Be able to answer the following questions in 25 words or less. No great detail required. What leads some analysts to conclude that the first deities were female?
Discuss the distinction between sacred and profane.
What is the difference between birth rituals and other rites of passage in terms of their functions?
Describe some types of religiously motivated body mutilations found in tribal societies? What are they usually connected with?
What is the stance of tribal societies to adultery and divorce?
What do fraternity hazing and the military draft possibly have in common?
What is the difference between magic and religion? Magic and divination? Give three examples of the use of animals for divination.
List the different services performed by shamans.
Under what conditions will females tend to have prominent shamanistic roles?
How does the initiation of Siberian shamans utilize rituals of death and resurrection? Shamans must travel during this period. What are the three types of alternative travel? What are the organs that are most often removed and replaced? List several functions that Siberian shamans carry out with respect to illness and death. How do Eskimo shamans intervene to ensure supply of seals and fish? Give examples of how they simultaneously use these rituals to enforce morality.
Answer the following question about Australian aborigines.
What was the only animal they domesticated?
How did their hunting technology differ from those of most other hunters?
There was a subterranean god and a celestial god who combined to create the world and who are believed to be the ancestors of the aborigines. Who are they?
Why are sacred songs and rituals so important to them?
Describe their reincarnation beliefs and how they are connected to sacred places.
How does a woman know than an ancestor has entered her womb?
How do they conceive of life as a journey backwards toward their original home? Where does the soul go after death?
How do their adolescent initiation rituals reenact the creation of the world? Where are they held?
How are puberty rituals viewed as a form of death and resurrection? What is the logical sequence of five different phases of the puberty initiation process?
Who is the principal specialist in Australian religion and what is his major function? What role do quartz crystals play for the specialist? What role does the tiger snake play in Australian religion?
Where does the soul go after death in Australian religion?
Be able to answer the following questions on Eskimo religion.
Who is Sedna? What role do birds play in the Sedna creation myth? What is the origin of sea and land mammals? Where do Sedna and her father live? What other spirits exist besides Sedna?
How are shamans selected and initiated? Why do some shamans try to see themselves as a skeleton? List three ways by which shamans achieve altered consciousness.
What happens to the soul of a seal after you kill it? How do Inuit deal with the souls of the animals they kill in the hunt?
Describe the taboos in central Canada that forbid mixing of sea and land animals.
How did they use animal body parts to endow themselves with power?
What type of infanticide was practiced among Inuit? How? Why?
Why did Eskimo women need strong teeth? What was the attitude toward female menstrual blood?
What was the attitude toward corpses? Where was one supposed to die? Why?
Answer the following questions about Native American religion.
What was the shared belief among many groups in an impersonal sacred force?
Were witchcraft and sorcery accepted?
Discuss the role of an Earth Diver in creation stories.
How does the Winnebago myth resemble the Genesis creation story?
Describe the role of Twin-Spirit, Owner of the Animals, and the Trickster.
Describe the central elements in vision quests.
What was the role of sucking in religious rituals?
What group passed from individualistic to collective priestly rituals?
Identify the central elements of the Ghost Dance complex
What is the peyote religion?
Answer the following questions about African religions
Is there a Supreme Being in the religions of Sub-Saharan Africa?
There is a special painful puberty ritual for females in some places. What is it? How is it justified?
According to different creation stories, why are women and children to blame for God and his sky being so distant. How did God get so far away?
Why are the Ashanti thankful to the python?
What is the African attitude toward twins?
Is there a belief in reincarnation?
How do the Kono of Sierra Leone explain the hostility between humans and snakes?
How are baskets used in divining from Zaire to South Africa?
How do women get the evil spirits which they use in witchcraft?