Utilization of Carcass Fish Wastes in Diets of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus



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Utilization of Carcass Fish Wastes in Diets of Nile Tilapia,

Oreochromis niloticus


A.K. Soliman
Animal and Fish Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of

Alexandria, Egypt.


a.k.soliman@iaa.com.eg

ABSTRACT


Carcass fish wastes obtained from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Egyptian catfish (Clarias lazera) were separately crushed, steamed, dried and ground. The amino acid profile of catfish carcass waste meal was better than that of common carp carcass waste meal and was comparable to that of commercial fish meal with exception of lysine. Fish meal protein in the basal diet (Diet 1) was replaced with common carp carcass waste meal protein (diets 2, 3 and 4) and catfish carcass waste protein (diets 5, 6 and 7) at 25, 50 and 75%, respectively. Fish fed diets 2 ,6 and 7 exhibited the best final body weight, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent net protein utilization and apparent protein digestibility and the differences were significant. In terms of carcass body composition, fish fed the experimental diets showed significant differences in total moisture, crude lipids and crude protein. No significant differences were detected in plasma total protein, plasma albumin and plasma total globulins of fish fed the experimental diets.


Key words: Carcass fish waste; common carp; Egyptian catfish; novel protein sources; nutritional performance and physiological parameters.

INTRODUCTION

Fish meal as a protein source for commercial fish feeds has become scarce and expensive due to fluctuations in supply and quality. Therefore a variety of protein sources (Plant and animal) have been tested. Among all the plant protein sources tested, soybean meal has been the most popular ingredient which was tested to substitute fish meal partially or completely in diets of various fish species (Shiau et al. 1990; Tidwell et al. 1993; Gallagher 1994; Robina et al. 1995; Bonnyaratpalin et al. 1998; Refstie et al. 1998 ). Little research was conducted on animal protein sources as an alternative protein sources for fish meal. These sources include blood meal, earth worms, fish silage, poultry by-product, silk worm pupae and processed meat solubles (Reece 1975; Tacon et al. 1983; Jackson et al. 1984; Wood et al. 1985; Fowler 1991; Hossian et al. 1997; Millamena et al. 2000).

Recently, many areas of the world are facing dietary protein shortage and this situation is most severe in the third world. Despite this need for protein, large quantities of fish are currently wasted in a variety of ways such as wastes produced from fish processing. The wastes (about 50%), such as skeleton , head and viscera have almost as a high protein content as the fillet. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Egyptian catfish (Clarias lazera) fish species are not favourites for Egyptian consumers. The Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, has recently started to produce fish finger from these two species and wastes of these species were processed for fish waste meal production. Therefore, the present investigation was conducted to study the possibility of using carcass wastes of both species as a partial substitute for fish meal in diets of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, the most cultured fish species in the tropics (Balarin and Hatton 1979).

Materials and methods

Experimental System and Animals

Fourteen glass aquaria with dimensions of 70 x 30 x 40 cm were used. Each aquarium was filled with 75 liters of dechlorinated water. During the experiment period (16 weeks) 12 liters of aquarium water were removed daily and equal amounts of water were added. Each aquarium was supplied with an automatic heater to maintain water temperature at 28  10ºC, air pump and stone to provide continuous aeration to water (dissolved oxygen was 6.8-8.2 ppm). Also, each aquarium was supplied with power filter to filter the faeces and fine matter from the water. Water pH was in the range of 7.2-7.5 during the experiment. Fry of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was obtained from Maruit Fish Farm Company located in Alexandria. Fish were fed the control diet for one month as a conditioning period before starting the experiment.



Preparation of Carcass Wastes of Common Carp and Egyptian Catfish

Carcass fish wastes (skeleton, skin, swim bladder, heads and visera) obtained from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and Egyptian catfish (Clarias lazera) were separately crushed (Crypto, Crypto Limited, London) and the resultant dough was steamed for 15 minutes in retort (Fulton, AID & Package Services, UK) then dried in an air drier (Kestner Evaporator & Engineering ) and subjected to proximate analysis (AOAC 1989). Amino acid contents of fish meal, common carp carcass waste meal and catfish carcass waste meal were determined according to the method described by Duranti and Cerelli (1979) using a Beckman amino acid analyzer Model 119 CL.

Diets and Feeding Regime

Seven diets were formulated (Table 1). The fish meal protein in the basal diet (Diet 1) was substituted at a rate of 25, 50 and 75% with common carp carcass waste meal protein (diets 2, 3 and 4) and with catfish carcass waste meal protein (diets 5,6 and 7). Diet preparation and storage have been previously described (Soliman 1985). Chemical composition of the experimental diets is shown in Table 1. Each diet was fed to duplicate randomly assigned aquaria for 12 weeks. Each aquarium was stocked with 15 fish (ave. weight 4.71-4.77 g). A fixed feeding regime of 4% of the body weight per day (dry food/whole fish) was employed for the first five weeks and 3% of the body weight from 6-10 weeks and 2% until the termination of experiment. Fish fed 3 times daily in equal portions. Fish were fed for six consecutive days, weighed on the seventh and feeding rates for the following week adjusted accordingly.

Experimental Methodology

Fish were bulk weighed, aquarium at a time, in water without anesthesia except for the terminal weighing when fish were anaesthetized (Ross & Geddes 1979) and weighed. An initial sample of fish, 3 per aquarium, was killed and subjected to proximate analysis and a final sample of 7 fish per aquarium was treated similarly (AOAC 1989). Blood was collected using heparinized syringes from the caudal vein of the experimental fish at the termination of the experiment. Blood was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes to allow separation of plasma which was subjected to determination of plasma total protein (Armstrong and Carr 1964) and plasma albumin (Doumas et al. 1977). Apparent net protein utilization was calculated from carcass analysis data by method of Nose (1962). Apparent protein digestibility was determined using the method of Furukawa and Tuskahara (1966). For evaluation of the results of the present study, analysis of variance (Snedecor 1966) and Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan 1955) were employed.


RESULTS
Carcass wastes of common carp and Egyptian catfish seem to be good sources of dietary protein and amino acids (Table 2). Both had high protein contents, 51.72 and 42.77%, respectively, and the amino acid profiles of both sources is comparable to that of fish meal with the exception of lysine.
Results of growth response nutrient utilization, plasma total protein, plasma albumin and plasma total globulins are shown in Table 3. Nile tilapia fed diets 2, 3 and 7 displayed significantly the best growth response and nutrient utilization in terms of final body weight, specific growth, food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent net protein utilization and apparent protein digestibility.

No significant differences were found in plasma total protein, plasma albumin and total globulins for fish fed the experimental diets (Table 3). Little differences were detected in carcass moisture, lipids and protein of fish fed the experimental diets (Table 4).


DISCUSSION
The results obtained with tilapia fed diets supplemented with either carcass wastes of common carp or Egyptian catfish were encouraging. Tilapia fed these diets grew as well or better than tilapia fed the basal diet. This could be attributed to the complementary effects produced from combining two protein sources which could be, in the case of the present study, due to higher essential fatty acids, whereas both fish wastes have higher levels of crude lipids than fish meal (Table 2). March et al. (1963) stated that fish meals vary considerably on the basis of their biochemical analysis and with regard to their nutritive properties. Foltz (1982) reported that growth of rainbow trout fed a diet in which herring meal was completely substituted by tilapia fish meal did not differ significantly from those fed a diet containing the herring meal. The author concluded that tilapia are suitable sources of fish meal and waste materials remaining after larger fish are filleted and are also a potential feed ingredient. Also, the work of Fowler (1991) on using a poultry by-product meal as a dietary protein source in fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) supports the results of the present study. The author reported that fish fed diets containing poultry by-product substituting 10 and 20% of the fish meal protein in the basal diet had weight gain, specific growth rate and gross feed efficiency similar to fish fed the control diet which contained fish meal .

In the present study, fish waste meals could replace up to 75% of fish meal protein without compromising growth, which indicates the quality of these meals. Fowler (1991) reported a depression in growth response of chinook salmon when the inclusion level of poultry by-product reach 30%. This indicates that the quality of carcass waste is superior to that of poultry by-product and nutritional parameters reported, e.g apparent net protein utilization and apparent protein digestibility, concur (Table 3). The carcass lipids tended to increase with increasing levels of carcass wastes of common carp but the opposite was true for carcass wastes of catfish. This may be related to the level of crude lipids in carcass wastes used. The crude lipids in common carp waste were higher than that those in catfish wastes (Table 2). Carcass crude protein was increased with increasing levels of both wastes. Fowler (1991) reported that increasing the level of poultry by-product to 30% resulted in a decease in the carcass crude protein of shinook salmon. This supports the finding that protein quality of both carcass wastes is higher than that of poultry by-product.


CONCLUSION
From the results of the present investigation it could be concluded that carcass wastes of common carp and Egyptian catfish could safely replace 75% of fish meal protein in tilapia’s diets.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Special thanks are due to professor Dr. Esam Kamel and Mr. Alaa El-Din from Food Technology for their assistance in preparing carcass fish wastes.

REFERENCES

AOAC (1989). Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of the Official Analysis Chemists (Horwitz, W., ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington.

Armstrong, W. D. and Carr, C. W. (1964). Physiological Chemistry Llaboratory Directions (3rd ed.). Burges publishing Co., Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Balarin, J.D. and Hatton, J.P. (1979). “Culture Systems and Methods of Rearing Tilapia in Africa”. In Tilapia: A Guide to Their Biology and Culture in Africa, pp 45-56. Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland.

Boomyaratpalin, M., Suraneiranat, P. and Tunpibal, T. (1998). “Replacement of Fish Meal with Various Types of Soybean Products in Diets for the Asian Seabass, Lates calcarifer”. Aquaculture 161: 67-78.

Doumas, B.T., Waston, W. and Biggs, H.H. (1977). “Albumin Standards and the Measurements of Serum Albumin with Bromocresol Green”. Clinical Chemistry Acta 31: 87-96.

Duncan, D. B. (1955). “Multiple Range and Multiple F Test”. Biometrics 11: 1-42.

Duranti, M. and Cerelli, P. (1979). “Amino Acid Composition of Seed Proteins of Lupinus albus”. Journal of Agriculture Food Chemistry 27: 977-978.

Foltz, J.W. (1982). “Evaluation of Tilapia Meal for Fish Diets”. Prog. Fish Cult. 44: 8-11


Fowler, L.G.(1991). “Poultry By-Product Meal as a Dietary Protein Source in Fall Chinook Salmon Diets”. Aquaculture 99: 309-321.

Furukawa A. and Tsukahara H. (1966). “On the Acid Digestion Method for Determination of Chromic Oxide as an Index Substance in the Study of Digestibility of Fish Feed”. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 32: 502-506.

Gallagher, M.L. (1994). “The Use of Soybean Meal as a Replacement for Fish Meal in Diets for Hybrid Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis x M. chrysops)”. Aquaculture 126: 119-127.

Hossain,M.A., Nahar, N. and Kamal, M. (1997). “Nutrient Digestibility Coefficients of Some Plant and Animal Proteins for Rohu (Labeo rohita)”. Aquaculture 151: 37-45.

Jauncey, K. and Ross, B. (1982). “A Guide to Tilapia Feed and Feeding”. Institute of Aquaculture. University of Stirling, 111 pp.

Jackson,A.J., Kerr, A.K. and Bullock, A.M. (1984). “Fish Silage as a Dietary Ingredient for Salmon II. Preliminary Growth Findings and Nutritional Pathology”. Aquaculture 40: 283-291.

March,B.E., Bickly, J. and Tarr, H.L.A. (1963). “Nutrient Composition and Evaluation of British Columbia-Whale Herring Meal”. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 20: 229-238.

Millamena, O.M., Golez, N.V., Janssen, J.A and Koedi, M.P. (2000). “Evaluation of Processed Meat Solubles, Protamino Aqua, as Potential Ingredient for Shrimp Feed”. Aqua 2000 International Conference, Responsible Aquaculture in New Millennium, May 2-6, 2000, Nice, France, page 475.

Nose, T. (1962). “Determination of Nutritive Value of Food Protein in Fish. 1. On the Determination of Food Protein Utilization by Carcass Analysis”. Bull. Freshwater Fish Res. Lab (Tokyo) 11, 2-42.

Reece, D.L., Wesley, D.E., Jackson, G.A. and Dupree, H.K. (1975). “A Blood Meal-Rumen Contents as a Partial or Complete Substitute for Fish Meal in Channel Catfish Diets”. Prog. Fish Cult. 37: 15-19.

Refstie, S., Storebakken, T. and Roem, A.J. (1998). “Feed Consumption and Conversion in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Fed Diets with Fish Meal, Extracted Soybean Meal or Soybean Meal with Reduced Content of Oligosaccharides, Trypsin Inhibitors, Lectins and Soya Antigens”. Aquaculture 162: 301-312.

Ross, L. G. and Geddes, J. A. (1979). “Sedation of Warm-Water Fish Species in Aquaculture Research”. Aquaculture 16: 183-186.

Robina, L., Izquierdo, M.S., Moyano, F.J., Socorro, J., Vergara, J.M., Montero, D. and Fernadez Palacios, H. (1995). “Soybean and Lupin Seeds Meals as Protein Sources in Diets for Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata): Nutritional and Histological Implications”. Aquaculture 130: 219-233.

Shiau, S., Lin, S., Yu, S., Lin, A. and Kwok ,C. (1990). “Defatted and Full–Fat Soybean Meal as Partial Replacements for Fish Meal in Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus X O. aureus ) Diets at Low Portein Level”. Aquaculture 86: 401-407.

Snedecor, G. W. (1966). “Two or More Random Samples of Measurement Data. Analysis of Variance”. In: Statistical Methods, 8th ed., pp. 237-290. Iowa State University press, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Soliman, A. K. (1985). “Aspects of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Nutrition in O. niloticus and O. mossambicus”. Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, Scotland.

Soliman, A.K., Jauncey, K. and Roberts, R. J. (1994). “Water-Soluble Vitamin Requirements of Tilapia, Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Requirement of Nile Tilapia, Oreochrmis niloticus (L.)”. Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 25: 269-278.

Tacon, A.G.J., Stafford, E.A. and Edwards, C.A. (1983). “A Preliminary Investigation of the Nutritive Value of Three Terrestrial Lumbricid Worms for Rainbow Trout”. Aquaculture 35: 187-199.

Tidwell, J.H., Webster, C.D., Yancey, D.H. and D’Abramo, L.R. (1993). “Partial and Total Replacement of Fish Meal with Soybean Meal and Distillers’ By-Products in Diets for Pond Culture of the Freshwater Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii)”. Aquaculture 118: 119-130.

Wood, J.F., Capper, B.S. and Nicolaides, L. (1985). “Replacement and Evaluation of Diets Containing Fish Silage, Cooked Fish Preserved with Formic Acid and Low-Temperature Dried Fish Meal as Protein Sources for Mirror Carp (Cyprinus carpio)”. Aquaculture 44: 27-40.



Table 1: Ingredient Composition (%) of Diets Containing Different Levels of Substitution for Common Carp Wastes and Egyptian Catfish Wastes.


Ingredient (%)

Basal diet

Common carp wastes

Egyptian catfish wastes

Substitution level (%)

Substitution level (%)

25

50

75

25

50

75

Fish meal

30.0

22.50

15.00

7.50

22.50

15.00

7.50

C.Carp wastes

0.0

9.21

18.42

27.63

0.0


0.0

0,0

E.catfish wastes

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

11.14

22.28

33.42

Corn starch

10.00

9.33

8.67

7.96

8.17

6.35

4.52

Soybean meal

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

20.00

Meat&bone meal

15.00

15.00


15.00

15.00

15.00

15.00

15.00

Corn meal

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

13.00

CMC1

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

Corn oil

7.50

6.46

5.41

4.41

5.69

3.89


2.06

Mineral mix.2

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Vitamin mix.3

0.875

0.875

0.875

0.875

0.875

0.875

0.875

Ascorbic acid

0.125

0.125

0.125

0.125

0.125

0.125

0.125

Chromic oxide

0.50

0.50


0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Proximate analysis (%)

Moisture

7.10

7.65

7.75

7.98

7.28

7.20

7.20

Ash

12.25

12.08

11.97

11.84

12.99

12.86

12.48

Ether extract

13.80

14.26

14.41

14.42


13.92

13.63

13.55

Crude protein

38.82

38.93

38.87

38.65

38.59

38.94

38.71

Crude fiber

1.49

1.78

1.76

1.35

1.77

1.60

1.52

NFE4

26.54

25.30

25.24

25.76

25.45

25.77

26.54

GE (Kcal/100g)5


451.01

454.91

455.62

454.95

450.52

450.42

451.26

1- Carboxymethyl cellulose 2- See Soliman et al.(1994)

3- Each 100 g contain: Vit A 960,000 IU; Vit D3 160,000 IU; Vit E 0.89 g; Vit K 0.16 g; Vit B1 80 mg; Vit B2 0.32 g; Vit B6 0.12 g; Vit B12 0.8 mg; Pantothenic acid 0.89; Niacin 1.6 g; Folic acid 80 mg; Biotin 4 mg; Choline chloride 40 g; the rest is a carrier


4-Nitrogen free extract. 5- See Jauncey and Ross(1982).

Table 2. Chemical Analysis (%) and Amino Acid Composition (g /100g) Fish Meal (FM), Common Carp Carcass Wastes (CCW) and Egyptian Catfish Carcass Wastes (ECW).


Parameter

FM

CCW

ECW
Moisture

2.06


5.33

6.34

Ash

14.00

12.0

16.95

Ether extract

20.42

28.01

30.05

Crude protein (CP)

63.52

51.72

42.77
Amino acids composition

Alanine

2.71

2.65

2.07

Arginine

2.60

2.49

1.86

Asparatic acid

3.50

2.73

2.38

Cystine


0.44

0.33

0.14

Glutamic acid

4.74

4.63

3.34

Glycine

20.33

19.93

16.34

Histidine

1.05

098

0.65

Isoleucine

2.26

2.13

1.49

Leucine

1.86

1.69

1.23

Lysine

8.98

1.61

1.11

Methionine

1.35


0.83

0.56

Phenylalanine

1.33

1.09

0.80

Proline

3.32

3.28

2.77

Serine

1.50

1.29

1.07

Threonine

1.72

1.36

1.09

Tyrosine

1.14

0.81

1.76

Valine

1.90

1.69

1.27

Table 3. Effects of Partial Substitution of Fish Meal Protein by Carcass Wastes Protein of Common Carp and Egyptian Catfish on Performance, Nutritional and Physiological Parameters1 of Nile Tilapia.


Parameter

Diets


SEM2

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Initial ave.wt.g

4.74

4.70

4.73

4.77

4.76

4.73

4.71




Final ave.wt.g

17.16c

24.88a

20.61b

18.72bc

20.66b

24.84a

24.58a

0.930


Survival rate %

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

0.0

SGR3

1.53c

1.98a

1.74b

1.64bc

1.75b

1.97a

1.97a

0.045

FCR4

1.89a

1.41c

1.65b

1.74ab

1.65b

1.44c

1.44c


0.053

PER5

1.36c

1.84a

1.55c

1.48c

1.57bc

1.79ab

1.78ab

0.066

ANPU6

23.14c

31.17ab

27.33bc

25.52c

27.66bc

32.28a

32.51a

1.420

APD7

83.75c

89.50a

86.10b

85.25bc

85.00bc


89.00a

89.50a

0.631

PTP8

5.04

5.75

5.25

5.17

5.35

5.72

5.70

0.160

Plasma albumin

1.95

2.12

2.22

2.32

2.23

1.96

2.00

0.183

PTG9

3.10

3.55

3.03

2.85

3.12

3.76


3.69

0.273

1-Only means with different superscript letters are significantly different (P < 0.05)

2-Standard error of the means derived from the analysis of variance.

3-Specific growth rate 4-Food conversion ratio. 5-Protein efficiency ratio.

6-Apparent net protein utilization. 7-Apparent protein digestibility.

8-Plasma total protein 9-Plasma total globulins =Plasma T. protein – plasma albumin


Table 4. Body Composition Data1 on Wet Weight Basis (%) of Initial Fish and Fish Fed the Experimental Diets.


Diet

Wet weight basis (%)

Moisture

Ash

Ether extract

Crude protein

Initial

77.68

3.97

4.50

13.55

1

70.72a

4.98

8.15c


16.15c

2

70.66a

4.44

8.53bc

16.37bc

3

69.34b

4.88

9.40a

16.38bc

4

68.35c

5.07

9.53a

17.05ab

5

69.20bc

4.77

9.25ab

16.78abc

6

69.64b

4.62

8.51c

17.23ab


7

69.05bc

5.12

8.41c

17.42a

±SEM2

0.267

0.177

0.195

0.242

1-Only means with different superscript letters are significantly different (P < 0.05)


2-Standard error of the means derived from the analysis of variance




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