Uestions for discussion Revisiting Nepal
Students can investigate their own questions or some of the following:
Many artists use rap to express their views about issues that concern them. Choose a topic that you are concerned about and write your own rap lyrics. Think about the feelings and ideas that you would like to convey through your lyrics.
Brainstorm a list of different music styles. Ask students to describe each music style in their own words. Students will swap their definitions with one another and compare.
Students will choose a music style and respond to one or more of the following questions:
BBC – Pop music marked by three revolutions in 50 years
Behind the News – Hip Hop Stories
Behind the News – Hip Hop Dance
Behind the News – Beat Box
BtN: Episode 13 Transcript 19/05/15
Hi I'm Nathan and this is BtN. Those stories are coming up soon but first.
Reporter: Amelia Moseley
AMELIA MOSELEY, REPORTING: Imagine surviving a massive earthquake that devastated your country. Then just when you're trying to rebuild, you have to go through it all again.
The first magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck here in Nepal, near the capital city of Kathmandu. Ishy was working as a mentor to more than 50 orphan kids when the ground started shaking.
ISHY: All the children they were inside the orphanage building and when the earthquake hit, all the children they started screaming and they started crying.
He rescued all the kids and took them out to safety, but the orphanage and school next door were badly damaged, leaving them homeless.
Then less than three weeks later, another quake hit. This one hit here near the base camp of Mt Everest; the highest mountain on earth. It was a 7.3 magnitude, so it wasn't quite as strong as the first, but the shock still caused massive landslides, brought down already damaged buildings, and killed more than 90 people. It left the orphanage and school on the edge of collapsing.
ISHY: You can see it’s getting more weaker and weaker. It's really a danger to use this building.
Ishy and the kids have had to move further away in case of landslides.
ISHY: OK so this is where we have set up the tents after the second earthquake.
And they’re making do with what little they have. Food and water is slowly being given to many of those in need, but they need lots of other things too. One of the most important is shelter. So many people are homeless and can't go back into damaged buildings in case more aftershocks come. So lots of buildings are un-usable, even if they're still standing. And with Nepal's season of heavy rain and winds on its way, things like tents, tarpaulins, and sleeping bags can be life-savers.
Then there's healthcare. A lot of Nepal's hospitals and clinics were damaged or destroyed in the quakes, and with many people stuck in remote areas or living in tents, or on the streets - aid groups are worried sicknesses are going to spread quickly. So they're bringing in medicine and special hygiene kits to stop diseases before they start.
Taking care of people's mental health is also really important, especially for kids who've been through a lot like Kareena and Kajin.
KAREENA: My mother was not with me and I am scared about my mother.
KAJIN: I am scared about my sister and my grandmother.
Their homes and schools were badly damaged, and they won't go back in.
KAJIN: Because I am very afraid.
Here in the city of Bharatpur, aid workers have made a special space for kids to hang out in.
KAREENA: We talk something about the earthquake and we will do painting, crafting.
So far, Australia and other countries have put millions of dollars towards getting Nepal back on its feet, but people still have a long way to go.
ISHY: You can see our boys working here making one semi-permanent house for the orphanage.
They'll need a lot more help along the way to rebuild the lives this disaster has torn down.
KAREENA: We will make a house and we'll go back to our house.
To the headlines now and last week the Federal Government released its 2015 budget. Last year's was criticised as being unfair, but Treasurer Joe Hockey made this one very different. There were some cuts but there was also lots of extra money for parents who need to put their kids in childcare and for small businesses.
More money was put aside for medical research and to help kids with disabilities in school. But some people say the government hasn't done enough to save money and reduce Australia's budget deficit.
The Cancer Council's worried that kids are being encouraged to smoke e-cigarettes, after they found lots of shops are selling them on counters next to lollies and chocolates. The health group says e-cigarettes have got potentially dangerous chemicals in them and it's calling on governments to tighten up rules about how they're sold.
Johnny Depp's dogs, Pistol and Boo, have returned to America after being threatened with the death penalty here in Australia. The situation all came about after Johnny Depp brought them in on his private jet without telling authorities or having them put through quarantine. That's against the law here and Agriculture Minister Barnaby Joyce said it could spread diseases to Australian animals.
So he gave Depp 72 hours to send Pistol and Boo back home which he did.
And celebrity chef Jamie Oliver has started a campaign to try to get countries around the world to teach food education in schools. It's called Food Revolution Day and he reckons it'll help fight obesity and diet-related diseases. Oliver says 42 million kids under the age of five are overweight or obese. So he's started a petition with support from people like Ed Sheeran.
Reporter: Carl Smith
CARL SMITH, REPORTING: It's an age old rivalry. The reigning champion La Niña, or 'the little girl' in Spanish. Verses El Niño, or 'the little boy'. It's an epic struggle. But while El Niño and La Niña fight it out in the playground, weather patterns with the same names are battling it out on a much larger scale: over the Pacific Ocean.
And the victor doesn't just get control of a schoolyard, they get to control Australia's weather. Wind and pockets of hot air are constantly travelling around the world changing the weather as they go. But occasionally big patterns form, and they can shape things like rainfall, cloud cover, and storms for years.
In the Pacific Ocean we call the two major weather patterns La Niña and El Niño. And since 2010 La Niña has been in charge of our weather. When La Niña's about, the winds blowing from the east across the Pacific Ocean are stronger.
More warm water and moist air ends up near Australia leaving a big cold blue patch in the middle of the Pacific. But warmer oceans and moist air mean more rain and more cyclones along our east coast.
During the La Niña weather pattern of the past five years, many farmers were happy to have some extra rain. But on the other hand, we also saw some pretty terrible storms, cyclones, and floods across parts of Australia.
But now the Pacific is changing again. Surface water temperatures have shifted. And that's tipping conditions closer and closer towards El Niño. So how will this new kid in town change the weather for us?
Well during El Niño the winds blowing east aren't so strong, so the warm water doesn't get as close to Australia. That means less moist air near us which usually means fewer storms and less rain.
El Niño was partly responsible for the massive drought all across Australia during the early 2000s.
CHLOE (2006): Well this here used to all be under water when I was about 7 and now it’s all dried up.
It was the worst on record and it hurt farmers a lot. Many people were worried even big cities could run out of water. Everyone back then had to cut back how much water they used at home for things like washing cars or showering.
ELOISE, STUDENT (2007): I too have been a little bit not so good with the showers but out here I've been trying to be good out here so I have been going by our legal limit.
Now that El Niño has returned many are worried we could slip back into those devastating drought conditions. El Niño doesn't mean we definitely will experience drought though, just like La Niña doesn't mean it will always rain. They're just trends that'll make rain more or less likely.
So even though we know a little boy El Niño will rule the Pacific Ocean again this year, this shift may not be something worth celebrating.
Presenter: Of course, it's worth remembering that some areas of Australia have been in drought for the last few years despite El Niño conditions only just being declared, so weather patterns don't mean everything.
Okay let's go to today's first quiz.
The weather bureau uses a special index to measure El Niño and La Niña weather patterns. What is it called?
The Southern Rainfall Index
The Southern Oscillation Index
or the Southern Hot Water Index
The answer is The Southern Oscillation Index
Reporter: Carl Smith
INTRO: Now. According to energy experts some new batteries could be the key to unlocking the potential of renewable energy sources like solar and wind. But how could batteries make such a big difference? Carl's here to answer that question and many more.
CARL SMITH, REPORTING: The story of household power all starts with this: coal. Most of our energy comes from burning it or other fossil fuels. But we lose 70 per-cent of that power as heat and then we lose even more transporting it along electricity lines.
On top of that we know fossil fuels like coal release gases which are changing our climate. But we do have alternatives though and we know they work. So why haven't we switched over to things like solar and wind renewable energy?
Well there is one big problem: reliability. You see we can burn coal to generate electricity whenever we want. But with green, renewable options like these, what happens when the wind stops blowing? Or if we need some extra energy at night?
Well the lights go out. That's because we haven't found a good way to store that energy in our homes. But there is a solution, and it sounds pretty low tech: batteries.
Batteries can be filled up with power that we can use whenever we like. So it doesn't matter if there's not enough wind or sun around, because we'd have enough stored away to keep everything running.
REPORTER: But even though they look pretty basic, they're actually really complex.
The energy inside most batteries comes from special chemicals. When these chemicals are broken apart they release electrons, and a flow of electrons is what we call electricity. But a battery can only release so much electricity before it runs dry.
To recharge one you need to pump some more energy back in to alter those chemicals again. To do that, you need a power source like coal, wind or solar energy.
Unfortunately our current batteries aren't that great. They don't last long, they don't work very well, they're pretty ugly, and they're super expensive. So they weren't good enough to let our homes run entirely on renewable energy.
That was until this thing came along. Some analysts say this new device could revolutionise how we power our lives. They're basically a battery pack that can sit on your wall, or stack up as a unit, and they're really powerful.
In a home with solar panels they could be easily charged up through the day to keep the house running through the night. They're cheap, they're small, and they're efficient.
ELON MUSK, TESLA CEO: This entire night has been powered by batteries. The batteries were charged by the solar panels on the roof of this building. So this entire night, everything you're experiencing, is stored sunlight.
But this is just one of a new wave of batteries scientists are developing that could change the way we generate power forever. Soon homes, businesses, and schools could power themselves all day every day with clean, green options. So energy might not have to be transported hundreds of kilometres and coal might not have to be burnt. That's a big plus for the environment and for all of us living in it.
Okay, let's test you on batteries now.
The Answer: Terminals
Hip Hop Influence
Reporter: Amelia Moseley
AMELIA MOSELEY, REPORTING: Whether you love it, or you hate it, there's no denying hip hop is a popular style of music.
STEPH RHAPSODY: So I like everything about hip hop pretty much.
YOUNG DJH: I was like 8, 9 years old when I started dancing then 10 years old I started listening to a little bit of hip hop music.
These guys are big fans. So much so, they've learnt to spit lyrics, bust a rhyme, throw down flow? Ah, you know what I mean.
Here at Northern Sound System, kids can take part in special hip hop courses, hold gigs and there's even this recording studio.
YOUNG DJH: The first time I performed was in year seven at my school.
For these guys, it's more than a bit of fun.
YOUNG DJH: I love expressing myself in rapping, that's the whole point of writing music.
So hip hop has had a big effect on them but they aren't the only ones. A new study has found that hip hop has had more influence on popular music than any other style that came before it.
Researchers in England recently took 30 second snippets from around 17,000 songs that made it onto the US charts from the 1960s to 2010. They then used computer programs to analyse the songs and look for when the biggest changes happened.
Over the years, there have been heaps of musical shifts. One of the biggest ones a lot of people think of is the rock revolution of the 1960s, when groups like the Beatles became super popular. But researchers say these guys were actually following existing trends, instead of really making up their own sound.
They reckon the biggest change happened in 1991, when hip hop hit the big time. But hip hop actually started way before that, in the 70s and early 80s when DJs started experimenting with old records and mixing things up. Then people started rapping to the beats they created and a whole new genre was born.
Researchers reckon hip hop was so influential because it was so different to anything else. And now, if you listen closely, you can still hear its influence in heaps of pop music. Australia even has its own unique hip hop style.
Ok so not everyone reckons you can use science and maths to judge something as personal as music taste, but there's no doubt hip hop's had an influence on a lot of people. And believe me creating hip hop music is harder than it looks.
Oh ok that was a lot better than mine. That was a lot better. Alright, I'm gonna work on it.
So that's the American side of things but what about back here in Australia? It's poll time.
Do you think hip hop is the most influential music genre in Australia?
Head to our website to place your vote.
Last week we asked you if all kids should have to learn chess at school. And it was a pretty easy win for the yes camp! Thanks for casting your vote.
Okay, It's time for sport now. Enjoy.
Melbourne Victory have won their 3rd A-league crown after thrashing Sydney FC 3-nil in yesterday's Grand Final. Besart Berisha scored a thunderbolt in the first half as Victory coasted to their first title in six years! But FFA chairman Frank Lowy had a few people worried when he took a tumble during the trophy ceremony.
It was a nasty fall but the 84 year old was okay and still got to present the best on ground medal to Victory captain Mark Milligan.
For the first time, a team of rugby players in Sydney will wear bio sensors behind their ears when they play. The sensors will measure how hard their heads are hit during the game. Experts are hoping this new technology will help protect players from serious head injuries. It's become a really serious problem. Two rugby players in New South Wales recently died from head injuries they received whilst playing.
And there was some serious stunt plane action on the weekend as Japan hosted an extreme Air Race for the first time. Some of the world's best pilots went head to head to see who could finish the obstacle course the fastest. And for the second race in a row Britain's Paul Bonhomme got the better of Aussie Matt Hall to take the top prize.
Reporter: Eloise Fuss
ELOISE FUSS, REPORTING: One summer in the US, Caine was hanging out at his Dad's work during holidays, and he was kind of bored. Until, he found a room full of cardboard boxes and decided to use one to make an arcade game.
CAINE: The first game I made was a basketball hoop I got at Shady's pizza, it was really cool.
And then he had more ideas.
CAINE: My next game I built was a soccer game, first of all I didn’t have no goalies, people said it was too easy, so I bought army goalies as blockers, I thought is it easy now?
He ended up creating a whole arcade. At first no one came to play. But eventually, one guy tried it out.
CAINE: Like a real arcade game, tickets come from the bottom.
NIRVAN: I was like, this kid's a genius.
Soon crowds of people arrived to play, and Caine's Arcade got pretty famous.
Since then a group called the Imagination Foundation has been set up, to help get other kids get involved in Caine's idea.
And now Caine's Cardboard Challenge has spread around the world. South African students made buildings and cars. Kids in Missouri made costumes. And in places like Tokyo, Los Angeles, Sri Lanka, and Chicago, kids have all had a go too.
Now, it's Australia's turn.
Using just ideas, recycled materials and some simple tools, these kids are creating an abandoned city for the Come Out Kids Festival in South Australia.
KID 1: This is my hotel I'm making, but right now I'm just putting on some plants on the front here.
KID 2: When you pull this rope, it'll come up with moss under it.
KID 3: Last night I was thinking in bed, oh what can I make for today, and I thought I'd help the boys make a big bank.
They say that using your imagination and your hands to make stuff is something they'd like to do more often.
KID 1: At times I do like to go on the Xbox or the TV, but sometimes it's just fun to do something that's different. I'd never think I'd make a cardboard box, I used to do that when I was younger but it turns out it's great fun.
KID 4: You get to interact with people to share ideas and each other's imagination.
ELOISE: So what's more fun, making a cardboard castle or playing a video game?
KID 2 and 5: Making a castle, it's real and it's social and it's fun with a video game you have limits of what you can do, making stuff out of cardboard you could make anything.
So next time you're bored why not grab some cardboard and sticky tape and get creating. As you can see the possibilities are endless.
That’s it for this week. See you next time!
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