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Episode 11

7th May 2013

uestions for discussion


Inside Detention

  1. Discuss the Inside Detention story as a class.

  2. Why did the news recently report on this story about asylum seekers and immigration detention centres?

  3. Who is an asylum seeker?

  4. Why are asylum seekers put in detention centres?

  5. Where are Australia’s offshore detention centres located?

  6. Describe what the conditions are like inside Australia’s offshore detention centres.

  7. Why are asylum seekers sent to detention centres offshore?

    1. It is cheaper

    2. It is more comfortable

    3. It deters asylum seekers from coming to Australia by boat

  8. Why are asylum seekers protesting?

  9. How did this story make you feel?

  10. What do you think should happen next?



Post a message on the comments page on the Behind the News Inside Detention story. Go to the BtN website and follow the links http://www.abc.net.au/btn/
Fashion Factories

  1. A lot of people are asking questions about the ethics of how our clothes are made. Discuss this statement as a class.

  2. A lot of the clothes that we buy in Australia are made in developing countries. List some of these countries.

  3. Why are a lot of our clothes made in developing countries?

  4. How much money does a clothing factory worker in Bangladesh generally earn per hour?
  5. What are the conditions like for clothing factory workers in developing countries?


  6. What organisation is trying to improve workers rights in developing countries?

    1. Oxfam

    2. The Red Cross

    3. Greenpeace

  7. In which country did a clothing factory recently collapse?

  8. Many say the Australian fashion industry needs to do more to protect overseas workers. True or false?

  9. Where are your school uniforms made? Talk to your school/governing council about taking steps to make sure your school uniforms are not made by exploited factory workers.

  10. What surprised you about this story?



Create an awareness raising campaign at your school about exploitative labour in clothing factories in developing countries. Think about your campaign’s aim, your target audience and the value of raising awareness at your school.

Quad Bikes



  1. What was the main point raised in the Quad Bikes story?

  2. Most people who ride quad bikes live:

    1. Near the beach

    2. On farms

    3. In the city

  3. What are the benefits of having a quad bike on a farm?

  4. How many people died from quad bike accidents in Australia last year?

  5. Kids of any age are legally allowed to ride quad bikes. True or false?

  6. There are no laws saying that kids have to wear __________ while riding a quad bike.

  7. Why do some people want to see changes to the way quad bikes are designed?

  8. Give some examples of improved quad bike safety.

  9. List the arguments for and against making stricter rules for quad bike riders.

  10. What do you think should happen next?


Should kids under 16 be allowed to ride quad bikes? Have your say on the BtN online poll. To vote head to the BtN website http://abc.net.au/btn/polls.htm.

ACL Injury


  1. Briefly summarise the ACL Injury story.

  2. What is the ACL?

    1. Anterior Chest Lung

    2. Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    3. Abdominal Cross Ligament

  3. What other ligaments hold your bones together inside your knee?

  4. Name an AFL player that has recently injured their ACL.

  5. Where in the body is your ACL?

  6. Sportspeople who play non-contact sports do not injure their ACL. True or false?

  7. Describe how Ben injured his ACL.

  8. What other sports do people commonly injure their ACL?

  9. Write a message of support to the AFL players that have recently injured their ACL.

  10. Illustrate the anatomy of the knee. Detail and name all the bones and major ligaments.



Test your knowledge in the ACL Injury quiz. Go to the BtN website and follow the links.

    Ukulele Kids



  1. Can you name a popular song that features the ukulele?

  2. Compare and contrast the features of a ukulele to a guitar.

  3. How many strings does a ukulele have?

  4. Briefly describe how the ukulele is played.

  5. What do the students, in the BtN story, like about playing the ukulele?

  6. Duyen learnt to play the ukulele through:

    1. A ukulele teacher.

    2. YouTube and other ukulele websites.

    3. Her mother.

  7. What is special about the ukulele videos that Duyen makes for her YouTube channel?

  8. Describe the popularity of Duyen’s ukulele video tutorials.

  9. Name three facts you learnt in the BtN story.

  10. Illustrate an aspect of this story.


Did you know that the ukulele originated in Portugal? Find out more about the ukulele and then write a short description about the ukulele, including its history, cultural importance and how it’s played. Refer to this website for a history on the uke. http://www.geocities.com/~ukulele/history.html

A
Episode 11

7th May 2013

ctivity


Fashion Factories
Key Learning

    Students will explore the ethical concerns related to companies that have their clothes made by workers in developing countries. Students will also gain a deeper understanding of the structural framework and language features of persuasive texts.




The Australian Curriculum







General Capabilities > Ethical Understanding > Learning Continuum




General Capabilities > Ethical Understanding > Learning Continuum

Understanding ethical concepts and issues

Recognise ethical concepts

examine and explain ethical concepts such as truth and justice that contribute to the achievement of a particular outcome
Explore ethical concepts in context

explain what constitutes an ethically better or worse outcome and how it might be accomplished

Reasoning in decision making and actions

Reflect on ethical action

articulate a range of ethical responses to situations in various social contexts

Consider consequences

evaluate the consequences of actions in familiar and hypothetical scenarios

Reason and make ethical decisions

explore the reasons behind there being a variety of ethical positions on a social issue



Exploring values, rights and responsibilities

Examine values

examine values accepted and enacted within various communities
Explore rights and responsibilities

monitor consistency between rights and responsibilities when interacting face-to-face or through social media
Consider points of view

explain a range of possible interpretations and points of view when thinking about ethical dilemmas

English / Literacy / Creating texts

Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, choosing and experimenting with text structures, language features, images and digital resources appropriate to purpose and audience (ACELY1714)
Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, selecting aspects of subject matter and particular language, visual, and audio features to convey information and ideas (ACELY1725)

    Discussion Questions


  1. A lot of people are asking questions about the ethics of how our clothes are made. Discuss this statement as a class.

  2. A lot of the clothes that we buy in Australia are made in developing countries. List some of these countries.

  3. Why are a lot of our clothes made in developing countries?

  4. How much money does a clothing factory worker in Bangladesh generally earn per hour?

  5. What are the conditions like for clothing factory workers in developing countries?

  6. What organisation is trying to improve workers rights in developing countries?

    1. Oxfam

    2. The Red Cross

    3. Greenpeace

  7. In which country did a clothing factory recently collapse?

  8. Many say the Australian fashion industry needs to do more to protect overseas workers. True or false?

  9. Where are your school uniforms made? Talk to your school/governing council about taking steps to make sure your school uniforms are not made by exploited factory workers.

  10. What surprised you about this story?

    Activities



Classroom discussion

Watch the BtN story Fashion Factories and summarise the story in your own words. Hold a group discussion, and reflect on the issue of child labour and forced labour in sweatshops.



  • How did you feel after watching the BtN Fashion Factories story?

  • What words, emotions and images do you associate with this issue?

  • Why do you think BtN covered this story?


Further discussion:
  • Why is it important to find out where our clothes are made?


  • How do you know if you are buying sweatshop free clothing?

  • Would you be prepared to pay more for your clothes if you knew they were made under ethical working conditions?

  • There are many sweatshops operating out of developing countries. If factories were to improve working conditions how would this affect the people working there? Think about the positive and negative impact this may have.




What is labour exploitation?

Ask students to find definitions for the following terms in the context of child labour in sweatshops. Use these words to construct sentences about labour exploitation in developing countries.






Create your own FAQ




    Students will create their own FAQ on labour rights and ethical garment manufacturing. Provide students with the opportunity to conduct research into the issue of labour exploitation to gain a deeper understanding of the rights of the worker.

    Refer to the following websites for information on labour rights:



  • Shop Ethical

  • Oxfam: Frequently Asked Questions

    Encourage students to share their research with

    the class and broader school community.

Interesting ways to present information include:



  • Prezi http://prezi.com/index/

  • Oral presentation
  • Glogster http://www.glogster.com/


  • Create an infographic using http://create.visual.ly/

Where are your school uniforms made?

Many school uniforms in Australia are made by exploited sweatshop workers who are not receiving their legal entitlements or a fair wage. Whether you are a student, teacher, parent, principal or part of a school council, there are simple steps you can take to make sure your school uniforms are not made by exploited sweatshop workers. Guide your students through an investigation into their school uniforms, where they were made and the conditions in which the people who made them were working.




      Where are your school uniforms made?

    • Where are your school uniforms (including garments and shoes) manufactured?

    • Are your school uniforms made by exploited sweatshop workers?

      Visit the Products of Slavery website http://www.productsofslavery.org/ to explore where and what products are made using child labour or forced labour.

    • Take your concerns to your SRC to discuss your school uniform and where it is manufactured.

    • Set up a meeting with your school council to discuss your current uniform policy. Does the policy include a clause which ensures that your uniforms are accredited by Ethical Clothing Australia? Liaise with the school council to ensure your uniforms are ethical.

    • Visit the Fair Wear website to find out more http://www.uniforms.fairwear.org.au/learn-more/

    Have your voice heard! – Write a persuasive text

Explain that students will be constructing a persuasive text urging companies to put in place an action plan to stop the use of forced labour in their supply chains. This activity introduces the structural framework and language features of persuasive texts to your students and allows them to gain an understanding of the purposes of each sentence within a paragraph.



    Refer students to the read, write, think persuasion map to plan their exposition text.




      Have your voice heard!

      Activity #1: Write a letter to the Chief Executive of your favourite retail chain. Consider the following points when writing your letter:

    • What has this business done to ensure there is no forced/child labour in the products they sell?

    • What are the conditions like for the factory workers that manufacture your products?

      Visit the Anti-slavery website for a sample letter: http://www.antislavery.org/english/campaigns/take_action_on_slavery_and_what_we_buy.aspx

      Activity #2: With your teacher’s permission and guidance visit the Facebook page or website of a clothing company. Comment on their page that you like their clothes but ask them if they can confirm whether their clothes are made under decent conditions.




    Use the read, write, think persuasion map to plan your exposition text.





8 Related Research Links

Oxfam Australia – Explore resources for students



https://www.oxfam.org.au/explore/workers-rights/resources-for-students/
Shop Ethical – Go ethical in your school

http://www.ethical.org.au/get-involved/resources/go-ethical-in-your-school/
CBBC Newsround – What are ‘sweatshop’ goods?

http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/newsid_4600000/newsid_4603800/4603845.stm
Anti-Slavery International – Product Slavery

http://www.productsofslavery.org/
Fair Wear – Keep sweatshops out of your school

http://www.uniforms.fairwear.org.au/
Behind the News – Kids’ Rights

http://www.abc.net.au/btn/story/s3343592.htm
A
Episode 11

7th May 2013


ctivity


Quad Bikes
Key Learning

    Students will investigate the associated dangers with quad bike riding. Students will gain a deeper understanding of the structural framework and language features of persuasive texts.




The Australian Curriculum







English / Literacy / Creating texts




English / Literacy / Interpreting, analysing, evaluating

Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts containing key information and supporting details for a widening range of audiences, demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features (ACELY1694)


Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive print and multimodal texts, choosing text structures, language features, images and sound appropriate to purpose and audience (ACELY1704)



Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, choosing and experimenting with text structures, language features, images and digital resources appropriate to purpose and audience (ACELY1714)



Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, selecting aspects of subject matter and particular language, visual, and audio features to convey information and ideas (ACELY1725)








Identify characteristic features used in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text (ACELY1690)

Identify and explain characteristic text structures and language features used in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text (ACELY1701)





English / Language / Text Structure and organisation


Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve particular aesthetic, humorous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518)





    Discussion Questions

  1. What was the main point raised in the Quad Bikes story?

  2. Most people who ride quad bikes live:

    1. Near the beach

    2. On farms

    3. In the city

  3. What are the benefits of having a quad bike on a farm?

  4. How many people died from quad bike accidents in Australia last year?

  5. Kids of any age are legally allowed to ride quad bikes. True or false?

  6. There are no laws saying that kids have to wear __________ while riding a quad bike.

  7. Why do some people want to see changes to the way quad bikes are designed?

  8. Give some examples of improved quad bike safety.

  9. List the arguments for and against making stricter rules for quad bike riders.

  10. What do you think should happen next?

    Activities



K-W-H-L

After watching the BtN Quad Bike story invite students to participate in a class discussion. Find out what your students know about quad bikes, what they learnt from the story and what questions they have about the topic. Here are some discussion starters:



    Discussion questions

  • Why do people ride quad bikes? Consider how they are used on farms, in sport and for leisure.


  • How are quad bikes useful for kids who live on farms?

  • List some of the main safety issues with quad bikes.

  • What was the main point of the BtN Quad Bike story?

  • Do you think kids (under the age of 16) should be allowed to ride quad bikes? In point form, list your reasons. On the whiteboard list the ‘for’ and ‘against’ arguments.














What is a persuasive text?

Ask students to discuss in small groups what they know about persuasive texts and give examples of them. Have a range of texts to show students including letters to the editor, advertisements and brochures. Discuss the purpose of each text and the techniques used to persuade the audience. Use the following questions for discussion starters.




    Discussion questions

  • Has your opinion or response changed in any way after reading the text?

  • What did the author or illustrator want you to think or feel?

  • Is the author or illustrator trying to persuade you to act in particular ways?





Language features of persuasive texts

This activity introduces the structural framework and language features of persuasive texts to the students and allows them to gain an understanding of the purposes of each sentence within a paragraph.

Discuss the sentences below and ask the students to rank them from low modality to high modality. Explain that modalities can be high, medium or low and that these have an impact on the certainty of the argument of the writer. Explain that modality can be expressed through choice of auxiliaries, verbs, adverbs, adjectives and nouns.
Write the following sentences on the classroom whiteboard and ask your students to rank the arguments from low modality to high modality.


    Rank the following arguments from the weakest to the strongest!

  • It may/could be a good idea to ban kids from riding quad bikes. (possibility – low modality)

  • It will be a good idea that kids are banned from riding quad bikes (probability – medium modality)

  • We need to/should ban kids from riding quad bikes. (obligation – medium modality)

  • We must ban kids from riding quad bikes. (obligation – high modality)

  • We have to ban kids from riding quad bikes (obligation – high modality)



Construct your own exposition text

Explain that students will be constructing a text to persuade others that there should be tougher restrictions and rules on kids that ride quad bikes. Provide students with the following structure to follow when completing this activity.



    Structure of an exposition text

Introduction

  • What is the point you are trying to argue? Construct an introductory paragraph which states the issue or topic.
  • Introduce the arguments that will be developed in the body of the text.



Body

  • Construct arguments that support your point of view.

  • Each paragraph starts with a topic sentence which introduces each point.

  • The rest of the paragraph gives more reasons.

  • Arguments can be ordered from strongest to weakest.


Conclusion

  • Restate your position on the argument

  • Construct a concluding paragraph that provides a summary of your arguments and a call to action.



Use a persuasion map to plan your exposition text.



http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/persuasion_map/


    Tips for writing persuasive texts

  • Who is your audience? For example are you directing your argument at kids, teachers or politicians?

  • Provide facts and evidence to support your argument.

  • Be creative with your word choice to enhance your argument. Convey emotion using thinking and feeling words.

  • Write in the present tense

  • Check your spelling and punctuation.



Further Investigation

Is your class currently studying another topic of interest that your students are passionate about? Use this resource to guide students in writing effective letters to the editor of a newspaper in your local area. http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/persuading-audience-writing-effective-929.html




8 Related Research Links
ABC 7.30 – Quad bike accidents spark safety concerns

http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-04-26/quad-bike-accidents-spark-safety-concerns/4654644
WorkSafe – Quad bikes on farms

http://www.worksafe.tas.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/166962/Quadbikes_on_farms.pdf
Read Write Think – Developing Persuasive Writing Strategies

http://www.readwritethink.org/professional-development/strategy-guides/developing-persuasive-writing-strategies-30965.html
Read Write Think – Persuasion Map

http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/persuasion_map/



BtN: Episode 11 Transcript 7/5/13
On this week's Behind the News


  • The fashion factories making cheap clothes to sell in Australia but at what cost?




  • Quad bike danger should kids be allowed to ride them?




  • And we explain a common type of footy injury that keeps appearing in the news.

Hi I'm Sarah Larsen, welcome to Behind the News.


Also on the show today. Tash catches up with an amazing new girl band with a difference.
But first:
Inside Detention

Reporter: Nathan Bazley


INTRO: This week in the news there was a lot of talk about asylum seekers and immigration detention centres. You're probably used to that. It's a big political issue that always causes a lot of debate. But how much do you actually know about the places that people are sent when they're trying to become refugees? Nathan has a look.

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: To get to this point, they've risked their lives on dangerous boats; most to run from greater dangers at home. And now, these asylum seekers are just one step away from their goal, a new life in Australia. But that next step is causing a lot of controversy in Australia right now. Here's why.

These are all the immigration detention centres on the mainland of Australia. Let's have a look at what conditions are like inside two of them. This is Villawood detention centre in Sydney. And this is the Yongah Hill detention centre outside Perth. They are two of the eight immigration detention centres on the mainland. But there are three more that aren't on the mainland. In fact, they're not even close.
These are Australia's offshore detention centres. The first you'd probably already know, Christmas Island detention centre. While it is offshore, it's still a part of Australia, just a long way away. But in 2012, two new centres were opened that are not only a long way away, but in completely different countries.
First, let's head to the tiny island of Nauru. This nation is only six k’s long and four k’s wide. It's also one of the poorest countries on Earth. But it is here, that the Australian Government has decided to process some asylum seekers. When first opened, 400 men were kept in tents for five months. Now there are more permanent buildings, but people aren't much happier about being here.
PROTESTERS: We want freedom! We want freedom!
Protests like this are common and staff say the main reason is because detainees aren't told how long they'll have to stay. They also aren't told why they were sent here, while their friends may have been sent to a detention centre on Australian soil.
West of here is Manus Island, a part of Papua New Guinea. It's infested with mosquitoes which is why they have to fumigate the place regularly.
The accommodation here is pretty basic too. There's no privacy and often no power, or running water. But that's not the worst thing the camp is lacking. Medical supplies are desperately short. So if people get sick here, they can be in a lot of trouble.

So how would you feel about staying in this camp? Because 30 other kids have already had to. Some of them even had medical conditions that couldn't be properly taken care of. This has led refugee support groups to label both Manus Island and Nauru completely unacceptable.

So why are asylum seekers sent here? Well it's not because offshore processing is cheaper. Over the next four years it's expected to cost Australia at least $2.3 billion dollars. The Government and Opposition both say it deters asylum seekers from coming here by boat.
But with numbers actually increasing since offshore processing began last year, refugee groups say this final step needs to be brought closer to home.
PRESENTER: Let's see what else is making the news. Here's Matt with the Wire.

The Wire
The Government and Opposition have agreed on a plan to fund the National Disability Insurance Scheme or NDIS. The NDIS is designed to help the more than 400,000 Aussies who have a disability. It will help to pay for carers and special equipment to help people live a normal life. But it won't be cheap and it will mean people have to pay more tax. The NDIS will cost average wage earners about a dollar a day and the Prime Minister says that extra charge should be there forever.


***
A consumer group says many Aussies are being misled by make-up brands which say they're animal cruelty free. In Australia cosmetics can be tested without using animals and that's what many customers want. But Choice says the cruelty free logo may not be true if the company exports to China.
Before products can be sold there the law says they have to be tested on animals to make sure they're safe. It says customers should be aware of the policies of their favourite brand.
***

The United Nations says Australia needs to do more to protect the Great Barrier Reef. In the past 27 years nearly half of the coral in the reef has died because of problems like warming water, cyclones and the crown of thorns starfish. The UN group UNESCO says it's worried there's only been "limited progress" in helping the reef. It says if more isn't done soon, the Reef could be added to its list of World Heritage sites that are in danger.

Fashion Factories


Reporter: Sarah Larsen
INTRO: Hundreds of people were killed when a factory collapsed in Bangladesh recently. Bosses told staff they had to work in the building even though the owner had been told it was unsafe. The factory made clothes for some well-known fashion brands. So why do we make so many of our clothes overseas? Let's take a look.
SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: Some of us put a lot of thought into clothes that we wear. But how much time do you spend thinking about the way your clothes were made? Think of all the work that goes into one pair of jeans
Now think of making hundreds of them a day for less than ten dollars a week in a place that's uncomfortable and maybe even unsafe. It's not nice to think about but it's reality for millions of people who work for little pay in overseas clothing factories.
REPORTER: Look at a few labels and you'll see that a lot of the stuff we buy here in Australia was made in developing countries; places like China and Indonesia and Cambodia and Bangladesh.
The reason for that is pretty simple. It's cheaper. In Australia a factory worker is supposed to earn around $16 an hour at least. But in China clothing factory workers get around $1.10 an hour. In India it's about 50 cents and in Bangladesh many earn around 20 cents an hour.
DAISY GARDENER, OXFAM LABOUR RIGHTS COORDINATOR: We see companies going into places like Bangladesh and China because they are trying to maximise their profits.
Daisy works for the charity Oxfam which tries to improve workers rights in developing countries. She says while the booming clothes manufacturing business has created lots of jobs in Bangladesh, the pressure to make lots for less means many workers are suffering.

DAISY: We often see brands putting very large quantities of jeans and t-shirts into factories that means that workers have to work all day and into the night sometime to fill and order that means they're working under high pressure and it can lead to accident and injury.

Cutting costs can also lead to dangerous workplaces; fire hazards, and buildings put up cheaply without proper regulations. There were several clothing factories inside the Rana plaza; an eight story building which collapsed in Bangladesh's capital.
Its owners knew it wasn't safe but people were sent to work anyway. More than 600 died. These pictures shocked the world, especially when it came out that some factories were making clothes for well known overseas brands.
Many say the fashion industry in places like Australia needs to do more to protect overseas workers. While they weren't connected to the building collapse, some really big well known shops like Big W, K-Mart, Target and Cotton On get some of their clothes from factories in Bangladesh.
They say the factories they work with are different and that they make sure workers there are safe and fairly treated. But some groups want to see more proof of that.
Daisy says customers can do a lot to help by telling shop that they want workers to be treated fairly.
DAISY: Take a moment, look at the label find out where the clothes are made and then go to that company's Facebook or website and say I like your clothes but I want them to be made under decent conditions. Garment companies they really care about what you think as their customer so you really have the power to make a difference for the workers making your clothes.
She says to make a difference you don't need to stop shopping; you just need to think a little differently about what you're wearing and what it really costs.

Quiz 1


How much do you know about fashion?
Let's have a quiz.
The question is: What were jeans originally known as?
Dungarees
Denims
Waist overalls
Answer: Waist overalls

Waist overalls were originally made out of canvas but people complained that the fabric was too rough.

Quad Bikes


Reporter: Natasha Thiele
INTRO: Now, you might have ridden a quad bike before especially if you live on a farm or in the country. At the moment, kids of any age can ride them and they don't even have to wear helmets. But there've been some serious accidents and some people think that the rules should be changed. Here's Tash.
NATASHA THIELE, REPORTER: Lots of people ride quad bikes. They're even used in competitions like this.
HAYDEN BENNETT, RIDER: When you start racing and the gate drops it's just all adrenalin so I like that and it's good.
Here, safety is really important. Competitors need to wear a chest plate, a helmet, goggles, gloves and long-sleeved race gear. But away from the track it's a different story.
Most people who ride quad bikes live on big properties like farms and they don't often wear safety gear like helmets. Quad bikes are an easy way to get around, they can pull trailers, help carry feed buckets and can be used to muster cattle and sheep. And kids even ride them especially if they're helping out with chores around the property.
DARRYL YESBERG, CATTLE EXPORT YARDS: I don't think we'd be able to do it any other way really, just due to the fact it's so wet and you just can't get around. It's just getting bogged 24 hours a day really.
But quad bikes can be dangerous.
NEWS REPORT 1: They swerved on to the wrong side of the road and crashed.
NEWS REPORT 2: When it hit a wet patch of sand and rolled.
Last year, 18 people died in quad bike accidents in Australia. Five of those deaths involved kids under 16. At the moment, kids of any age are legally allowed to ride quad bikes and there are no laws saying they have to wear helmets. Some people want the rules changed.

PROFESSOR RAPHAEL GRZEBIETA, ROAD SAFETY RESEARCHER: I'd like to see that helmets are mandatory. I'd also like to see that no one under the age of 16 is allowed on a quad bike and also I think that training should be mandatory.

And some people even want to see changes to the way quad bikes are designed.
REPORTER: A quad bike like this might seem pretty safe. It's a lot bigger than a motorbike, it's got four wheels and it seems pretty sturdy. But they can tip over and that's a lot of weight to fall on you.
One idea is to fit roll bars onto to quad bikes. They're metal frames that are attached to the back of the bike. They're meant to stop the bike from tipping back on top of the rider.
But not everyone agrees with these ideas to change the rules. Kids have been riding quad bikes for years helping out on the family farm. To stop that would take away some of the jobs they can do. And some say that all it takes is a bit of common sense for quad bike riders to stay safe.
ANDREW WOODS, NT QUAD ASSOCIATION: Let's put it this way, it's just like motor cars. People drive motor cars have got licences; some of them you know take shortcuts, drink drive, all the rest of it. Is it gonna curve it? Who knows?
DARRYL YESBERG, CATTLE EXPORT YARDS: I just think it comes down to taking your time and being a bit aware of where you are and the situation you're in.
So now you've heard some of the arguments, what do you think?

Online Poll


OK let's make that our poll this week.
The question is:
Should kids under 16 be allowed to ride quad bikes?
To vote just head to our website.

ACL Injuries



Reporter: Nathan Bazley
INTRO: It's a sight no football fan wants to see the star player of your favourite team going down with a serious injury. Last week we saw 3 AFL players all carried off with the same problem. It's called an ACL tear. What's that? Nathan takes a look.
NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: They tackle hard, run fast and jump high.

And usually they get up, ready to do it all over again. But every so often, something goes wrong. It might just be bit of an awkward landing, or a simple change of direction.

But that's all it takes to put some of the AFL's best on crutches and on the sidelines, for up to a year. During round five of the AFL, three players all hurt their knees. But so far this season, 10 other players have all done the same injury, bringing the total to an unlucky thirteen.
NATHAN: News reports all say they've hurt their ACL. So what exactly is it that they're hurting? To find out, I've booked an appointment with a guy who knows all too well.
NATHAN: Hi Dr David! Now I wanted to ask a question we see so many footballers going down with knee injuries and they say it's an ACL injury can you tell me what that is?
DR DAVID: Sure! I've got a model here of the knee so I can show you all the parts as we go through.
We have to have bones to make up the knee, so we've got the femur or thigh bone at the top, the tibia or shin bone down the bottom, and the kneecap at the front. Inside the knee holding those bones together are the ligaments.
There's one on the outside called the lateral ligament, one on the inside called the medial ligament, and two crossed over inside the knee called the cruciate ligaments.
The anterior cruciate ligament starts at the front of the shin bone and runs up to the thigh bone, and that's the one that is most often injured in football injuries, and netball, soccer, basketball.
NATHAN: So how does that most commonly happen on a football field?
DR DAVID: Most commonly it's a non-contact injury; players landing on a fixed foot, and then the knee twisting. The ligament comes under undue stress and *click* it snaps and they're on the ground in a screaming heap.
And that's exactly what happened to this guy, Ben, minus most of the screaming I'm told.
Ben plays Division 1 footy and last year they won the premiership. But this season didn't start as successfully.

NATHAN: So Ben you've just come back from ACL surgery, how are you recovering?

BEN: It's a bit sore at the moment, bit swollen as well, just trying to keep ice on it, keep it elevated like the doctor said.
NATHAN: Can you take us back to the day it happened. What were you doing in the lead up and what did it feel like?
BEN: I was warming up for our first trial game of the year for our football club, and in the first five minutes of the game I went to take off to the left and it just went in on itself and it was pretty painful and I was down and out and had to be stretchered off.
Within a few weeks, Ben was having surgery to fix a torn ACL.
BEN: I was pretty devastated. It's 12 months out, can't really run or do any fitness work for the next three of four months, I knew I'd have to be in a brace and have surgery so it affects more than just your sporting life, it affects how you get around in everyday life as well.
Back at the surgery, Dr David says this kind of story doesn't just come up in footy.
DR DAVID: The most dangerous sport per hour of participation is netball because they are not allowed to keep running with the ball. Every time they grab they must stop, and so that puts a lot of stress on the knee.
But for Ben, he's counting the hours till he can get back into his favourite sport.
BEN: Probably about 12 months, until I can maybe play another footy game again. Perhaps longer depending on how the recover goes.
NATHAN: Wow so that's basically your season out?
BEN: Yeah it's gone.
NATHAN: Not good, but hopefully it recovers well!
BEN: Thanks mate!
Quiz 2
OK let's have a quiz about that.
The question is: What is another name for the knee cap?
Tibia
Patella
Fibula
Answer: Patella
The tibia and fibula are the bones below the knee.
OK enough about injuries time for some sports action with the Score
The Score

The Essendon Bombers club has released its own report trying to explain how players were given banned supplements. It says there were problems in the club's management, and that's one reason why no-one noticed what the players were taking.

At the moment no-one has been punished but it's not over. The club will have to wait until the Australian Sport and Doping Authority publishes its report to find out what the consequences will be.
***

Basketball superstar LeBron James has been named the NBA's M-V-P that's the Most Valuable Player. It's the fourth time the Miami Heat player has won the award. His team is one of the eight that have made the second round of NBA playoffs.


***

And Australian golfer Brett Rumford has taken out the China Open. The 35-year old took out the event by four shots.


BRETT RUMFORD, GOLFER: I'm kind of speechless at the moment, yeah it was I don't know what to say mate. A couple in a row, it's quite surreal.
Just last week, he won the Ballantine's Championship in South Korea.

Ukulele Kids



Reporter: Natasha Thiele
INTRO: Now to an instrument you might not know a lot about the ukulele. It's a bit like a mini guitar and it's pretty easy to learn. Tash caught up with some school girls who are showcasing their talents in schools and on the internet hoping to inspire other young people to take up this tiny instrument.
NATASHA THIELE, REPORTER: These songs all have something in common. They all feature the Ukulele! The ukulele is an instrument that's similar to a guitar only smaller. The other difference is it generally has four strings instead of six. It may not be as popular as mainstream instruments like the guitar or piano, but there's a bunch of students who are keen to encourage more people to take it up! These guys are part of a ukulele ensemble. They've performed at music concerts and have showcased their talents at primary schools.

STUDENT 1: It's a really fun instrument to learn and it would be really cool if lots of people could play it, could join ensembles everywhere.

STUDENT 2: Since I originally play the guitar, I found that playing the ukulele will really open up my knowledge of music.
STUDENT 4: I like that it's got bright sounds and colours because the sound is just really happy and just cheers you up, so whenever you're down you can just play it and you'll be happy.
They're pretty committed to playing their instrument and that involves a lot of practice! They get together during lunch breaks and after school.
REPORTER: Alright guys, so this is the ukulele. How do I play it?
STUDENT 1: Well basically, as you can see there are four strings and each of these sections are called frets that are separated by a gold bar and so basically you put your fingers in a particular, on a particular string in a particular fret and then you can play a chord.
STUDENT 2: So the first chord is the C Chord, which is just like this.
REPORTER: So this finger here? On the bottom one (STUDENT 2: Yep, that's a C.)
STUDENT 2: This is G (REPORTER: Oh you have to press 2 there okay?)
STUDENT 1: You have to press three.
REPORTER: Oh you have to press three? Where's the other finger? Oh my goodness.
STUDENT 2: And this is an A Minor.
REPORTER: And so when you put it together? I'll just copy, let's see if we can do it. I've lost it! Okay, well I think I'll just stick to playing the piano! Thank you so much for that.
The group formed last year thanks to the help of Duyen. She's a former student at the school. As part of her final year project, she made it her mission to learn how to play the ukulele.

DUYEN DO: I found it really easy and I'm pretty sure everyone out there can learn how to play the ukulele by themselves.

Duyen now has her own YouTube channel, which teaches people how to play the ukulele. She records the tutorials in her room, edits them herself, then uploads them. Her channel is quickly getting a lot of fans with more than 45-thousand hits. But what makes her videos extra special is they're all in Vietnamese!
Her musical talents have been noticed by a popular Vietnamese music tutorial website.
DUYEN DO: They watched my video and they sent me an invitation to be a part of their website, so I am now one of their tutorial teachers.
Duyen hopes her tutorials inspire more people take up the ukulele. So who knows, we could be hearing a lot more of this cool little instrument!

Closer
That's it for the show. You can jump onto our website if you want to get more info on any of the stories. You can send us your comments and don't forget to vote in this week's poll. I'll see you next time.






©ABC 2013




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