Учебное пособие по дисциплине «Практический курс перевода» для студентов 5 курса

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УО «БЕЛОРУССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ»


Л.Э.Ющук


SPEECH, CULTURE, COUNTRIES AND PEOPLE

Texts and Exercises for Reading and Translation
Учебное пособие

по дисциплине «Практический курс перевода»

для студентов 5 курса

факультета Высшей школы туризма

Минск: БГЭУ, 2012

Рецензент: Могиленских Н.П. заведующий кафедрой межкультурной экономической коммуникации Учреждения образования «Белорусский государственный экономический университет», доцент.

Рекомендовано кафедрой профессионально ориентированной английской речи УО «Белорусский государственный экономический университет»

Л.Э. Ющук

SPEECH, CULTURE, COUNTRIES AND PEOPLE // Texts and Exercises for Reading and Translation. Учебное пособие по дисциплине «Практический курс перевода»/ Ющук Л.Э. - БГЭУ, 2012. – 38c.

Настоящее учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 5 курса ФВШТ в качестве учебного пособия по дисциплине «Практический курс перевода».

Пособие состоит из 6-х разделов и включает оригинальные тексты социокультурной и страноведческой направленности и упражнении к ним.



СОДЕРЖАНИЕ
РАЗДЕЛ I. СЛОВАРНЫЕ СООТВЕТСТВИЯ 4

РАЗДЕЛ II. ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЕ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ: КОНКРЕТИЗАЦИЯ, ГЕНЕРАЛИЗАЦИЯ, ДОБАВЛЕНИЯ, ОПУЩЕНИЯ, АНТОНИМИЧЕСКИЙ ПЕРЕВОД, ЦЕЛОСТНОЕ ПЕРЕОСМЫСЛЕНИЕ 10

РАЗДЕЛ III. ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЕ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ: КАЛЬКИРОВАНИЕ, ТРАНСКРИПЦИЯ, ТРАНСЛИТЕРАЦИЯ. ПЕРЕВОД ИМЕН СОБСТВЕННЫХ 16

РАЗДЕЛ IV. ПЕРЕВОД АМЕРИКАНИЗМОВ 24


РАЗДЕЛ V. ПЕРЕВОД АТРИБУТИВНХ СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЙ 28

РАЗДЕЛ VI. ПЕРЕВОД ФРАЗЕОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ЕДИНИЦ 35

РАЗДЕЛ I

СЛОВАРНЫЕ СООТВЕТСТВИЯ


  1. Make the adequate translation of the sentences paying attention to the meaning of polysemantic words in italics.

  1. I don’t think the queen was completely sincere when she said she supported the government’s plans. He has always been a sincere friend of mine. We could nearly regard him as saint for he has lead a sincere way of life.

  2. The Prime Minister is to meet his European counterparts to discuss the war against drugs. Channel 4 is British independent television’s counterpart to BBC2. Young people today already leave home sooner than their counterparts a generation ago.

  3. Have you ever seen the British Lion? Lions live in small groups called prides in grassland and open woodland. He is one of the young jazz lions on the New York music scene. He was polite and showed the lions very good-naturedly.

  4. These Chinese doctors are predicting that it will soon be within their power to cure the disease. After forty years, this Alfred Hitchcock’s film still hasn’t lost its power to shock. He was so shocked by what happened on the 11th of September that he lost the power of speech.
  5. The toddler wobbled and lost his balance. The eradication of one tiny species can seriously affect the natural balance of Australia. They say that the balance of payments crisis led to the Richard Nixon’s downfall. Once we know how much money we’ll need, let’s spend the balance
    . Her job was in the balance for some months, but now the company has decided to expand, so her future is assured.


  6. All the nations of the world will be represented at the conference. The Germans, as a nation, are often thought to be well organized. There were strikes across the nation. It was a story that touched the nation's heart.

  7. They often have asparagus tips for dinner in Britain. The Keys are coral islands off the southern tip
    of Florida. She gave me a useful tip about growing tomatoes in Alaska. I’ve got a hot tip for you. We don’t need to leave a tip for the waiter, because there’s a service charge included in the bill.

  8. The lower part of her spine was crushed in the accident. We don’t see many foreigners in these parts of Alaska. “The life and times of Winston Churchill” is a television series in eight parts
    . Ben is busy learning his part for the school play.

  9. The executive of the National Union of Steel Metal Workers has passed the case back to the local officials to resolve. The case will be tried in the law court next week. As the epidemic of the grippe broke out in England, the first cases were immediately sent to hospital.

  10. The Arctic whale blew a jet of water into the air. As the oil well near Newcastle caught fire, a jet of flames shot 50 metres into the air. We flew to Chicago by jet
    . They produce jet jewellery in Romania. He has a dark complexion and jet-black hair.

  11. The new president is just bubbling with good ideas. I don’t understand the details but I’ve got a rough idea of what you want. This young scientist puts forward the idea that it is impossible to spoil a child. The idea of this game is to get rid of all your cards as soon as you can.



  1. Translate the following text from English into Russian analyzing the translation of polysemantic words.

WHERE THE HOUSES HAVE NO WALLS

1. "Talofa Lava" are the first words that a guest hears on Western Samoa. A cordial welcome - and the smile that goes with it really comes from the heart. The great storyteller Robert Louis Stevenson called them the Friendly Islands. The author of "Treasure Island" spent the last years of his life on Upolu. The inhabitants were very fond of the "tusitala", the storyteller. Even 100 years after Stevenson's death, his grave on Mount Vaea is still adorned with fresh flowers.

2. You already get a fascinating crash course in the Samoan lifestyle on the island of Upolu on the way from the airport to Apia, the capital. You almost feel like a Peep­ing Tom behind the bus window, as the houses along the road do not provide any protection from inquisitive glances. The natives still live mainly in the traditional fales, houses without walls, that consists merely of a base, a few wooden stakes and the roof. This gives you an insight into family life and the standard of living. Under one roof you may only see a couple of bast mats and a few possessions, while the next, for example, may shelter artistically carved beds with show-piece pillows, arm­chairs, chests of drawers and a TV set.

3. The next reasons for amazement: there are 60 churches in these first 20 miles in Western Samoa alone: small, modest, medium-sized and incredibly large, magnificent churches. Probably nowhere else in the world are there so many churches in relation to the number of inhabitants. The little island state has about 160,000 souls which are cared for by a good dozen different religious communities.

4. So the huge, radiantly white Catholic cathedral is also the landmark of Apia which can be seen far and wide. Compared with this, the pretty Protestant wooden church looks much more modest. Aggie and Charlie Grey were married here in 1926 - and Aggie was to become a legend of the South Seas in her own lifetime. She began her entrepreneurial career in the Second World War by selling hamburgers to the Americans - extremely successfully, because soon she became the owner of a hotel. Artists, politicians and celebrities from all over the world have been Aggie's guests. Today, Aggie's son Alan Grey continues to manage the hotel in the style of the "great old lady of the South Seas".

5. At first glance South Sea islands such as Western Samoa appear to be a paradise: fast-moving rivers and rushing waterfalls, striking mountains and dense jungle, palm-fringed beaches and fertile plains filled with trop­ical fruits and vegetables. But sometimes the devil makes merry in paradise. Two disastrous cyclones ravaged Samoa in February 1990 and especially violently in December 1991. The islands are only recovering slowly from the damage. Some demolished houses and churches, devastated plantations, washed-away roads and beaches still remind the visitor of the three horrific days in December 1991 - before that Samoa had been free of such natural disasters for exactly 100 years.

6. More and more, the social structures are being threatened. In 1962 Western Sa­moa was the first country in Polynesia to be given its independence by New Zealand. The Samoans created for themselves a form of government that combined democracy with old traditions. Thus only the chieftains (matai) elect the members of the National Parliament, and the matai possess all the power in village life, which is organized on a strictly hierarchical basis. In this respect, little has changed over the centuries, even though the young people are no longer willing to accept this today. For years, imigration from the villages and emigration overseas have been a trend that is on the increase.

7. Traces of the brief German colonial period from 1899 to 1914 can still be discovered on the islands. Even today people on Western Samoa still speak of the "good German times". So it's no surprise then that some of the families living in the fales are called Schuster or Muller. And there is something else that links Western Samoa with Old Germany: Vailima, the excellent beer of the German-Samoan brewery in Apia.




  1. Translate the following text from English into Russian in writing and pay special attention to the translation of polysemantic words.

LAS VEGA – THE DESERT LIVES

1. There used to be a few shacks, a handful of saloons, and a mail-coach passing through once a week. Within living memory, this city has grown from nothing. The shacks, however, have long given way to glittering palaces, show arenas and the biggest hotels in the world.

2. The same god-forsaken hole in the Nevada Desert is, today, home of the white tiger and the flying conjurer, Sinatra's stage and the mecca of the world's gamblers: Las Vegas. Every child in the world can spell out the name. No city in the world is so bound up in self-made clichés as Las Vegas, none is so perfectly styled. None offers joie de vivre pure and simple in such consisten­cy, from gigantic shows to lobster buffets at pocket-money tariffs, from the hotel's own MGM leisure park to spontaneous weddings in hot-air balloons.

3. In Las Vegas the desert lives. It flashes, blares and turns night in the middle of nowhere into day. The daily round is a choreographic routine; life becomes a show and boredom an un­known word.

4. It does not take long to convert even a firm sceptic. There is, of course, no more American city than this one. But need this be a disadvantage?

5. Las Vegas is only an expensive proposition for those who really become compulsive gamblers. Rooms, on the other hand, are dirt cheap, merely representing the bait to lure guests into the building, for every hotel doubles as a casino. And to get to the reception or to your room, you always have to run the gauntlet of battalions of one-armed bandits. These act as both bait and hook: gambling fun begins at 25 cents and stops with special 1000-dollar chips for one pull at the bandit's arm. It just depends on choice and the capacity of your purse, on the extent of each gambler's particular passion.

6. Mrs Lin from Vietnam flies in from Ho-Chi-Minh City once a month and gambles her way through "Caesar's Palace": a choice of 2000 slot machines and 100 gaming tables, a couple of dozen shops in the forum, whirlpools in the rooms and mirrors above the beds. Her personal wealth, in the meantime, permits her this luxury - and her addiction to gambling forces it upon her. Sometimes she wins some money, usually she loses it. She does not care either way. In four weeks' time she will be back again with exactly 2000 dollars in her wallet. She tells her story to anyone who will listen, making no secret of her Las Vegas passion. When she came here for the first time two years ago she could hardly speak any English. It is different today. "Have fun," she says, and “Enjoy!

7. One should really leave one's wristwatch at the airport on arrival, for a sense of time is worth nothing in Las Vegas. The clocks work differently, and daylight is consistently excluded: no windows in the casinos, none in the shopping arcades of "Caesar's Palace", where Sony sets the tone and Nikon determines the picture -aristocratic shopping at its most exclusive. Instead, the "sky" above this shopping paradise is automatically varied via computer projection, creating day and night several times a day to stimulate business - romantic sunsets with only minutes of starlight in between.

8. With expressionless faces and without any external sign of excitement, the players sit in the casino of the brand-new "MGM Grand", with 5005 rooms the biggest hotel in the world at present. When a couple of hundred silver coins cascade into the collection pan under one of the slot machines, they are deftly shovelled into jacket pockets or plastic beakers. With identical poker faces, these professional players had previously fed their capital into the slots. The rattling of coins encourages those who are on a losing streak. Aha, someone's winning! So it can be done! Just persevere until the next lucky streak comes! Those who hit the jackpot are rewarded by a happy flashing, clucking and whistling of the otherwise voracious machine. And those who stick to their guns are even supplied with free drinks: waitresses keep a close check on this, encouraging play­ers to persevere with colourful cocktails on the house.

9. Inexperienced gamblers, on the other hand, betray themselves with loud cries of joy when they win ... Old hands then look up briefly in surprise, readjust their baseball caps and feed the next coins into their machines as if something had disturbed them in their fortune-beckoning meditation.


10. For those who would like to crown this surfeit of entertainment there is really only one option left: a spontaneous wedding. Either in one of over fifty wedding chapels, including a drive-in chapel with a blessing through the open car window, in a hot-air balloon or even in an aircraft. Charolette Richards, Las Vegas's self-styled "Wedding Queen of the West", will arrange it. Las Vegas, the town of unlimited opportunities: to live here you have to be slightly crazy.
РАЗДЕЛ II

ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЕ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ: КОНКРЕТИЗАЦИЯ, ГЕНЕРАЛИЗАЦИЯ, ДОБАВЛЕНИЯ, ОПУЩЕНИЯ, АНТОНИМИЧЕСКИЙ ПЕРЕВОД, ЦЕЛОСТНОЕ ПЕРЕОСМЫСЛЕНИЕ


    1. State the transformation used in each sentence.

  1. The Secretary of State has proposed a world conference. Государственный секретарь предложил созвать всемирную конференцию.

  2. In London it wasn’t as cold as it was the day before. В Лондоне стало теплее, чем вчера.

  3. You didn’t have to do all that. Вы напрасно все это писали.

  4. It was rather boring to do that every two minutes. Совсем не охота была поминутно нагибаться.

  5. The eagle went up and circled again. Птица поднялась выше и опять сделала круг.

  6. I’m afraid that we’ve disturbed your beauty-sleep. Боюсь, мы разбудили вас.

  7. Why flog a dying white elephant? Стоит ли овчинка выделки? Стоит ли игра свеч?

  8. So I paid my check and all. I left the bar and went out. Я расплатился и вышел.

  9. Few US presidents dare stick their necks out in midterm poll. Мало кто из американских президентов рискнет подставить свою голову под удар во время промежуточных выборов.
  10. You could hear him putting away his toilet articles. Слышно было, как он убирает свои мыльницы и щетки.


  11. She never used scent, considering it rather fast, but Nina Ricci was so refreshing. Она никогда не пользовалась туалетными водами, считая это признаком известного легкомыслия, но Нина Риччи – другое дело, она так приятно освежает.

  12. They gave me the wrong book, and I didn’t notice it till I got back to my room. Я только дома заметил, что мне дали не ту книгу.

  13. Winter rains in the Jordan are violent, while they last. Зимой в долине Иордана бывают страшные ливни.

  14. The room looked regular and normal. Комната казалась обычной.

  15. There are other philosophies which give strong support to the Humanist position. Существуют и другие философские направления (течения), которые оказывают решительную поддержку концепции гуманизма.

  16. He always made you say everything twice. Он всегда переспрашивал.


II. Make the adequate translation of the sentences using the following transformations.

Конкретизация

  1. The swelling has gone down, but there’s still a lot of bruising.

  2. Most of the lights went off and some of the fans seemed to go into a trance when she appeared on the stage.

  3. All the King’s men gathered in the yard.

  4. But he was at the ceremony, though he is in the Army now.

  5. You will, when it’s too late.

Генерализация

  1. She didn’t want to miss a thing.

  2. He was one of these tall, round shouldered guys – he was about six four – with lousy teeth.

  3. I’ll just die if I don’t buy this neck chain.

  4. We laughed until the tears rolled down our cheeks.

Добавление

  1. Wherever you go – I will follow.
  2. I think, everyone can find a job for summer season in the Mediterranean, in hotels, thematic parks or else.


  3. The conductor came around for old Mrs. Green’s ticket.

  4. Wouldn’t you like a cup of hot chocolate before you go?

  5. So what? I said. Cold as ice.

Опущение

  1. Dave was brave and courageous.

  2. The poor lion was breathless and dead.

  3. About a gallon of water was dripping down my neck, getting all over my collar and my tie.

  4. The cub couldn’t stand firmly on its legs.

Антонимический перевод

  1. Never drink unboiled water in Kenya.

  2. The queen wasn’t looking too happy.

  3. She never met him afterwards without asking him.

  4. I’m the most terrific liar you ever saw in your life.

Целостное переосмысление

  1. I don’t think she’s living here at the moment. Her bed wasn’t slept in.

  2. How do you do?

  3. Well done!

  4. Good riddance.


III. Translate the text at sight using the necessary lexical transformations.

LONDON:

RAISE THE CURTAIN FOR THE CITY OF THEATRES

1. I’ve never been a great fan of musicals or the theatre in Germany. However, when the conversation turns to London and its entertainment, all of a sudden I get very enthusiastic. To be quite honest, I have no idea why this is, but it probably has something to do with the casual attitude Londoners have towards going out for the evening. In Germany, "going to the theatre" still means getting all dressed up, to see and be seen; everything is done for show.

2. I find the Londoners much more relaxed about the whole business, more tolerant and more enthusiastic about going out to see a play or a musical. In Germany, for example, would you ever see a punk sitting next to a businessman? But of course London is slightly different in this respect anyway. One show I'll not forget for the rest of my life. It was the opening night of "The Phantom of the Opera" at Her Majesty's Theatre.

3. At the time, I was covering Wimbledon as a tennis reporter. Quite out of the blue, Martina Navratilova offered me her two tickets for the show because she had to play another doubles match that evening. No more than 30 minutes later, I was sitting not only in the very front row of the theatre, but beside me had no lesser celebrity than Princess Diana - and entourage!

4. In the same second as I was taking my seat, the curtain began to rise... This was my personal musical highlight of all time, and not only be­cause of the fascinating performance given by Jill Hetherington as "Christine".

5. As far as I'm concerned, London is the number one city for the theatre. You only have to think of how many stars "hit the big time" through the London theatrical scene: Charlie Chaplin, Richard Burton - not to mention Vivian Leigh or Vanessa Redgrave! I really do believe that - with the possible exception of the Americans in Hollywood - no people in the world admire and honour their stars more than the British do. Where else would a star of stage and screen be knighted, as in the case of Sir Laurence Olivier, to name but one?

6. Last year, I saw "Sunset Boulevard" in the Adelphi Theatre near Covent Garden. What a stage set! The storyline was not as good as that in "Phantom", and the Adelphi is not quite as glamorous, but it was still the same experience for me: no matter whether the theatre is posh or rudimentary -1 have always had a great time in London because I quite simply love to observe the way the Londoners behave when they go out for the evening.

7. While on the subject of the Adelphi, there is one thing you shouldn't miss if you ever are out on the Strand, intending to take in a musical: "Simpson's", the famous Grand Divan Tavern, right across the road, a fantastic English Eatery of a type now virtually extinct, a restaurant from a bygone era.

8. Anyway, it's my hot tip for a meal before a musical at the Adelphi. And for those who have the time, just take a short stroll down the street for a highly entertaining scene - when all the Rolls-Royces draw up in front of the "Savoy Hotel". I have never seen so many Rolls in my life! By the way, the driveway up towards the Savoy is the only road in the whole of Great Britain where you are allowed to drive on the right-hand side!


  1. Translate the text using as many lexical transformations as possible.

WALKING IN THE SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS

1. The main mass of Scotland's mountains lies north of the Highland Boundary Fault. Here you will see unspoiled countryside, sparsely populated by any standards, too vast to explore on foot in one excursion. A complex pattern of glens and lochs can be seen to harmoniously divide the mountains into natural groups. How better to savour its delights than from the recognised capital of the Highlands - Inverness - a tourist-oriented, tourist-friendly destination easily reached from Europe by air, ferry, train or car. From there, the choice of route is wide, with the chance to plan walking tours lasting several days. There is no law of trespass in Scotland. Observing common courtesy, you can walk freely as fancy dictates, although villages along the way are not too plentiful, and careful planning is required.

2. Keeping this in mind, let's enjoy a walking tour right across Scotland from the North Sea to the Atlantic, heading for the ferry port of Ullapool, the gateway to the Hebrides.

3. To many foreign visitors, this is an area with great appeal, seeming to stem from their schooldays. As they look around, out comes the half-remembered poem "My heart's in the Highlands a'chasing the deer", shades of Braveheart. However, the mystique of the Highland landscape has other facets: a turbulent unforgotten history, a rich local Gaelic culture, and - more than anything - peace and solitude.

4. North from Inverness, we cross the Black Isle of Ross - a misnomer.

5. It is really a peninsula of rich, red sandstone farmland made famous worldwide by a local, self-taught, 19th-century geologist, one Hugh Millar of Cromarty. Criss-crossed by quiet country lanes where even the local postman gets lost at times, it is a delight to explore, and the natives are friendly! The skyline beyond is dominated by the sprawling mountain plateau of Ben Wyvis, "the awesome mountain". This provides a splendid backdrop to the historic county town of Ross: Dingwall, which is still the main cattle and sheep market for the whole of the north of Scotland. A rampart of high ridges rises to the Northwest and these ridges are our goal.

6. The way through these mountains was one of the most famous of the Highland Drove Roads. It follows the line taken for centuries by great herds of cattle and sheep, which were collected from the glens across the northwest mainland and driven by dogs and men to the markets in the east. This used to be the backbone of the Highland economy.

7. To the north of these places, the mountains of Coigach and Assynt rise up like the spiked spines of prehistoric creatures. Walking routes onto the summits are well trodden, but seldom signposted, so a proper map is essential.

8. Many paths here are also hunters' routes onto the mountains. Consequently, during the main deerstalking season, it is wise to contact the local hunting estate in case you startle deer or walk into a bullet yourself!

9. Inns and settlements en route are normally found on the sites of the evening resting places of these old time drovers, and they are still in use by present-day walkers

10. Continue northwest along the base of Wyvis to reach the old traveller's inn at Aultguish, which caters specially for backpacking hillwalkers. From there we pass through empty landscape and the highest point of this wildest stretch of the route which is seldom occupied. From above the main road junction the eye is drawn downwards into the fertile valley of Strathmore and along Loch Broom towards the sea. There at the mouth of this sheltered sea loch, once a haven for Viking raiders, now a harbour for fishing fleets, lies Ullapool - our destination. Accommodation becomes more plentiful around this final section, which makes for easy travelling through the mountain massifs…


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