The Agent Marker indicates a person who works as, or does, the meaning of the sign. For example, one who learns is a student. Some exceptions to the Agent Marker you need to know are, nurse, principal, and coach.
Did You Know? p. 177
Federal law requires equal access to information and services for all people, regardless of disability. For both hearing and Deaf people, sign language interpreters are a popular way to obtain equal access to each other. When using an interpreter, remember these tips:
Talk directly to the Deaf person instead of saying “Ask him” or “Tell her”.
Make eye contact with the Deaf person, not the interpreter.
To learn more about interpreters, visit: http://www.rid.org Focus: Deaf Education…Decisions & Controversies pp. 186-187
The American School for the Deaf was the first school dedicated to the education of Deaf children in the U.S. It opened in 1817 and the school used sign language to educate its students in the manual method. Three options for Deaf education are:
Attend a school for the Deafwhere ASL is used
Attend an oral school where the goal is to teach students how to speak
Be mainstreamed, where a Deaf student attends a local public school
Schools for the Deaf are environments where everyone uses American Sign Language to communicate. Because there is usually only one school for the Deaf in each state, students stay at school during the week and return home on weekends and vacations. Since many Deaf students enjoy all-Deaf sports teams, Deaf teachers and administrators, and having equal access to information and activities, the feel being Deaf is normal.
Oral Schools believe that deaf people must learn to listen and speak in order to function in the “hearing world” and thus rarely allow students to use sign language. Learning to speak when you can’t hear yourself is a long, laborious process that requires much one-on-one instruction and support. With technological support
such as hearing aids and FM systems, oral schools strive to train its deaf students to speak and “listen” bylip-reading. As you can see, the manual and oral methods of deaf education are completely different philosophies.
public school. If there are several Deaf students at the school, they may have their own teacher of the Deaf in a separate classroom, or may take the same classes as hearing students with an interpreter who provides access to the information. Often , there is only one Deaf student in an entire school which can be lonely and frustrating.
Initialization p. 188
Initialization refers to meanings related to a particular root sign, such as the sign for math. The signs for algebra, calculus, geometry, and trigonometry are all related to the basic math sign, except for the initials added to each. An initialized sign is one that incorporates a fingerspelled letter as part of the sign.
Deaf Culture Note p. 190
Founded in 1864 and chartered by President Abraham Lincoln, Gallaudet University is the world’s only liberal arts university specifically designed for Deaf and hard of hearing students. Located in Washington, D.C., the university teaches all courses in American Sign Language and hosts international students from around the world. A limited number of hearing undergraduates are accepted each year if they can demonstrate fluency in ASL. Gallaudet University and the Deaf community became well-known to the hearing world in 1988 when Deaf people around the world campaigned for a Deaf president there. They protested the philosophy that Deaf people were not capable of governing themselves. After worldwide attention, Dr. I. King Jordan was installed as its first Deaf president. His comment that “Deaf people can do anything…but hear” has been an inspiration to many. Gallaudet is the pride of the Deaf community and a beacon for Deaf individuals around the world denied educational opportunities in their home countries.
Classifiers p. 193-196
The definition of a classifier (CL) is a handshape that reflects particular characteristics. This concept is perhaps the most visual element that is both iconic and abstract in nature, which often confuses ASL students. In its most basic form, a classifier is a handshape that conveys details contributing to the overall concept of a sign, in addition to the sign’s meaning. Some examples of the classifier CL: B are: I walk, Wall / room,
Door / open and boat.
CL:1 generally represents an individual and its location, action, and manner. CL:1 depicts up to five individuals engaged in the same action simultaneously. (p. 194) Because classifiers have different meanings, it is important to identify the object being represented by a classifier.
CL:^ represents the actions of one individual’s legs or eyes. (p. 195). Non-manual signals are especially important when using the classifier to depict the eyes, because facial expressions distinguish
between a dirty look, curiosity, and other meanings. It should also be used when describing the body as a whole, as in laying down.
A classifier story is one in which the signer only uses a specified classifier to tell an entire story, something that cannot be done in English. They play an important role in ASL.
CL:3 represents the actionsof wheeled vehicles such as bicycles, cars, and motorcycles, after the vehicle has been identified. Manipulate the classifier to reflect important details including direction of travel and / or speed, and include facial expressions and other non-manual signals as needed. CL:3 is an example of a classifier that is not iconic.
Signing Time p. 199-200
Time signs are also When signs, so they come first in a sentence. Signing time combines the Time Spot with a number sign to communicate the hour, or a number sign paired with the minute sign. The area where most people wear a watch is known as the Time Spot. Hold your non-dominant hand to create a base for the number sign made by your dominant hand, with the number sign touching the Time Spot. Numbers 1-9 touch the Time Spot. When signing an hour higher than 9, simply touch the Time Sport with your indexfinger before making the number sign.
Deaf Culture Minute p. 202
The next time you’re running late to class or meeting a Deaf friend, be prepared to explain why you were running behind. In formal situations like school, a Deaf teacher will likely ask why you are late – and expect you to respond with a thorough explanation! Doing so is polite and a part of Deaf culture.
Multiple Meanings p. 203
Beginning ASL students often miss differences in the abstract and literal senses of a sign, usually because the signer chooses the first sign that comes to mind in Enlgish. However, ASL and English are not interchangeable. To sign fluently, you need to be able to distinguish between meanings and concepts of ideas and their signs. This skill is known as conceptually-accurate signing.Beware of and memorize the concept of a sign rather than how to fingerspell them in English. For example, the sign to break is the literal breaking of an object in half, compared to the abstract meaning of taking a break.