment costs combined with energy efficiency and low inventory costs allow trains to handle bulk much cheaper than by road. Typical bulk cargo includes coal, ore, grains and liquids. Bulk is transported in open-topped cars and tank cars.

Задание 7. Составьте пять вопросов к тексту.
Контрольная работа № 4
Для того, чтобы правильно выполнить контрольную работу № 4, необходимо повторить следующий материал по грамматике английского языка:


  1. Причастие и его формы, его синтаксические функции в предложении.

  2. Независимый причастный оборот.

  3. Герундий и его формы. Синтаксические функции герундия в предложении.

Вариант 1


Задание 1. Определите форму причастия в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык.

  1. Leaving a transmitting antenna, a radio wave travels in all directions.

  2. Being heated magnetized steel loses its magnetism.

  3. Having lost the address of her cousin’s new flat, she couldn’t come to see her.

  4. The dimensions of the body referred to in that textbook will be used in our experiment.

  5. Placed in different surrounding medium the device operates differently.

Задание 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на независимый причастный оборот.



  1. Electrons moving through the conductor, electrical energy is generated.

  2. There being no traffic, the driver can maintain a constant speed of 90 km/h.

  3. The fundamental of electricity are the fundamentals of electronics, both being branches of physics.

  4. The travelled distance having been given in meters and the time in seconds, speed was measured in m.p.s., that is, in meters per second.

Задание 3. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на различные формы герундия.


  1. Increasing the number of power stations in our country means the improving living standards of people.

  2. We know of the electric furnace being an ideal melting and refining unit for the steel industry.

  3. He objected to the goods being paid in advance.

  4. By raising the cathode temperature we increase the number of emitted electrons.

  5. The chain reaction releases great quantities of x-radiation and neutrons, which must be prevented from escaping into the atmosphere.

Задание 4. Определите, к какой части речи относятся выделенные слова: причастие, герундий или отглагольное существительное. Определите их функцию в предложении и переведите предложения на русский язык.



  1. When translated the article was typed.

  2. At the continued heating of a solid body the movement of its molecules becomes still faster.

  3. The results obtained being of prime importance, engineers used them in their investigations.

  4. The specific heat solid elements known, the approximate atomic weight can be easily calculated.

Задание 5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.


A LOCOMOTIVE

A locomotive is a railway vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. The word originates from the Latin loco – “from a place”, ablative of locks, “place” + Medieval Latin motivus, “causing motion”, and is shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in the early 19th century to distinguish between mobile and stationary steam engines.

A locomotive has no payload capacity of its own, and its sole purpose is to move the train along the tracks. In contrast, some trains have self-propelled payload-carrying vehicles. These are not normally considered locomotives, and may be referred to as multiple-units, motor coaches and railcars. The use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains, but very rare for freight. Vehicles which provide motive power to haul an unpowered train, but are not generally considered locomotives because they have payload space or are rarely detached from their trains, are known as power cars.

Traditionally, locomotives pull trains from the front. Increasingly common is push-pull operation, where a locomotive pulls the train in one direction and pushes it in the other, and is optionally controlled from a control cab at the opposite end of the train.

Locomotives may generate their power from fuel (wood, coal, petroleum or natural gas), or they take power from an outside source of electricity. It is common to classify locomotives by their source of energy. The common ones include: steam locomotives, diesel locomotives, electric locomotives and hybrid locomotives.

Вариант 2
Задание 1. Определите форму причастия в следующих предложениях и переведите их на русский язык.


  1. The antenna receives only a small part of energy radiated by the transmitter.

  2. The site having been chosen, many houses are being built there.




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Задание 1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в них видовременные формы глаголов и переведите предложения на русский язык.


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