Urban agriculture aff



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BmOrE DeBaTe Deven C

BUDL 2009 Urban Agriculture Affirmative

URBAN AGRICULTURE Aff


1AC 2-7

Inherency Training and Start up costs 8-9

Inherency Food Insecurity and Hunger 10-12

Inherency Land Tenure 13

Inherency Expansion of Agriculture 14

Inherency Legal action needed 15

Inherency Brownfields 16

Inherency Narrative of an Urban Framer’s Plea 17-19

Brownfield Solvency 20-26

Solvency General 27-36

Food Security Solvency 37-38

Training Solvency 39-40

Climate and Sprawl solvency 41-46

Community Adv 47-50

Market Solvency 51-53

Brownfields=Environmental Racism Adv 54-70

Brownfields Econ add-on 71

Food Security Adv 72-89

Obesity Adv 90-107

Climate and Sprawl Adv 108-112

A2 States Counterplan 113-119

CAP answers 120-131


A2 Econ Disads 132

A2 Fairness 133

Poverty Adv 134

1AC URBAN AGRICULTURE



Contention 1: Inherency
Urban agriculture is in need of funding for start up costs, technical training and isn’t seen as a priority for the politicians and officials for the urban food gap

Winne, 08 (Mark, Former Executive Director of the Harford Food System, 2008 “Closing the Food Gap: Resetting the Table in the Land of the Plenty”
Having said that, anyone who has worked in an urban environment in some form of gardening or agriculture is aware of the extraordinary chal­lenges that city farmers face. Jerome Kaufinan and Martin Bailkey iden­tified some of these in "Farming Inside Cities."

There is a great deal of skepticism toward urban garden enthusiasts ("How can you possibly expect to grow healthy food in the city?") and urban farming in general. In most people's minds, food pro­duction is associated with rural areas, not vacant city lots .

There is a lack of funding for urban gardening enterprises, espe­cially to cover start-up expenses associated with site improvements, which can sometimes be quite high depending on the site.

Urban gardening is rarely seen as the best use of vacant inner-city land by government officials, whose first choice for land use is resi­dential or commercial development. One of the biggest difficulties that the Hartford Food System and Knox Parks Foundation faced was securing permanent control of, or even a long-term lease for, a community garden site. Whether the landowner is a public or private entity, it is rarely inclined to tie up land for a use that will generate lit­tle or no income.

Toxic soils, or the fear of such, make people uneasy about using urban land for food production. Site testing is almost always advis­able for any new garden site, but there are also mitigation methods that can make any land short of an EPA Superfund site safe for gardening.

Crime, vandalism, and petty theft can be major obstacles. There is nothing more heartbreaking than an earnest, hardworking gardener who arrives at his plot one evening only to find all of his beautiful vine-ripe tomatoes stolen.


Some cities, especially during much of the 1980s and 1990S, have been hard-pressed to provide even basic services such as garbage pickup and police protection. Community gardening is regarded by some people as a frivolous endeavor in light of more serious and pressing demands.

Gardening skills are not acquired overnight, and many first-time gardeners are discouraged when their plants and crops don't look like those portrayed in the seed catalogs. A little technical assistance is often necessary to give the neophyte gardener the resolve to try gardening for at least two seasons.

I can attest to the pleasure and pain that are the opposite sides of the gardening coin. For community gardeners to be successful in their rugged urban environments-to say nothing of making more than a minor con­tribution to closing the food gap-entities must make a serious commit­ment to providing land that is suitable for gardening. Most important, that land should be available for at least five years. Adequate funding, from public or private sources, must be available to defray some of the start-up and infrastructure costs (fencing, plumbing, and topsoil). Training and technical assistance are essential not only to help gardeners overcome emotional setbacks such as bug-infested plants and poor-quality crops but also to provide an appropriate amount of organizing assistance so that community remains the most important word in community Garden. When done right, community gardening is one of the most satisfying endeavors in life.


1AC URBAN AGRICULTURE



The status of poverty in America creates nutrition deficiencies, hunger, due to lack of economic capital and increased oil prices

Walshe 09 (Sadhbh, a film-maker and former staff writer for the CBS,Our Daily Bread is a Luxury, http://m.guardian.co.uk/ms/p/gmg/op/view.m?id=109496&tid=34&cat=Food-Drink 21 June 2009)


We are introduced to numerous men, women and children across America who are so impoverished that they are subsisting on diets that are as monotonous as they are nutritionally deficient. Many are lucky if they get to eat twice a day. They go to bed hungry, wake up hungry, go to school hungry and go to work hungry. For them milk is a rarity, eggs a luxury and meat an exotic delicacy.In a compelling narrative that takes the reader into the lives of the working poor across the United States while simultaneously offering a condensed economic history of America in the last century, Abramsky – a regular contributor here on Cif – exposes the disturbing truth that many low-income workers in America simply do not earn enough money to eat. Hunger and poverty are not new phenomenons in America, but the lot of the average worker has considerably worsened since the early 1980s. And in the past decade, two key factors – soaring oil prices and a stagnant minimum wage – have pushed many of our poorest families over the brink. Between 2000 and 2008 oil prices quadrupled, which in turn caused food prices to escalate. During the same period, the federal minimum wage, which was set at $5.15 an hour in 1997, remained stagnant for almost 10 years. The combination of these factors has had devastating consequences for America's poorest workers, particularly those living in car-dependent regions, whose finances were already stretched to capacity.” 

Amongst all of the difficulties low income resident face they must deal with brownfields in their neighborhoods that are a testament of urban decay and neglect to the poorest sections of cities


Stokes and Green 08( Lance and Kenneth, President and Project Director of ECI Environmental Consultants & Engineers, and Kenneth Green, Project Manager for ECI, 2008, “Twenty-Five Years of ‘Change’ and Things Remain The Same,” online: http://www.ejconference2008.org/images/Green_Stokes.pdf, accessed June 23, 2009

Disadvantaged communities and neighborhoods across America, have historically been plagued by poverty, joblessness, injustice, and lack of investment. They suffer disproportionately from the impacts of contaminated properties, known as brownfields. It is well documented1 that people who live in lower income communities and areas with higher percentages of people of color tend to reside in closer proximity to hazardous waste sites, industrial facilities releasing toxic pollutants, and facilities using toxic chemicals in industrial production. These disadvantaged communities also tend to have more blighted areas, more abandoned gas stations and buildings, and more abandoned warehouses and vacant industrial properties. These brownfields threaten public health and the environment, exacerbate neighborhood blight, discourage new investment and revitalization, and accelerate patterns of poverty and decline that continue to plague disadvantaged communities.




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