Under Arm Yourself With Chemistry! Table of Contents



Download 221.55 Kb.
Page1/5
Date conversion09.04.2017
Size221.55 Kb.
  1   2   3   4   5



April 2014 Teacher's Guide for

(Under)Arm Yourself With Chemistry!


Table of Contents



About the Guide 2

Student Questions 3

Answers to Student Questions 4

Anticipation Guide 5

Reading Strategies 6

Background Information 8

Connections to Chemistry Concepts 29

Possible Student Misconceptions 30

Anticipating Student Questions 31

In-class Activities 31

Out-of-class Activities and Projects 32

References 33

Web Sites for Additional Information 34

About the Guide

Teacher’s Guide editors William Bleam, Donald McKinney, Ronald Tempest, and Erica K. Jacobsen created the Teacher’s Guide article material. E-mail: bbleam@verizon.net


Susan Cooper prepared the anticipation and reading guides.

Patrice Pages, ChemMatters editor, coordinated production and prepared the Microsoft Word and PDF versions of the Teacher’s Guide. E-mail: chemmatters@acs.org

Articles from past issues of ChemMatters can be accessed from a DVD that is available from the American Chemical Society for $42. The DVD contains 30 years of ChemMatters—all ChemMatters issues from February 1983 to April 2013.
The ChemMatters
DVD also includes an Index—by titles, authors and keywords—that covers all issues from February 1983 to April 2013, and all Teacher’s Guides, from their inception in 1990 to April 2013.
The ChemMatters DVD can be purchased by calling 1-800-227-5558.
Purchase information can be found online at www.acs.org/chemmatters.

Student Questions


(for “(Under)Arm Yourself with Chemistry!”)


    1. Write the name and the chemical formula of the compound responsible for the smell in human sweat.

    2. According to the article, how are perfumes and deodorants alike? How are they different?

    3. Name two chemicals that were used originally in deodorants.

    4. In the answer to the previous question, what do the two substances have in common?

    5. Why is formaldehyde no longer used in deodorants?

    6. How does zinc oxide kill bacteria?

    7. What’s the difference between deodorants and antiperspirants?

    8. What group of compounds do almost all antiperspirants contain?

    9. Name the two different types of sweat glands in your underarms.
    10. What role do solvents play in a successful underarm deodorant?


    11. How do natural “deodorant crystals” work?


Answers to Student Questions


(for “(Under)Arm Yourself with Chemistry!”)



      1. Write the name and the chemical formula of the compound responsible for the smell in human sweat.

The compound responsible for the smell in human sweat is trans-3-methyl-2-hexenoic acid and its chemical formula is C7
H12O2.

      1. According to the article, how are perfumes and deodorants alike? How are they different?

According to the article, perfumes and deodorants are alike in that the goal in using them is to eliminate (or at least hide) body odor. They are different in that perfumes merely cover up the odor, while deodorants actually kill the bacteria responsible for the odor.

      1. Name two chemicals that were used originally in deodorants.

The article mentions that baking soda and formaldehyde were used originally in deodorants.

      1. In the answer to the previous question, what do the two substances have in common?

The common property that baking soda and formaldehyde have is that they both kill bacteria.

      1. Why is formaldehyde no longer used in deodorants?

Studies have shown that formaldehyde is toxic and can cause cancer.

      1. How does zinc oxide kill bacteria?

Zinc oxide does not kill bacteria by itself, “…but, similar to baking soda, it neutralizes the fatty acid microbial waste products responsible for body odor.


      1. What’s the difference between deodorants and antiperspirants?

Deodorants kill the bacteria that cause body odor, while antiperspirants block the pores through which sweat passes, thus preventing sweating and maintaining a dry environment in which bacteria cannot thrive.

      1. What group of compounds do almost all antiperspirants contain? How do these compounds work?

Most antiperspirants contain aluminum-based compounds. Aluminum compounds form aluminum ions (Al3+) in solution. These ions plug your sweat ducts so that you don’t perspire.

      1. Name the two different types of sweat glands in your underarms.

The two types of sweat glands in underarms are eccrine glands and apocrine glands.

      1. What role do solvents play in a successful underarm deodorant?

Most of the actual active ingredients of deodorants are solids, so they must be dissolved or suspended in liquids or gels to allow them to be applied easily. The solvents must evaporate easily so that they don’t leave a wet or greasy feeling and to leave behind the solid ingredient that actually deodorizes the armpit.

      1. How do natural “deodorant crystals” work?

Natural “deodorant crystals” contain alum. When rubbed on damp skin, the alum on the surface of the crystal dissolves and is spread across the skin, leaving behind a slightly acidic solution that creates a hostile environment for bacteria.




  1   2   3   4   5


The database is protected by copyright ©hestories.info 2017
send message

    Main page