Учебное пособие Нижний Новгород 2013 Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета фгбоу впо



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МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Федеральное государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение

высшего профессионального образования

«Нижегородский государственный лингвистический университет
им. Н.А. Добролюбова»


систематизирующий курс грамматики английского языка
Учебное пособие

Нижний Новгород

2013

Печатается по решению редакционно-издательского совета ФГБОУ ВПО «НГЛУ».

Направление подготовки: 035700.62 – Лингвистика. Дисциплина: Систематизирующий курс грамматики английского языка.
УДК 802.0-5 (075.8)

ББК 81.432.1-933

С 409
Систематизирующий курс грамматики английского языка: Учебное пособие / Ф.С. Гришкун, Л.М. Отрошко. – Нижний Новгород: ФГБОУ ВПО «НГЛУ», 2013. – 230 с.
Учебное пособие «Систематизирующий курс грамматики английского языка» включает семь частей учебно-методического комплекса по грамматике английского языка, в которых рассматриваются формы и функционирование различных частей речи, членов предложений и предложений в современном английском языке.

УДК 802.0-5 (075.8)

ББК 81.432.1-933

Рецензенты: В.А. Першикова, канд. филол. наук, доцент

Е.Н. Пушкина, канд. филол. наук, доцент

© ФГБОУ ВПО «НГЛУ», 2013

© Гришкун Ф.С., Отрошко Л.М., 2013


CONTENTS

Введение…………………………………………………………………..

6

Conventions and abbreviations. ..………………………………………….

9

GLOSSARY ........……………………………………………………….

10

PART ONE ......………………………………………………………...

41

Fundamentals of Syntax and Morphology .………………………………..

41

Syntactic units. Sentence and phrase….…………………………………...

41

Classification of sentences. Communication types ………………………..

41

Structural types .............................................................................................

42

Sentence parts ...............................................................................................

44

Syntactic relations .....……………………………………………………...

46

Parts of speech ......…………………………………………………………

48

Nouns 49; Adjectives 51; Pronouns 51; Adverbs 56; Verbs 57; Numerals 58; Prepositions 58; Conjunctions 58; Particles 59; Modal words 60; Interjections 60

Grammatical homonyms .....……………………………………………….

61


PART TWO ......………………………………………………………..

62


Nouns and the Basic Noun Phrase ...………………………………………

62


The noun phrase.......………………………………………………………

62


Classification of nouns .....…………………………………………………

63


Number 67; Regular plurals 67; Irregular plurals 68; Foreign plurals 70; Case 73

Determiners 78; The article 78; Demonstrative pronouns 87

Possessive pronouns (conjoint forms) …………………………………….

87


Indefinite pronouns used as determiners .…………………………………

88


Predeterminers .............................................................................................

90


Postdeterminers 91; Indefinite pronouns used as postdeterminers 92; Numerals 92




Substitutes (representers and replacers) 93; Representers 93; Replacers 94; Personal pronouns 95; Self-pronouns 96; Reciprocal pronouns 97;

Compound pronouns in -оne, -body, -thing 98; Absolute forms of possessives 98; One as substitute 99


PART THREE ………............................................................................

100


Adjectives and Adjectival Phrases ...............................................................

100


Adjectival phrases ........................................................................................

100


Characteristics of the adjective ....................................................................

101


Comparison ………………………………………………………………..

101


Constructions with comparisons; Adjectives and adverbs;………………..

104


Adjectives and participles 105; Statives 106

PART FOUR............................................................................................

107


Finite Verb Phrase ........................................................................................

107

Characteristics of verbs ………………………………………………........

108


Classification of verbs ..................................................................................

109


Person and number .......................................................................................

111


Tense ............................................................................................................

111


Primary tenses 112; Simple present 112; Simple past 113; Simple future 114; Secondary tenses 115; Present perfect 116; Past perfect 117; Future perfect 118 Aspect 118

Continuous aspect 119; Perfect forms of the continuous aspect 121

Sequence of tenses........................................................................................

123


Voice ............................................................................................................

125


Mood ............................................................................................................

128

The indicative mood 128; The imperative mood 129


The subjunctive mood ..................................................................................

130


Modals used as auxiliaries ..........................................................................

141


"Can" 141; "May" 143/"Must" 145; "Ought" 147; "Shall" and "Should" 148; "Will" and "Would" 150; "Need" 150; "Dare" 151

PART FIVE .............................................................................................

152


Non-Finite Verb Phrase ...............................................................................

152


The infinitive.................................................................................................

153


Verb characteristics 153; Noun characteristics 154

153


Syntactical functions ....................................................................................

155


The gerund ...................................................................................................

158

Verb characteristics 158; Noun characteristics 159


Gerund and verbal noun compared...............................................................

160


Gerund and infinitive compared ...................................................................

161


The participle................................................................................................

162


Verb characteristics 163; Adjective characteristics 164; Adverbial characteristics 165; Participle I and gerund compared 165

Participles and adjectives .............................................................................

166


PART SIX ...............................................................................................

167


Sentence Patterns..........................................................................................

167


Utterances that are less than grammatical sentences 168; Parentheses 169

Sentences with homogeneous parts ..............................................................

169


Predicative constructions .............................................................................

171


Composite sentences ....................................................................................

177


Compound sentences ....................................................................................

177


Complex sentences .......................................................................................

179


Subject clauses 180; Predicative clauses 181; Object clauses 181 Attributive clauses 182; Adverbial clauses 185;

Complex-compound sentences .....................................................................

192


PART SEVEN .........................................................................................

193


Sentence Parts ....................................................................................

193

The subject......... ..........................................................................................

194


The personal subject 194; The introductory subject 196

The impersonal subject ................................................................................

196


The predicate.................................................................................................

196


The simple verbal predicate .........................................................................

197


The compound verbal modal predicate ........................................................

197


The compound verbal aspective predicate ..................................................

198


The compound nominal predicate ................................................................

198


Mixed types of predicates.............................................................................

201


The object......................................................................................................

201

The direct object 203; The indirect object 204


The attribute..................................................................................................

206


The adverbial modifier..................................................................................

210


Word order and emphasis..............................................................................

214


Inversion 214; Postponement 216; Structural compensation 217

Subject-predicate concomitance ..................................................................

218


Notional agreement 218; Proximity 219; Agreement violation 221

Sentence Analysis.........................................................................................

222


Words and Phrases Liable to Cause Difficulties …………………………..

224


Bibliography..................................................................................................

229




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Систематизирующий курс грамматики английского языка: Учебное пособие / Ф.С. Гришкун, Л.М. Отрошко. – Нижний Новгород: ФГБОУ ВПО «НГЛУ», 2013. – 230 с.


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