ЛЕКСИЧЕСКИЕ ТРАНСФОРМАЦИИ: КАЛЬКИРОВАНИЕ, ТРАНСКРИПЦИЯ, ТРАНСЛИТЕРАЦИЯ. ПЕРЕВОД ИМЕН СОБСТВЕННЫХ
I. Make the adequate translation of the words and word combinations using the method of loan translation (calquing).
Green revolution, mass culture, cold war, superpower, head of the government, Supreme Court, mixed laws, non-confidence vote, Winter Palace, White House, White Guard, the Democratic Party, Edward the Confessor, Bloody Mary, the star of David, the Rocky mountains, the Land of Wonders, central heating, tramlines, blue collars, white collars, black market, health insurance, recreational expenses, social service, water polo, mouse pad, user’s manual, hard disk, motherboard, database.
II. Translate the following proper names into Russian according to the rules of transcription and transliteration.
Paul Campbell, Elkton Hill, Edgar Marsala, Heath, Smith, Thatcher, Thorn, Arthur, Cathy, Heathrow, Rutherford, Warner Brothers, Heather, Feather, Blair, Shakespeare, Winston, William, Winchester, Warwick, Watson, Washington, Warner, Wendy, Wood, Worcester, Hewlett, Heart, Hue, Hugo, Harry, Herbert, Huckleberry, Hudson, Graham Green, Perth, Churchill, Bertha, Ford, Arthur, Baltimore, Moor, Darwin, Eliot, Hampstead, Allan, Lloyd, Bennet, Bess, Willy, Rebecca, Venus Williams, Michael Cain, Isaac Asimov, Joseph Conrad, John Lennon, David Bowie, Hugh Laurie, Jared Padalecki, Jensen Ackles, Ian Somerhalder, Evangeline Lilly, Josh Holloway, Naveen Andrews, Malcolm David Kelley, Terry O'Quinn, Cynthia Watros.
III. Do the matching exercise.
Was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer. He was also the inventor of dynamite.
Was a Scottish biologist who wrote many articles on bacteriology and immunology. His best-known discovery is the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum in 1928.
Was the husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. He initiated the educational reform in the country and a worldwide abolition of slavery. Also aided in the development of Britain's constitutional monarchy
Was a Soviet Russian composer and pianist and was one of the most celebrated composers of the 20th century.
Is an American film director, screenwriter, producer and video game designer. In a career of more than four decades, his films have covered many themes and genres.
A politician who served as the first black President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. His policies aimed at combating poverty and inequality in his country. He received more than 250 awards over four decades, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.
Was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.
Is an English association footballer who has played for Manchester United, Preston North End, Real Madrid, Milan, and the England national team.
Is an American and Canadian actor, comedian, and producer. Has won two Golden Globe Awards. Known for his highly energetic, slapstick performances, he has been described as one of the biggest movie stars in Hollywood.
Is a fictional hobbit character in J.Tolkien's novel “Lord of the Rings”.
11. Jim Carrey
Was a Russian Orthodox Christian who is perceived as having influenced the latter days of the Russian Emperor Nicholas II. Some people regard him as a saintly mystic, visionary, healer and prophet.
Was a Soviet general officer in the Red Army who, in the course of World War II, played a pivotal role in leading the Red Army drive through much of Eastern Europe to liberate the Soviet Union and to ultimately conquer Berlin.
Render the following proper names into Russian.
Hollywood, Saxon Hall, Elkton Hill, Bank of London, Minnesota, Wall Street Journal, Detroit Red Wings, Beatles, Hobbit, Anthony Wayne Avenue, Whooton School, St. Laurence River, Cape of Good Hope, New South Wales, Stratford-upon-Avon, Munich, Leghorn, Nuremberg, Venice, Texas, Belgrade, Canberra, Hungary, Addis Ababa, Venezuela, Reykjavik, Pyongyang, Pnompenh, Beijing, Brussels, Cairo, Warsaw, North Carolina, Virginia, Florence, Lisbon, Krakow, Cologne, Chicago, Toronto, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Acapulco, Port-au-Prince, Santo Domingo, Luxembourg, Lille, Antwerp, Liege, Bohol Sea, Hamburg, Strasbourg, Edinburgh, Calgary, Winnipeg, Newfoundland, Guatemala, Panama, Quebec, Montreal, Babylon, Sea of Galilee, Persian Gulf, Gulf of California, Caspian Sea, Mekong River, James River, Arabian peninsula.
VI. Translate the text at sight. Observe transcription and transliteration rules.
BRIGHTON BEACH- A LITTLE BIT OF RUSSIA IN NEW YORK CITY
1. "It's not worth the subway fare", said a cab driver in New York when I told him I wanted to visit Coney Island. I wasn't convinced. As a fan of old Hollywood movies I had fond memories of Betty Grable finding fame and fortune in a wonderful, glamorous place called Coney Island, and I wanted to see it for myself.
2.The cab driver was right. Around the turn of the century, the fun fair at Coney Island was one of the hot spots of New York. People came here in their thousands to escape the summer heat and to have some fun on the giant roller coaster and ferris wheel. These are still there, but the glamour has gone. The place is a bit tacky, with many amusement arcades boarded up, youths hanging about, and nowhere to sit and have a cup of coffee.
DREAMING OF ODESSA
3. But the beach is wonderful - over three miles long, with the wide Atlantic washing it clean. The wooden boardwalk is wonderful, too. It stretches alongside the beach towards the Brooklyn neighbourhood of Brighton Beach. I'd seen the movie, 'Brighton Beach Memoirs', which was adapted from Neil Simon's play about the ups and downs of a Jewish family living in what seemed to be a quiet suburb. But I didn't realise it was a real place. It's real, but it is not American: it's Russian. And it's certainly not a quiet suburb.
4. As I walked along the boardwalk, enjoying the clean air and the smell of the sea, I noticed the hamburger and hot dog stands began to change into kiosks selling smoked sausages and herring. The nearer I got to Brighton Beach, the more I felt I was in some far-away Russian seaside town.
5. Shops sell caviar, Russian dolls and amber beads. Middle-aged men gather on the benches along the boardwalk to play chess, roll strong-smelling cigarettes, and read Russian-language newspapers. In the cool of the evening, women draped in fur coats drink tea or vodka at the boardwalk cafes. Some people just sit and gaze out to sea, perhaps dreaming of Kiev or Odessa.
6. Today Brighton Beach contains the largest community of Russians outside the former Soviet Union.
7. Its nickname is "Little Odessa by the Sea". As the Cold War was ending in the 1970s, 90,000 Russians emigrated to the United States and around 10,000 of them came to Brighton Beach. Today they number around 60,000, almost all of whom are Jews who left their homeland to escape persecution. Although these days it is not the state they are escaping from: it's other Russians they fear. With the fall of communism, people can now express their anti-Semitism without fear of interference from the state.
8. I stopped at a shop to buy a souvenir. When I asked a question, the man behind the counter said "No speak English". And he doesn't need to speak English. There are two Russian television channels, two radio stations, several Russian-language newspapers, and a couple of dozen street stalls selling Russian books. Even some street signs are in Russian.
CANDY FLOSS AND BORSCHT
9. The Brighton Beach end of the boardwalk is as different from Coney Island as candy floss is from borscht. Here, in contrast to the run-down amusement arcades, are neat houses overlooking the beach. It gives the impression of suburban peace. But this impression was soon changed when I reached the end of the boardwalk and left the sea and sand for the bustle of Brighton Beach Avenue.
10. The great overhanging tract of the subway runs down the middle of the road, supported by huge girders that shudder when trains pass overhead. It dominates everything, stretching like the roof of a giant covered market. On this noisy main boulevard there are libraries, video shops, lawyers offices, launderettes and tea-shops with steaming samovars - all doing business in Russian.
11. I sat in a cafe, drinking a glass of hot lemon tea, and sharing a table with an elderly American lady. "I was born here", she said. "I was born in America but now I'm living in Russia". She laughed. "I'm Jewish too and I'm glad they had a place like this to come to."
CREW CUTS AND FLAT TOPS
12. It's a lively place with a sense of energy. Entrepreneurs provide for every taste. Small shops display all kinds offish: sardines, catfish, mackerel, and many I didn't recognize. Delicatessens are stuffed with herring, black bread and sturgeon, and you can more varieties of caviar than I knew existed. There are bits of real Americana mixed up in all this, such as the fashioned barber's shop which advertises haircuts from past, like crew cuts, flat tops, buzz cuts and spike cuts - whatever they are! Shoesshine boys lean against lamp posts, looking for business, men sell carpets from bonnets of their cars.
13. Brighton Beach is colourful, bustling with activity - not at all like its rather English sedate namesake – and Americans themselves find it an interesting place to visit. There are even organized tours from central Manhattan: "See Russia without leaving New York", says one brochure.
14. It's true, it really is a little bit of Russia, and it's only a 40-minute subway ride from the skyscrapers of Fifth Avenue and Wall Street.
Translate the following text from English into Russian. Pay special attention to the translation of proper names.
SRI LANKA – DANCING IN HONOUR OF THE HOLY TOOTH
1. Each year in August the little town of Kandy in the highlands of Sri Lanka bursts at the seams. Hundreds of thousands of people - locals, pilgrims, tourists - flock here to participate in the island's most magnificent festival, the Maha Nuwara Esala Dalada Perahera - the perahera procession in the lunar month of July/August (Esala) in honour of the Dalada, the relic of Buddha's Tooth.
2. This grandiose spectacle, lasting for ten nights and one day, has no parallel in sound, colour or sumptuousness. From night to night the procession gets longer and more magnificent, the number of adorned elephants, dancers and drummers gets bigger and bigger. The brilliant highlight is the tenth and last night, the night of the full moon, in which up to 100 elephants march past.
FULL MOON OVER KANDY
3. The gods are in gracious mood. On the tenth night of the Great Perahera there is a huge full moon over Kandy. For many hours thousands of believers have been thronging the streets of the town centre in densely packed masses. The air is full of cheerful noise: children brawl, grizzling babies are given the breast, sellers of peanuts, sweets and cigarettes weave their way calmly through the milling crowd. The mood of expectancy becomes infectious. Where are the elephants?
4. Perhaps the astronomers have, at the last minute, calculated a new, better time to start the procession.
5. Time enough to find out a little more about the Perahera: long and adventurous was the odyssey of this eye-tooth said to have belonged to Buddha. The daughter of an Indian king is said to have hidden it in her hair and smuggled it across to the island, where it was revered for seven centuries in the former regal city of Anuradhapura.
6. During the course of its 2,500-year history, the tooth relic has been the subject of much fighting - it has been stolen several times, taken out of the country, been supposedly destroyed, yet time and again it has returned unscathed to Sri Lanka. The last Singhalese kings placed the relic in the temple of their capital, Kandy. There it rests, well guarded, in the House of the Reliquary beneath seven bell-shaped dagobas placed one over the other - even during the Great Perahera, only a copy of the reliquary is paraded.
7. At last something is happening. A cracking of whips cuts through the air. The advance guard of the procession turns the corner. Burning coconut shells in the iron baskets of the torch-bearers bathe the scene in a flickering red light. Men whirl torches on chains in wild circles of fire, symbolically making way for the procession, followed by those bearing the banners of all the provinces participating in the Perahera.
BROCADE GARMENTS FOR TEMPLE ELEPHANTS
8. Like swaying ships, illuminated by tiny, multi-coloured lights, the first elephants emerge from the darkness, completely covered in brightly coloured cloths of batik or brocade. Even head, ears and trunk are covered, only the eyes flash through the slits. Priests, dignitaries and temple guards ride gravely on the colossal animals' backs.
9. A tumultuous drum-roll really gets the people going. Here comes Raja, the king elephant. Only he may bear the copy of the casket in which the holy tooth of Buddha is kept - the original remains in the temple. The crowd pushes and shoves in order to get as close as possible to the king elephant and its load."Sadhu, Sadhu," the believers call into the night. Raja bears everything calmly, even his valuable red and gold festive attire and the reliquary on his back, which is protected by a high canopy. Slowly and with measured tread he walks by, trampling the white cloths which are spread out before him, surrounded by the cries of the jubilant crowd.
10. The best drummers and dancers join in. In the torchlight the silver sequins on the dancers' costumes sparkle brightly. The drum-rolls come faster and faster, the drummers whirling round in ever wilder fashion, while the dancers gyrate with greater and greater ecstasy only to break off abruptly at the climax. This rhythm also works the spectators up into a frenzy. The atmosphere is electric. A blanket of sound - superimposed rhythms, dull drumbeats, shrill horns and rustic flutes - has long lain over the town.
DANCERS IN A TRANCE
11. Without a transition, the Hindu part of the Perahera joins in, even louder, even more colourful. Now comes the great crowd of entertainers, jugglers, acrobats. Fire-eaters whirl through the tropical night, dancers fall into a trance. Eerily their bodies twitch, bare feet stamp through the falling embers of the torches.
12. In the last part of the procession, devoted to the goddess Pattini, the women dance - an enchanting contrast to the agitating dances of the men. Lightly and graciously they move to the sounds of the drums and pipes, releasing some of the tension which has gripped each of the spectators. Bringing up the rear young elephants waddle along, apprentices, as it were, being prepared for future festivals. Many of the faithful now join the procession until it breaks up at the "Temple of the Tooth". But only when the royal elephant with the holy casket has climbed the steps to the forecourt of the temple, where it is relieved of all its pomp, does a mighty salvo announce the end of the Great Perahera. Then this pretty little town between the green hills returns to its normal rhythm of life -until the next lunar month of Esala.
I. Translate each sentence twice if possible: into British English and into American English.
1. I’m a little mad in this part of Blackpool.
2. He’s got a flat now in Manchester.
3. Put it in the back of the truck.
4. Do you need a one-way or a round trip?
5. Don’t walk on the pavement.
6. Let’s get some gas for the automobile.
7. His office is on the first floor of this high-tech western building.
8. Take the freeway to the seventh exit.
9. Put your bags in the trunk.
10. I need the rest room.
11. They’ll give you one forth of the profits.
12. Turn right at the intersection.
13. I think we should look at that on the tube.
14. Take the elevator to go up to the office.
15. I liked the fall best.
16. I suppose we should wait in line.
17. Where’s the schedule?
18. Let’s take the subway.
19. It’s in the closet.
20. He left the faucet on.
II. Translate the following questions into both British English and American English and answer them.
1. Where would you take (a) an American visitor (b) a British visitor who said they wanted to wash up?
2. Would (a) an American (b) a Brit be expected to get something hot or something cold if they asked for some potato chips?
3. Which would surprise you more - an American or a British man telling you that he wanted to go and change his pants?
4. You have just come into an unknown office block. If (a) an American (b) a Brit says that the office you need is on the second floor, how many flights of stairs do you need to climb?
5. If (a) an American (b) a Brit asks for a bill, is he or she more likely to be in a bank or a cafe?
III. Translate the following text from English into Russian. Pay special attention to the translation of Americanisms. A GOOD LITTLE FEATURE
He was a shabby little old man, but his shabbiness was that of the country worker rather than the city poor. It was obvious that he had never been in a police station before.
"Do you want to make bond?" the desk sergeant asked.
"I don't," he quavered, and it was plain that he did not understand what a bond was.
"You can put up one hundred dollars cash to guarantee your appearance in court tomorrow morning," the sergeant explained.
"That's a heap of money," the prisoner protested.
"You can telephone someone to come down and make your bond."
"Don't know nobody."
"I'll have to lock you up, then." The sergeant turned to a patrolman. "Search him and take him downstairs."
The prisoner did not like the idea of being searched, and when the officer discovered and removed a cotton bag pinned beneath his shirt, he protested volubly.
"Give me back that, now. That's mine. You hain't no right to take it. You're a-robbin' me, and I won't stand for it."
The desk sergeant gasped. "Say, old man, don't you know it's dangerous to carry all that money with you?"
At these words a young man sitting in one corner of the cage threw aside his magazine, arose, and strolled up to the desk.
"How much dough has he got, Sergeant?"
The officer pointed to a pile of bills he had removed, from the cotton bag. "Must be at least five thousand dollars," he estimated.
"It's fifty-five hundred there," the prisoner corrected. "Silas Jones paid me that for my farm when me and Ma decided to move to town, Silas can tell you the same, and I'll thank you to give it back to me."
The police reporter for the Riverton Evening Star was interested. He read aloud from the docket: "'Henry Tucker, Nine-one-six Tenth Street, petty larceny.' What'd he steal, Sergeant?"
"About seventycents' worth of groceries from that chain store at the corner of Tenth and Cherry streets."
"With all that money in his pockets!" the reporter marvelled.
"'Tain't so!" the prisoner shrilled indignantly. "I warn't tryin't' get away, like they said. I was lookin' for the feller in charge of that crazy store. I never stole nothin' in my life."
The reporter laughed. "He's probably telling the truth."
"Listen, old man." said the sergeant. "There's no need for you staying in jail when you have money to make bond." Very carefully and patiently he explained the nature of a bond, and finally the prisoner was made to understand that his one hundred dollars would be returned to him after his case had been heard in court.
"And do I get the rest of my money back now?" the prisoner asked.
"Yes, but you better take it to a bank before somebody robs you."
"I been aimin' to, but me and Ma just got here and I hain't had time t' pick me out a good bank."
The little old man pinned his money under his shirt again and departed. The reporter looked at the clock.
"Almost time for the edition," he said. "Guess I'll drag into the office."
"Wait a minute, Charlie," the sergeant called. He followed the reporter to the door. "I wouldn't print anything about this if I were you."
"Why not? It's a good little feature."
"If you publish that story the old man will be robbed of his life savings before morning."
The reporter hesitated. "Guess you're right, Sergeant," he agreed reluctantly, "but I hate to lay off. I could have made a good funny story out of him. However, I don't want to get the old man robbed."
Nevertheless, the final edition of the Evening Star carried the story on the front page under a two-column head. And, as the reporter suggested, it was a good little feature. He had made the most of his material, treating the incident humorously but sympathetically.
"Well, how'd you like my story, Sergeant?" the reporter asked on the following morning. "Wasn't it a good one?"
"Yes," the officer agreed unsmilingly, "it was a good story. But you promised me you wouldn't use it."
The reporter chuckled. "Well, I haven't seen the morning sheet, but I'll bet a buck our country friend wasn't robbed last night."
"No. He wasn't robbed."
"I thought not." The reporter was well pleased with himself. "You see, I followed the old man out of here, took him to a bank, and saw him deposit his fifty-four hundred. After that — "Something in the officer's face stopped him. "Why, what's wrong, Sergeant?"
"You should have mentioned the bank deposit in your story," the sergeant said in a tired voice; "Henry Tucker was murdered in front of his home last night. We found his bankbook in the gutter."
ПЕРЕВОД АТРИБУТИВНХ СЛОВОСОЧЕТАНИЙ
I. Translate the following attributive groups from English into Russian.
a) separation payments
target growth rate
package deal arrangement
b) district attorney
capital flow rates
session committee group
air force unit
"World without bombs" conference programme
II. Translate the following sentences into Russian paying special attention to the translation of attributive groups.
A government plan to force some black people to show their passports or identity documents when they apply for a national insurance card was condemned in the Commons last night as "sinister".
Newcastle miners’ demonstration support grows.
The "Give us our money back" demand will be viewed by Obama personally tomorrow.
There is a sort of Oh-what-a-wicked-world-this-is-and-how-I-wish-I-could-do-something-to-make-it-better-and-nobler-expression about Montmorency. (J.K.Jerome)
Pangborne eyes were sending a clear you-are-lying-and-we-both know-it message.
She is one of her party's most active and successful fund-raisers and has used her political action committee to funnel campaign contributions to other House Representatives.
However, domestic-based American export industry will lose the dominant-currency advantage it has enjoyed for 50 years.
The euro zone is facing a short-lived growth slump because of problems in Brazil and other regions across the globe, the president of the European Central Bank said.
Bangladeshis went to work and schools on Friday, to recoup losses suffered from a three-day anti-government strike that paralyzed the country's main cities and claimed seven lives.
If the prime minister is not careful enough he could end up with a mess, like Mr. Obama's ill-fated health-care reforms.
III. Translate the following text from English into Russian at sight. Pay special attention to the translation of attributive groups. IN THE REALM OF MYTH AND LEGEND 1. It's Sunday lunchtime in St. Mabyn's pub. Rain beats against the windows; dense tobacco smoke rises to the ceiling. An excited din of voices fills the room. This morning the black coach with four black horses once again thundered over the stone bridge outside Wade-bridge - for the third time since old Steve has been on his death-bed. And once again it vanished into thin air. The people hadn't got over it yet; after all, everyone in the pub knew at least one person who had seen it close up. Cornwall inspires the imagination, is full of myths and legends. Here in the land of King Arthur there is a long tradition of witches and magicians; spirits romp around in Celtic stone circles: the supernatural is an everyday happening.
2. The labyrinth of narrow lanes at the centre of England's "big toe" has a special charm of its own. Again and again, hedges, bushes and trees form dusky-green tunnels; foxgloves blossom poisonous-red along the lanes. The roads are often so narrow that not even two small cars can pass. But there's no reason to abandon hope: there are plenty of passing places. And some time soon the green opens up, revealing walled-in fields, church towers that look like strongholds under which tiny hamlets crouch, and idyllic manor houses.
3. Usually the only companions I have on my excursions across Bodmin Moor are sheep, ponies and countless wild rabbits. Through fern that is as high as ourselves, we arrive at Rough Tor, a hill with bizarre rocks. Here, the wind and weather have modelled the most fantastic stone sculptures. I wouldn't be surprised if elves and gnomes were to hop out of the crevices. Up here, the witches meet to dance at the summer solstice.
4. A short time later, in the little harbour of Boscastle, I come across a Witches' Museum. Here you can admire weird and beautiful things from several centuries of black and white magic. They range from very special herbs, instruments of torture, dolls bristling with pins in order to eliminate enemies or rivals, to the Black Mass. Not far from Boscastle, in Tintagel, are the remains of "King Arthur's Castle", standing on a steep cliff. The legendary king is said to have been born here. Whether it's true or not, the wild beauty of the surf-whipped coastline invites the beholder to dream of King Arthur's Round Table.
5. Other very realistic stories from not so far in the past tell of smugglers and wreckers. In order to put a stop to these depraved activities, the protection of the coastline was extended from 1830 onwards. The paths that were laid at that time are today the most beautiful ones.
6. I have left the tourist resorts Newquay, Perranporth off my route. The tiny village of Zennor on the Penwith peninsula is more to my taste. A couple of farmhouses, a little local museum and a pretty church - really that is all it consists of. But there are masses of things to talk about in the pub, everything under the sun. Of course, Zennor also has its "own" story. In the church a worm-eaten stool reminds people of a mermaid. Long, long ago she used to sit here on Sundays, listening to the sound of the organ. And as she listened, she was inflamed with a passionate love for the organist. She half pulled him in, he half sank down - but both disappeared for ever into the floods of the Atlantic.
7. On the cosy Higher Trewy Farm - my bed-and-breakfast place in Zennor - the radiant sunshine and the piercing warning signals of the nearby lighthouse drive me out of bed. In such fantastic weather the car is left parked where it is, there is plenty to discover on foot. I don't want to go into details about all the numerous hikes to remote stone circles, "hut circles" and tumuli, but I can't miss Men-An-Tol! The stone disk stands vertically in the earth, like a huge mill-wheel with a hole that is too large, flanked by two stone pillars both of the same height. Was it the resting place of a Celtic prince or a meeting place of the priests? No one knows exactly. Anyone who looks for and finds this "stone disk with the hole" on a footpath opposite the driveway to Chun Castle should not forget to crawl through the hole nine times. My landlady in Zennor swore by all that's holy that this artistic number protects you from back pains for the rest of your life.
8. The strong smell of fish and chips accompanies the huge streams of tourists pushing their way through pretty holiday resorts such as Polperro or Fowey. Right next to the farm, the coast path takes you in the direction of Cadwight, a fishing village that really looks as if it comes out of a picture-book. Cosily the white houses nestle against each other under thick thatched roofs, climbing the hills to the right and left of the cove. Cadwight claims that it has the richest catches of lobster.
9. The nearby Smuggler's Cove Inn gives an idea of the long tradition of smuggling which is probably shared by ever village along the Cornish coast. An old fisherman affably tells us about the bygone days of smuggling. And about the times when the young men had to hide in the smugglers' caves when the recruiting officers of her Majesty's Admiralty set out to catch men in order to round up sufficient "material" for the ships heading for the Far East. Many a young man who had received a blow on the head didn't wake up until he was on the high seas.
10. In the evening the Smuggler's Cove Inn is packed to capacity, especially on Fridays. That is when people get together for a sing. After a few beers the voices are well lubricated. Someone starts up the song and everyone, without exception, sings along, and even rough fellows have tears in their eyes.
IV. Translate the following text from English into Russian in writing paying attention to the translation of attributive groups.
FAFAFINE – SOUTH SEA TRANSVESTITES
1. The sun glows violet and disappears behind black, wispy clouds into the sea and takes the day along with it: time for Lyndah to attach her breasts. It's Friday night in Auckland, New Zealand, the city with the world's largest Polynesian community. The native Samoan Lyndah and her friends have a long night ahead of them: the night lights are calling and the runway is waiting. Not in the middle-class world, not in the bright daylight, only under cover of darkness can these Samoans come close to their illusion of a normal life.
2. The bleach-blonde hair is quickly tied into two unruly little girl pigtails. The eyebrows are meticulously plucked. The large, almost circular black eyes practically jump out at you; carefully applied eyeliner and extremely long fake eyelashes intensify the picture. The whiskers have been carefully shaved, the make-up gives Lyndah's skin a smoothness that is otherwise missing from a man's face. The fashion designer Lyndah Le Pou weighs about 200 pounds, is 32 and lives in New Zealand - she is a man for the time being. Or is she? She's a Fafafine, a transvestite, half woman, half man. They sit on the floor of their apartment like four unusual moths and talk about the uniqueness of their culture, their life.
3. Because tonight is the big transvestite show when the "Queen of Auckland" will be crowned. But the stocky legs haven't been revealed by short miniskirts yet, the feet haven't been forced into monstrous platform boots. Jeans full of holes, breasts strapped on underneath T-shirts and carefully applied make-up - there's tea to drink.
4. Samoan Fafafine have a long tradition. Literally translated Fafafine means "like a woman" and includes homosexual transvestites, transsexuals who have become women through sex-change operations and even heterosexual men with definite feminine characteristics. Before missionaries fundamentally changed the Samoan culture forever, the Fafafine played an important role in the family structure. Fafafine raised the older children, took care of the household and served as representatives of their families to other families and the surrounding villages. Fafafine were so important that as little boys they were dressed in girl's clothes and raised like young women.
5. Deep in thought Lyndah strokes her freshly shaved legs: "It's different today. The missionaries catapulted us out of the close structure of Samoan society, we've become empty spaces," she sums up almost depressed.
6. Forced out of their real role, the Fafafine were forced into men's clothes, and on the other hand the bare-breasted Samoan women had to wear stand-up collars. That's how God's messengers cleaned up. The traditional culture was from then on like an empty shell, the clear family structure became blurred in a cloud of Christian ideology. Just as the required virtuous clothing was inappropriate for the tropical climate, the conversion to Christianity dissolved the contours of a time-tested culture. And so the Fafafine still dream today of re-establishing themselves in their original roles in the family.
7. Lyndah is only one of many Fafafine who fled from Samoa to New Zealand. In a big city like Auckland they can be what they want to be without bringing discredit to their families. Here they can rebuild their identity.
8. Time is running out and "girls" have to be on their way:like nightshades that don’t fully bloom until it's dark, the Fafafine, creatures of night, come to life. Their day begins at sunset and then they occupy their place in society: on the stage, garishly made up and in the spotlight. The only way to be part of it all is as entertainment Lyndah believes. Here Fafafine are accepted.
9. The stage awaits: make way for the Fafafine! Hopes, longings, wishes - tonight they’ll all be fulfilled. Tomorn when the sun appears on the Golf again, the glamour of the illusions will fade once more.