Why were the sea and trade so important to the Greeks?(p.124)
Because the Greece lands were not able to support a large population, what were the Greeks motivated to do?
There are four early Greek Cultures we want to focus.
The Mycenaean’s capital city was _________________ and was located on steep ridge surrounded by a________________, which is also known as a __________________ city. It was ruled by a ___________________-king.
The Mycenaean’s learned the value of ____________________ from the ____________________, as well as the adapted their _________________________ and influenced things like ___________________________________. (p.125)
Another culture on the Anatolia peninsula, _______________________, was thought to be a myth. The tale stated that a woman, __________________, was kidnapped by the Mycenaean’s fought a ten year war with them and won with the use of a surprise attack. The story was confirmed from the help of archeologist ____________ _________ in the 1870’s.
Not long after the Trojan War, another group the ______________________, came into the war-torn countryside and seized control. Under this group the ____________________ collapsed, _____________________ came to a stand still and there are no ______________________ for 400 years.
Hundreds of years later, we learned of the story of the Trojan War from ______________________ who is considered the greatest storyteller. He composed epics like _________________ and the Odyssey. Jason and the Argonauts is believed to have been written at the same time.
The Greeks loved stories and developed a rich set of _________________ about ___________________ through which they sought to understand __________________________. To the Gods, they attributed human qualities like ________________________ and they also _____________________ and ______________________ with each other. (p.126)
By 750 BC, the fundamental or basic political unit was the polis which made up ____________________________________
Representative governments started to take root especially in _______________________.
This process took several steps. (p.128)
The first step was a nobleman named ____________________ that set up a legal code that _______________________________
Next step was with Solon who outlawed ________________________, organized four __________________________________
_____________________, all citizens could participate in __________________________, and introduced the legal concept that _____________________________________________.
Lastly was ___________________________________ who organized citizens by where ___________________________________,
allowed all citizens to submit ______________________________________, all together his reforms allowed all Athenian citizens to participate in a ____________________________________________.
Another city-state, Sparta built a _________________________________. Sparta conquered a neighboring region called Messina and forced them be become helots.
Spartan government had several branches. An assembly composed of all __________________________________________. A council of Elders proposed laws and the laws were voted on by _________________________________________. Five elected officials _________________________ the laws and there were two _________________________________ that ruled over ________________.
Two city-states stand out during this time period. Complete the chart below comparing the two.
The Prosperity of the Greek city-states brought the attention of the far-reaching Persian Empire.
One important change during this time was the shift from Bronze to _______. It became more common and cheaper therefore making it possible for ordinary citizens to defend themselves and created a new kind of army.
The foot soldiers were called ________________. They fought in a fearsome formation called a __________________.
The Persian Wars began in _________ on the coast of ___________. Athens sent _______and ________ to help the fight the Persians but the Persian King ___________ defeated them and vowed to destroy Athens.
In the year _________, a Persian fleet landed with 25,000 men at _______________. The 10,000 Athenians charged and in a few hours defeated the __________ who lost 6,000 with less than 200 casualties.
Ten years later another Persian force led by _________, sought to destroy Athens. But 7000 Greeks including 300 Spartan at the _________________ pass held off the Persian forces.
Xerxes army pressed on to Athens. Athens evacuated the city in favor of a sea battle. The Persians burned Athens but Athenian warships were able to defeat the Persian fleet at the battle of ___________. Later the Persian army was defeated at the Battle of ____________.
As individuals they could not survive but as a combined force the Greeks were to defeat the Persians. The following year the several Greek city-states set up the__________________.
Later it grew to _____ members and _________ emerged as the Delian Leagues leader. The Leagues headquarters moved to Athens and Athens used its military force against ___________________________.
With this new power and wealth Athens had a burst of ___________________ that allowed Athens to enter its ___________ _____.
Greek Democracy has a close relationship to the United States
In what areas did the Greeks reach new heights during its golden age?
Athens’s leader during much of this time was _________________, who lead Athens for _____________ years by being a skillful ____________________, inspiring _________________, and respected ____________________.
He had three goals as leader of Athens:
How was this accomplished;
Athens became known for many great individuals and achievements (p.135-9)
Greatest architectural achievement-
Sculptor who captured the grace and beauty of human body in motion
Great tragedy of Medea was written by
Great comedy of Lysistrata written by
The first history was written by
Philosophy also made advances during this period.
One group, the Sophists led by ______________________________ questioned unexamined beliefs and values, as well as existence of the Greek gods and said there was no universal standard of truth.
_________________________, the most famous Greek said that there was an absolute standard for truth and justice and argued for his life that forcing people to think about their own values and actions was good for them.
One of his students _________________, wrote The Republic, started his own school know as the ________________ which lasted 900 years and was attributed with the quote “Philosophy begins with ____________________________”.
Plato’s student _____________________ questioned the nature of _____________________________ invented a method for arguing the ___________________ which provides the basis for ___________________________________.
He also taught a famous prince, _____________________________ who was the son of King Phillip II of Macedonia.
Peloponnesian Wars 431 B.C.-404 B.C.(p.137)
Define/explain the Peloponnesian War-
Even as Athens wealth, prestige and power grew, so did the resentment of other city-states. The two great city-states Sparta and Athens pressed for war because each believed they had the advantage.
The advantage of the Athenians was __________________ and for Sparta it was _______________. _____________ declared war and Pericles wanted to wait to fight Sparta as sea.
Sparta marched on Athens burning its food supply. Pericles brought all the residents into the city and counted on ____________ to come from the colonies and foreign states.
But in the second year a ____________ swept the city killing _________ of the population, and a truce was signed.
A few years later, Athens sent a huge fleet to ____________ that was an ally of Sparta. Athens not only lost but its navy and army.
Although Athens held out a few more years, Athens and its allies finally __________ in 404 B.C., thus ending the Golden age of Greece.
Complete the following: (p.142)
After the Peloponnesian War, Greek city-states were severely weakened and had lost much of their _______________________________________ and ________________________________ power.
A northern mountain kingdom____________________________ used its important resource to transform their rugged peasants into ___________________________________.
Under the leadership of a young King ______________________, Macedonia was able to defeat __________________________ and end Greek independence under Macedonian rule.
Although he had always planned to invade Persia, Phillip II was ______________________________ and his son ______________________________ proclaimed himself King of Macedonia.
Explain why Alexander was well prepared to become the King. (3 things)
How did the young king handle the city-state of Thebes’s rebellion?
How did Alexander show his skill as a leader at the battles of Granicus River and Issus?
Although the King of Persia to negotiate a peace, Alexander chose to conquer Egypt where he was
What two military devices did Alexander use against the Persians?
What battle ended Persia’s power?
How did Hellenistic Scholars made great advances? (who and what)(p.146)
Science and technology
Philosophy and Art
The Roman RepublicComplete the following –
Identify and label the following on the map provided – Europe, Asia, Africa, Egypt, Spain, Britain, Egypt, Italy, Sicily, Macedonia, Athens, Anatolia, Crete, Syria, Judea, Corsica, Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Red Sea, Nile River, Tigris River, Euphrates River
The Roman Republic (p.155-)
The Legend of Rome time it’s founding in the year _____________ by twin sons named ______________ and ________________ by the god Mars and a Latin princess. The boys were abandoned and raised by a she-wolf.
Rome the city was built on the hills by the ______________ River in the middle of the ________________ Peninsula and was chosen for its __________________ location and fertile soil.
Three groups inhabited the area and battled for control. These were the ______________, _______________ and the _________________. Both Greeks and Etruscans influenced the Latin’s, but it was an ____________________ who became king of the Roman. A series of Etruscan kings constructed many of Rome’s temples and public centers including the famous _________________, which is the heart of Roman ______________________.
In the year _____________, Rome drove the last king from power and declared they would never again be ruled by a king and instead established a _________________________.
Slowly changes were made and the plebeians set up their own assemblies called _________________________ to protect the rights. One important victory for them was the written law code the ____________________________.
Rome’s government was divided into branches similar to the United States.
Complete the following chart
What did it do?
Who was in charge?
Times of Crisis
Rome sought to expand its territories through _________________________ and ________________________.(p.158-)
One city, _________________________, that was former colony of Phoenicia and located on he Northern coast of Egypt, interfered with Rome’s goals.
Rome fought three wars with Carthage collectively known as the ________________________________ between the years 264 and 146 BC.
First Punic War-________________ Lost
Second Punic War- fought by _____________________ the Carthaginian general, famous for using elephants to go over Alps but was defeated by the brilliant Roman general ________________________.
Third Punic War- Rome _________________ ________________ to Carthage and won, enslaved its people, set its city on fire, and established Rome’s dominance in the area.
Complete the following: (p.160-)
As the empire grew so did its instability. They had problems with social class struggles and military order.
The republic of Rome became a _________________________________ empire.
Slaves made up about ____________ part of the population who were used as labor on farms and made it difficult for small farmers (many of whom were former ______________________) to compete.
They were then forced to sell their land and became _________________ and __________________. Although many stayed in countryside to work as seasonal farm help, many went to __________________ where the others were and became known as the __________________, which made of ____________ of the society of Rome.
Two brothers, ____________________ and _____________________ tried to make changes but were both ______________ and the country went into a ______________________________.
During the unstable period, military leaders were able to gather troops loyal to their _______________________ and not to Rome.
Three of generals (__________________, ________________, and ________________) were able to gain control by becoming the first ________________________ with one __________________ serving as __________________ and then as the governor of ___________________
On his way back from Gaul, _____________________ was told to stop and disband his army by the senate and his rival ____________________. _____________________ defied the senate and marched his troops across the ___________________ and into Rome. He defeated his rival and with the support of his troops and the _________________ he was appointed __________________ for _______________.
As ruler, Julius Caesar started many reforms, such as:
Granted ______________________ to people in the provinces
Started _________________________ for people to own land
Many concerned with his growing ____________,_____________ and ____________ plotted his _________________ in the senate, where he was brutally ______________ to death, when he uttered these last words… “_____ ____ __________”.
Again ____________ broke out and a new ______________ was set up with _______________, _________________ and _______________.
They ruled for ten years until jealously and violence ended with Lepidus being forced out, ________________ siding with his girlfriend ____________ to take over and rule both Rome and Egypt.
Another civil war resulted in _____________ defeated the combined forces of ____________ and ____________ who both later committed ________________.
Octavian became the unchallenged ruler of Rome and accepted the title of ____________, and Rome was ruled by one man and ushered in the time known as _____________________.
He was able to stabilize the ______________, glorify Rome with ______________, and set of a __________________ that lasted for centuries.
How did people become slaves in the Roman world?
What role did Roman gods and goddesses’ play?
What was Roman society like?
What did the government do to distract and control the masses?
What ”new” religion spread through Rome during this time? (p.168-)
How did the Romans persecute Christians?
What ruler ended Christian persecution with the Edict of Milan?
What ruler made Christianity the official religion of the Roman Empire?
Whose rule ended the Pax Romana? (p.173)
Complete the following: (p.174-)
Two rulers tried to make reforms to heal the ailing government:
Complete the chart below with the rulers’ names, reforms and results.
Complete the chart on the causes of the fall of Rome: (p.174)
How was the Huns part of the immediate cause of the fall of Rome?
Who was Attila The Hun?
________________________________ was the last emperor of the Western Empire.
The ___________________________________ or eastern empire continued to flourish until taken over by the _____________________________________ in 1453.