The main feature of modern civilization is mass media or means of communication. The media include press (newspapers, magazines), and broadcasting (television, radio, advertisement and Internet). Mass media unite people all over the world into one global community.
People can learn about what is happening in the world very fast using mass media. The earliest kind of mass media was newspaper. Newspaper is a publication that presents and comments on the news.
The first newspaper was Roman handwritten newssheet called “Acta Diura” started in 59 B.C. The first printed newspaper was Chinese publication called “Dibao” started in A.D. 700’s. The first regularly published newspaper in Europe was “Avisa Relation” or “Zeitung”, started in Germany in 1609.
Newspapers have certain advantages over other mass media – magazines, television, radio, advertisement and Internet. Newspapers cover much more current news, comment faster and play an important role in shaping public opinion. Magazine is a collection of articles and stories and usually contains illustrations. Magazines do not focus on daily events. They provide a profound analysis of the events of proceeding week and information on a wide range of topics such as business, culture, hobbies, medicine, religion, science and sports. Some magazines entertain their readers with fiction, poetry, photography, or articles about TV or movie stars.
Television is the most exciting and entertaining kind of mass media. It brings moving pictures and sounds from around the world into millions of houses. The name “television” comes from a Greek word “tele” meaning “distance” or “far”, and a Latin word “video” meaning “to see”, so the word “television” means “to see far”.
TV broadcasts foreign and domestic news, music programs, educational and sport programs, weather forecasts, advertisements, feature films, thrillers, detectives, animated cartoons. Radio is one of the most important means of communication. The most widespread and familiar use of radio is broadcasting. Radio broadcasts music, news, interviews, discussions, descriptions of sports events, advertising, weather forecasts. Music is the chief kind of radio entertainment. Advertisement is a form of communication which influences the minds of the people to whom it is addressed. Advertising both reflects and affects our very lifestyles and thus plays a substantial social role.
So advertising is defined as any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services through the mass media by an identified sponsor.
Sponsors may be a nonprofit organization, a political candidate, a company, or an individual. Advertising differs from news and publicity since an identified sponsor pays for placing the message in the media.
Internet or Net is a vast global network of networks connecting computers across the world. These networks range from government departments, industrial and educational communication systems down to personal on-line service providers.
At present more than 35 million people use the Internet and over four million computers worldwide are linked in. They use the Net for transferring data, playing games, socializing with other computer users, and sending e-mail (electronic mail).
Exercise 3. Match the following English and Ukrainian equivalents.
засоби масової інформації
Exercise 4. Suggest the Russian for.
to unite people all over the world, to happen in the world, to use mass media, to present and comment on news, to have advantages, to play an important social role, to shape public opinion, to contain illustrations, to focus on daily events, to provide profound analysis, to entertain readers, to broadcast foreign and domestic events, to telecast music programs, to influence the minds of people, to reflect and affect our lifestyles, to connect computers across the world, to transfer data, to socialize with other computer users, to send e-mail.
Exercise 5. Match the synonyms.
means of communication
Exercise 6. Make up sentences using the following word combinations.
To give coverage of events, to inform readers of the latest news, to comment the situation, to give preference to, to vary in ways of presenting news, to contain interesting facts, to deal with, to be about, to touch upon, to be devoted to, to discuss urgent problems, to prefer entertainment to information, to present in a sensational manner, to give full attention to local events.
Exercise 7. Ask questions to all parts of these sentences.
1. Mass media are means of communication designed to reach large numbers of people.
2. The press is printed periodicals.
3. Newspaper is a publication that presents and comments on the news.
4. Magazine is a collection of articles and stories and usually contains illustrations.
5. Television is an electronic system of transmitting changing images together with sound along a wire or through space by converting the images and sounds into electrical signals.
6. Radio is communication by use of electromagnetic waves without a connecting wire, that’s the technique of use of electro-magnetic waves for wireless transmitting of sound.
7. Advertisement is such form of communication which influences the minds of the people to whom it is addressed.
8. Internet or Net is a vast global network of networks connecting computer across the world.
Exercise 8. Complete the following.
1. The mass media or mass communications include … 2. The earliest kind of mass media was … 3. Newspaper is … 4. Newspapers have certain advantages over … 5. Magazine is … 6. Some magazines entertain their readers with … 7. Television is … 8. The name “Television” comes from … 9.TV broadcasts … 10. Radio is … . 11. Radio broadcasts … 12. Advertisement is … 13. Internet is …
Exercise 9. Give definitions to the following terms.
Mass media, press, newspaper, magazine, broadcasting, television, radio, advertisement, Internet.
Exercise 10. Answer the questions.
1. What is mass media? 2. What does mass media include? 3. What was the earliest kind of mass media? 4. What is the press? 5. What do newspapers inform readers of? 6. What is magazine? 7. What do magazines entertain readers with? 8. What is television? 9. Where does the name “television” come from? 10. What does TV broadcast? 11. What is radio? 12. What is advertisement? 13. What is Internet?
Exercise 11. Read and translate text 2. Suggest a title.
Every day we read newspapers and magazines, listen to radio and watch TV. Nowadays there are so many newspapers and magazines, radio stations and TV channels that we have to be very selective and give preference to some of them.
The newspapers contain and give coverage of home and foreign news. Their publications deal with burning problems of our history, latest events and forecasts for future. They also touch upon cultural, sport news. We like the way they present different points of view, approaches to the problems. People subscribe to some periodicals, so they are subscribers. We buy some of newspapers and magazines in a kiosk. We often listen to radio, especially in the morning. They broadcast much news and music. We like to listen to weekend programs, some of them are very amusing and entertaining.
As to the TV, it is a kind of entertainment and is of great educational value. Present-day TV is multi-channel. People can choose the program they like best of all. Those who like music can listen to various concerts because it is difficult to imagine our life without music.
Some people prefer folk songs, others are fond of symphonies or chamber music. There are also admirers of classical opera, modern music, jazz, light and popular music.
Some programs broadcast interviews with famous travellers, scientists, journalists. The TV tellers are used to describing interesting facts, traditions and customs of different continents.
Weather forecast programs are the most popular with our people.
Staying at home fans can watch football or hockey matches.
The youth adore thrillers, detectives which make their hair stand on end. Some of them are interested in feature films.
Children are keen on watching animated cartoons.
We get much information and become better informed and cultured by watching TV. TV helps people relax.
Unfortunately, all telecasts are cut off by advertisements. You know TV draws income from advertising.
And the problem is that TV prevents us from communicating with each other, developing hobbies. People begin to forget the art of conversation. Many of them no longer read books watching TV for hours. Watching TV may lead to poor health through lack of sleep, rushed meals, lack of exercises. The same is true of being captivated by computers.
Exercise 12. Answer the questions.
1. What are your favorite newspapers and magazines? 2. What do newspapers inform readers of? 3. What newspapers and magazines have you subscribed to this year? 4. What events have been closely followed by newspapers lately? 5. What kind of magazines do you like? 6. What newspapers and magazines inform readers of the life of youth? 7. Do you read any scientific journals? 8. What radio programs do you prefer to listen to? 9. Do you watch TV every day? 10. What TV programs are most popular with the young people in our country? 11. What is your favorite TV program? 12. What is this program devoted to? 13. What educational programs do you like? 14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of television in your opinion? 15. Do you like or dislike advertisement?
Exercise 13. Speak on “Mass Media”.
Exercise 14. Memorize these words.
газета для широкої публіки, бульварна преса
невеличка газета зі стислим текстом та великою кількістю ілюстрацій, бульварна газета