Vertebrate Pesticide Toxicology Manual (Poisons)


Appendix 2 : Quality specifications for 1080 pellet baits for possum control in New Zealand



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Appendix 2 : Quality specifications for 1080 pellet baits for possum control in New Zealand


Cinnamon-masked 1080 pellet baits
Efficacy: When 40 individually caged possums are presented paired trays containing 100 g of bait containing 0.15% 1080 and 100 g of non-toxic RS5 bait at least 90% of possums shall eat a lethal amount of toxic bait. To ensure most animals are killed quickly and humanely, it is recommended that a minimum of 35 of 40 caged possums eat at least 8 g of bait (i.e., the amount of bait that administers 4 mg/kg of 1080 to a 3-kg possum).
Baits
General: Baits shall be grain-based, regular in shape, poisoned with monofluoroacetate (1080), masked with cinnamon, and coloured green. The cereal grain for bait manufacture should contain no more than 13% moisture, and have less than 5% screenings. Before pelleting the grain shall be milled with a screen not exceeding 3 mm, so most particle sizes fall in a range from 0.25–0.50 mm. An approved biscuit grade of wheat is recommended for optimal binding of pellet ingredients. To prevent “sweating” of recently manufactured cereal baits, they must be cooled to a temperature of no more than 8C above ambient room temperature before they are packaged.
Palatability: The palatability of toxic bait should exceed 40% compared to recently manufactured non-toxic RS5 bait (of similar size).
Fracture/breakage/ dust and bait hardness: Dust and fragments (i.e. pieces less than 1 g) shall comprise no more than 5% by weight.

Size: Baits used during aerial control operations shall have a mean weight not less than 6 g. The standard deviation of 50 individually weighed baits should not exceed 1 g (one gram), with 95% of baits by weight weighing more than 4 g.


Hardness: A pointed 2-mm diameter probe shall penetrate baits when the mean pressure applied to the side-walls of 40 large (6 g) baits is 5–12 kg; or when 2–7 kg is applied with a pointed probe to the side-walls of 40 small (1.5 g) RS5 baits. The standard deviation of 40 baits shall not exceed ±5 kg pressure, with 95% of baits penetrated with 2–15kg of pressure on the probe.
Toxin: The toxin, 1080, used in baits shall be at least 93% pure sodium monofluoroacetate and contain less than 0.25% inorganic fluoride. The pH of a 0.1% aqueous solution of the 1080 powder shall be 6.5 or less.
1080 concentration: The concentration of 1080 in samples of 10 baits shall be 1.5 ± 0.22 mg/g (i.e. all samples should have a concentration within 15% of the nominal concentration). The means of 10 or more such samples shall lie within ±5% of the nominal concentration. The concentration in 90% of 10 individual baits shall be within ±25% of the nominal concentration.
Colour: A green colour shall be incorporated into the bait to ensure it has a colour range of 221–267 by the New Zealand Standard Specification 7702 (section 23, Standards Act 1965). Surface colour shall be 98% or more of the surface area when tested by intercepts on a dot grid 1 cm × 1 cm over a random sample of not less than 100 baits.
Masks: Food grade cinnamon flavour (Bush, Boake and Allen, Auckland; Product No:02-7780) in monopropylene glycol with a specific gravity of 1.05 shall be mixed into baits at 0.2% wt/wt to mask the taste and odour of 0.15% 1080. Cinnamon concentrations should never be less than 0.1% or more than 0.5% wt/wt.

Stability: Baits shall be stored for no longer than 6 months with a moisture content of 12 %, 3 months with a moisture content of 14%, and less than a month with a moisture content of 16%. Baits shall have a mould count less than 400 cfu/g . Bait should be stored in a cool, dry storeroom containing few micro- and macro-organisms.

Leaching: Baits shall retain 80% or more of their toxic loading after 5 mm of rainfall over 24 hours.

Storage and stacking of 1080 pellets


Bait shall be stored in a clean, dry, locked enclosure until it is used. Pallets of bait shall be stacked no more than two high during transport and storage.

Appendix 3: Quality specifications for 1080 carrot baits for possum control in New Zealand

Recommended specifications for carrot bait



Cinnamon-masked 1080 baits



Efficacy: When 40 individually caged possums are presented paired trays containing 100 g of bait containing 0.15% 1080 and 100 g of non-toxic RS5 bait, at least 90% of possums shall eat a lethal amount of toxic bait. To ensure most animals are killed quickly and humanely, it is recommended that a minimum of 35 of 40 caged possums eat at least 8 g of bait (i.e., the amount of bait that administers 4 mg/kg of 1080 to a 3-kg possum).

Baits



Specifications for carrot growers: Carrots supplied will be:

  • Royal Chantenay;

  • harvested at a time when 90% of carrots weigh 100–200 g;

  • clean-pulled within 4 days prior to requested date of delivery of the consignment;

  • topped;

  • free of carrot worm, stem rot, woody pith, mould, bruising, weed and weed seed, stones and other foreign objects;
  • washed so that the consignment contains 99% carrot by weight.

On arrival at the airstrip carrots should be:



  • covered by tarpaulins if there is a risk of overnight frosts;

  • stored for no longer than is absolutely necessary. If delays occur because of weather then the period of storage will depend on temperature and humidity, but should not exceed 1 month in ideal weather conditions (i.e., low humidity, cool temperatures);

  • free from signs of decay (heat, smell, or softness).


Palatability: The palatability of toxic bait should exceed 40% compared to recently manufactured non-toxic RS5 bait (6 g).

Bait size and chaff:

  • Carrot baits shall have a mean weight of 6 g and 95% of baits by weight shall weigh between 3 and 10 g.

  • Chaff (pieces of carrot less than 0.5 g) shall make up less than 1.5% by weight of useable bait.

  • Chaff as a byproduct will make up less than 40% by weight of the pre-processed carrot.


Toxin: The 1080 used in baits shall be at least 93% pure sodium monofluoroacetate and contain less than 0.25% inorganic fluoride. The pH of a 0.1% aqueous solution of the 1080 powder shall be 6.5 or less. The 1080 stock solution will be 20% (± 0.5%) sodium monofluoroacetate.

1080 concentration: Sodium monofluoroacetate will be surface-applied to carrot baits such that the concentration of 1080 in samples of 10 baits should be 1.5 ± 0.22 mg/g (i.e. all samples should have a concentration within 15% of the nominal concentration). The means of 10 or more such samples shall lie within ±5% of the nominal concentration. The concentration in 90% of 10 individual baits shall be within ±25% of the nominal concentration.

Colour: A green colour shall be incorporated into the bait to ensure it has a colour range of 221–267 by the New Zealand Standard Specification 7702 (section 23, Standards Act 1965). Surface colour shall be 98% or more of the surface area when tested by intercepts on a dot grid of 1 cm × 1 cm over a random sample of not less than 100 baits.

Masks: Food-grade cinnamon flavour (Bush, Boake and Allen, Auckland; Product No:02-7780) shall be used to mask 1080 by mixing it into baits at 0.3% wt/wt. The lure mixture shall be made by adding 3 litres of flavour concentrate to approximately 16 litres of soya bean or peanut oil, and applying 2 litres of this mix per tonne of cut bait. Alternatively, 300 mls of cinnamon lure should be mixed in 700 mls of monopropylene glycol, and added to the spray tank containing 1080 solution at the rate of one litre per tonne of carrot. Cinnamon concentrations following bait preparation should never be less than 0.1% or more than 0.4% wt/wt.
Stability: If, because of storage, uncut carrots start to become soft or ferment, the carrots should not be used for manufacture of baits. Carrot baits may remain palatable for a week after manufacture (i.e. palatability to 20 individually caged possums will be 40%). The 1080 concentration in a sample of stored carrot bait should be within ±15% of the nominal concentration.
Leaching: Detoxification of carrot is reliant on biodegradation of 1080 by micro-organisms as baits rot, therefore intact baits must be analysed for traces of 1080 before livestock are introduced back into control areas.

APPROVED ESSENTIAL OILS AND ESSENCES FOR USE AS MASKS WITH 1080 CARROT BAIT. Supplier: Bush, Boake and Allen (Auckland) except for one (H.E. Terry Auckland)


Mask Concentration (v/w) Description and Code No.

Cinnamon 0.1% Cinnamon flavour

oil 02.7780

Orange 0.125% Firmenich product 52.596/T

Orange 0.5% WJB orange oil 78.0675

Aniseed 0.1% Aniseed China Star oil 72.2358

Plum 0.2% Plum flavour 11.2114

Cherry 0.2% Cherry flavour 2.1660

Lemon 0.5% WJB lemon oil 75.9794

Appendix 4: Possum baits per lethal dose (LD) [1999 prices and details]

Product & bait size

Pack size

Cost

No. of Baits

Baits per LD

ACP No.7 1080 pellet bait 12 g

25 kg

$ 52.76

2080

1

ACP RS5 1080 pellet bait 6 g


25 kg

$ 44.23

4165

2

ACP Pestoff Pro 1080 paste 8 g

20 kg

$117.23

2500

1

ACP Phosphorus D/S paste 8 g

20 kg

$129.95

2500

1

ACP Cyanide paste 55% 1 g

500 g

$ 24.50

500

1

ACP Pestoff brodifacoum bait 2 g


10 kg

$ 35.00

5000

50

Feratox® encapsulated cyanide

1000

$450.00

1000

1

FeraCol® paste 20 g

4.5 kg

$180.00

225

1

Campaign® pellets 2 g

10 kg

$400.00

5000

8



1 Dr C.T. Eason is a Wildlife and Environmental Toxicologist

Dr M. Wickstrom is a Veterinary Toxicologist formerly working for Landcare Research, currently at the University of Saskatchewan, Canada


2 contact Geoff Wright (03) 325 6700; wrightg@landcare.cri.nz

3 In this section the metabolism fate of brodifacoum in animals is compared with that for other anticoagulants to avoid repetition in the following sections. First-generation anticoagulants (developed c. 1950–70) are listed in Table 10 and second-generation anticoagulants (developed c. 1970–2000) in Table 11.


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