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(Introduced from 2011)


Paper I: History of India from Earliest Times to C.650 AD

Paper II: History of India from 650 to 1556 AD

Paper III: History of India from 1556 to 1857 AD

Paper IV: Transformation of Europe from 15th to 17th Centuries

Paper V: History of India from 1857 to 1971 AD

Paper VI: History of Europe from 1789 to 1919 AD

Paper VII: World since 1919

Paper VIII: Optional Paper (any one of the following)

(A) History of East Asia since 1839

(B) Aspects of the History of Modern Southeast Asia

Paper I: History of India from Earliest Times to C.650AD

  1. Geographical Background – Sources and approaches to ancient Indian history: literary sources – Archaeological sources: epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.
  2. Prehistory and Protohistory: from Palaeolithic culture to Neolithic Age – Economic and technological developments – Growth of chalcolithic village societies – The Harappan civilization: origin and antiquity, distribution, morphology of major sites, agrarian base, craft production and trade, religious beliefs and practices, art and architecture and the script – The first urbanization; problems of urban decline and the late Harappan Cultures.

  3. Background to early historic India: (a) The Aryan problem. (b) Society, economy, polity and religion as reflected in Vedic literature. (c) Iron age cultures.

  4. Society and religion: (a) Material and ideological background. (b) Jainism, Buddhism, Ajivikas and other systems. (c) Expansion of settlements and the second urbanization. (c) Social structure.

  5. Age of imperial unity: (a) Mahajanapadas and Janapadas – Early monarchical states and ganasanghas – Rise of the Magadhan empire. (b) The Mauryan Empire: nature and bases – Political and cultural relations – Asoka's Dhamma: its nature and propagation. (c) The Mauryan polity and administration – Society and economy –– Art and architecture – The decline of the Mauryas.

  6. Post-Mauryan developments (c.200 BC- c. 300 AD): (a) Foreign Invasions and their impact: Bactrian Greeks, Scythians, Kushanas – Post-Mauryan policies with special reference to the Kushanas and Satavahanas – Tamil chieftains: Chera, Chola, Pandyas. (b) Religion: spread of jainism and Buddhism, Mahayana Buddhism, Vaisnava and Saiva forms of worship, beginning of Tantric practices. (c) Culture: art and architecture, sculpture, literature, scientific and technical treatises. (d) Sangama Age: society, language and literature, Megaliths, Tamilagam.

  7. Age of the Guptas: (a) Emergence, expansion and downfall of the Gupta empire. (b) State and administrative institutions – Social and economic changes with special reference to urban patterns, agrarian structure, land grants, coinage and currency system, trade. (c) Cultural developments: art, architecture, sculpture, painting and literature, religion, Sanskrit theatre – cultural contacts with Central Asia.
  8. Post- Gupta period: (a) Harshavardhana: political and administrative institutions. (b) Peninsular India: Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas, Pallavas: polity, society and economy – Cultural developments with emphasis on art and architecture. (c) Rise of Sasanka in Bengal.


  1. Habib, Irfan, Pre-History (Prak-Itihas in Bengali).

  2. ……………, The Indus Civilization
    (Sindhu Savyata in Bengali).

  3. Chakrabarti, D. K., India, an Archaeological History, Paleolithic Beginnings to Early Historic Foundations.

  4. ………….., Bharatbarsher Pragitihas (in Bengali).

  5. Chattopadhyay, B.D. A Survey of Historical Geography of Ancient India

  6. Allchin, Raymond and Bridget, The Rise of Civilization in India and Pakistan.

  7. Ratnagar, Shereen, The Harappan Civilization.

  8. …………………., Harappa Savyatar Sandhane (in Bengali).

  9. Wheeler, R. M., The Indus Civilization.

  10. Thapar, Romila, History of India, 1000 BC-1526 (Bharatbarsher Itihas in Bengali).

  11. ………………., Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas (Asoke o Mauryader Patan in Bengali).

  12. ……………, Mauryas Revisited

  13. Goyal, S. R., History of Imperial Guptas.

  14. Raychaudhuri, H. C., Political History of Ancient India (Prachin bharater Rajnaitik Itihas in Bengali).

  15. Kosambi, D. D., An Introduction to the Study of Indian History (Bharat-Itihas Charchar Bhumika in Bengali).

  16. --------------, Culture and Civilization of Ancient India

  17. Basham, A. L., The Wonder That Was India.

  18. Mukherjee, B. N., Rise and Fall of the Kushana History.

  19. ……………….. , Itihaser Aloke Arya Samasya (in Bengali).

  20. …………………. , Economic Factors in Kushana History.
  21. Majumdar, R. C. et. al. (ed), History and Culture of the Indian People, Vol. 1, 2 and 3.

  22. Rapson, E. J. (ed), The Cambridge History of India, Vol. I.

  23. Jha, D. N., Ancient India in Historical Outline.

  24. Sharma, R. S., Perspectives in Economic and Social History of Early India (Prachin Bharater Samajik o Arthanaitik Itihas in Bengali).

  25. --------------. India’s Ancient Past

  26. Chakravarti, Ranabir, Prachin Bharater Arthanaitik Itihaser Sandhane (in Bengali).

  27. Bhattacharji, Sukumari, Itihaser Aaloke Vaidik Sahitya (in Bengali).

  28. Majumdar, A. K., Concise History of Ancient India, Vol. I.

  29. Chattopadhyay, Sunil, Prachin Bharater Itihas, Vol. I and II.

  30. K.A.N Shashtri, History of South India

Paper II: History of India, 650-1556 A.D.

  1. (a) Early medieval India: historiography and recent debates. (b) Sources: epigraphy, numismatics and literature.

  2. (a) Political developments: nature of regional politics; Pratiharas, Palas, Cholas and their contemporaries. (b) Arab invasions; Ghaznavid and Ghorid invasions: nature and impact.

  3. (a) Agrarian economy: land grants and agrarian expansion; changes in land tenure; peasants intermediaries and landed magnates; regional variations. (b) Urban centres, trade and trade networks; craft guilds and manufactures; trade contacts with South East Asia and West Asia; coinage and currencies.

  4. (a) Literature: rise and growth of regional languages. (b) Art, architecture, painting and sculpture. (c) Schools of philosophy and religious cults. (d) Science and technology.
  5. (a) The Delhi Sultanate: historiography and sources. (b) Political structure in the Turko-Afghan period: overview of political history; ruling elites; military organization; territorial changes; Mongol threats; legitimization of political authority; theories of kingship; symbols and rituals of sovereignty; Sufis, Bhaktas and Nathapanthis; iqta system; relations with rural intermediaries.

  6. Society and economy in North India: (a) Environmental context; agricultural production and technology. (b) Rural society and revenue system. (c) Urbanisation and non-agricultural production. (d) Monetisation, market regulations and trade. (e) Indian Ocean trade.

  7. Religion and culture: (a) Sufism – doctrines, silsilas, practices. (b) Bhakti – Kabir, Nanak and Sant tradition. (c) Religion and religious identities – cults; Vaishnav movement in eastern India; Jagannath cult in Orissa; Warkair movement and Vithoba cult in Maharashtra. (d) Sultanate architecture; regional art and architectural forms. (e) Literature: Persian and Indian languages.

  8. (a) Regional political formations: Rajasthan, Vijaynagar, Bengal; historiographical issues; sources – regional chronicles, bardic narratives, Sufi and Bhakti texts; travelogues. (b) Regional society and economy: Vijaynagar and Bahamani kingdoms. (c) Trade and urbanisation in South India.

  9. Afghan despotism


    1. B.D. Chattopadhyay, The Making of Early Medieval India

    2. R.S. Sharma, Social Changes in early Medieval India, 500-1200 AD

    3. D.N. Jha, The Feudal Order: State Society and Ideology in Early Medieval India

    4. K.A.N. Shashtri, The Cholas

    5. B.N.S.Yadava, Society and Culture in Northern India in the 12th Century.

    6. Hermann Kulke, ed. The State in India 1000-1700.

    7. Tapan Raychaudhry, ed. Cambridge Economic History of India, vol. 1

    8. I.H. Quershi, Administration of the Sultanate of Delhi
    9. Md. Habib and K.M. Nizami, ed. Comprehensive History of India, vol. 5

    10. R.S. Tripathi, Some Aspects of Muslim Administration

    11. Satish Chandra, Medieval India, vol. 1

    12. N.N. Bhattacharyya, ed. Medeival Bhakti Movements in India

    13. S.A.A. Rizvi, History of Sufism in India

    14. Burton Stein, Vijaynagara

    15. J.N. Sarkar, ed. History of Bengal, vol. 2

Paper III: History of India, 1556-1857 A.D.

  1. (a) Mughal historiography – different approaches. (b) Sources – Abul Fazl, Badauni, Abdul Hamid Lahori, Bernier.

  2. (a) Overview of the growth of Mughal power till Akbar. (b) Evolution of the administrative system under Akbar and his successors: Mansab and Jagir (c) The Mughal ruling class: the imperial family and the nobility. (d) State and religion: Akbar’s religious ideas – sulh-i-kul; relations with religious elites; Aurangzeb’s relations with religious groups and institutions.

  3. Rural economy and society: (a) Environmental context; agricultural zones; agricultural production; agricultural technology and crop patterns; management of water resources; growth of cash nexus and rural credit, and the role of the state. (b) Agrarian structure; revenue system; zamindars, land ownership and land rights; village community and the peasantry.

  4. (a) Urban centres; morphology of cities – a survey; administration of cities and towns. (b) Urban economy: crafts, manufactures, karkhanas. (c) Urban social structure: merchants, bankers, artisans, craftsmen and labourers. (d) Trade routes and the framework of internal commerce – Indian Ocean trade network in the 17th century. (e) Markets and the monetary system.
  5. (a) Language, literature, art and architecture. (b) Religion and culture: the Sufi tradition; 17th century revivalist trends in the time of Jahangir; Vaishnava Bhakti and its regional variants; Sants and their cults; shrines and pilgrimages.

  6. Patterns of regional polity: (a) Rise of the Marathas; Shivaji; Mughal-Maratha conflict; the Peshawas. (b) The origins and growth of Sikh power.

  7. (a) The decline of the Mughal empire – nature of the crisis. (b) The rise of regional successor states: case studies of Bengal, Awadh and Hyderabad.

  8. (a) The emergence of the English East India Company as a political power; Bengal as the ‘British bridgehead’; Battle of Buxar and the grant of Diwani. (b) The framework of colonial governance: British parliamentary Acts. (c) The new colonial state and its ideologies: Oreintalism, Utilitarianism; classical political thought with respect to India.

  9. Economy and society under Company rule: (a) Inland private trade, policy of investment and agency houses. (a) Permanent Settlement and other land revenue settlements. (b) Agrarian social structure.

  10. Indian responses to the West: (a) Rammohan, Young Bengal and social regeneration. (b) Social and religious movements in Bengal and other parts of India till 1857.


  1. A.C. Banerjee: New History of Medieval India

  2. Irfan Habib: Medieval India: The Study of a Civilization

  3. Irfan Habib: Akbar and his India

  4. Faruqui: Aurangzeb and his Times

  5. Irfan Habib and Tapan Roy Choudhury ed., Cambridge Economic History of India, Vol.I

  6. Irfan Habib: Agrarian System of the Mughals

  7. A. Nurul Hasan: Thoughts on Agrarian Relations in Mughal India

  8. W. H. Moreland: Agrarian System in Moslem India

  9. Aniruddha Roy: Some Aspects of Mughal Administration
  10. Athar Ali: The Apparatus of Empire: Awards of Ranks and Titles to the Mughal Nobility

  11. Satish Chandra: Parties and Politics in Mughal Court

  12. M. Athar Ali: Mughal Nobility under Aurangzeb

  13. D.E.. Streusand: Formation of the Mughal Empire

  14. Muzaffar Alam and Sanjay Subramaniyam (ed): The Mughal State

  15. Seema Alavi, ed. The Eighteen Century in India

  16. P. Marshall, ed. The Eighteen Century in India

  17. Muzaffar Alam: The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India: Awadh and Punjab

  18. M. Athar Ali: Mughal India: Studies in Polity, Ideas, Society and Culture

  19. S. R. Sharma: Religious Policy of the Mughal Emperors

  20. R.M. Eaton: Essays on Islam and Indian history

  21. R. M. Eaton, ed., India’s Islamic Tradition

  22. C.A. Baily: Rulers Townsmen and Bazaar: North India in the Age of British Expansion (1770-1870)

  23. Ashin Dasgupta and M.N. Pearson, eds., India and the Indian Ocean (1500-1800)

  24. K. N. Choudhuri, Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company (1660-1760)

  25. J. F. Richards (ed.): The Imperial Monetary System and Mughal India

  26. J. N. Sarkar: Shivaji and his Times

  27. Stuart Gordon: The Marathas

  28. Sumit Sarkar: A critique of Colonial India

  29. P.J. Marshall: East India Fortunes

  30. N. K. Sinha: Economic History of Bengal , 3 Vols.

  31. Amiya Bagchi: Private Investment in India

  32. Sugata Bose: Agrarian Bengal

  33. Ranajit Guha: Rule of Property in Bengal

  34. David Kopf: British Orientalism and the Bengal Renaissance

  35. Eric Stokes: The English Utilitarians and India

  36. Pradip Sinha: 19th Century Bengal: Calcutta in Urban History

  37. Sabyasachi Bhattacharya eds., Rethinking 1857

  38. 1857: Economic and Political Weekly Special Volume

Paper IV: Transformation of Europe from 15th to 17th Centuries

  1. Fall of Constantinople – the Islamic invasion of southern Europe – the crisis of the empire and its impact on medieval kingship- the redefinition of the relationship between empire and national monarchy: England and France.

  2. The Crisis of Feudalism – the nature of the feudal society and its regional dimensions- the 10th century crisis – the collapse of the feudal order in Western Europe and its forms of survival in Eastern Europe.

  3. Economic Crisis and Commercial Decline in Europe in the 14th century – the urban decay and the epidemics.

  4. Science, technology and the age of discovery – printing revolution – new techniques of warfare and the military revolution – the origins of modern science – the exploration of the world – voyages to Asia.

  5. Economic expansion of Europe in the 16th century – the rise of European companies – the new merchant – changes in the urban formation – agricultural expansion and the beginnings of an agricultural revolution? – emergence of capitalism in industry and agriculture.
  6. Renaissance and Humanism – rediscovery of the classics – Humanism as a vocation – Humanism as a social ideology – the restoration of the dignity of man – implications for education,  art and architecture – reception of Humanism in northern Europe.

  7. The formation of the early modern state – King’s officers, a new army, taxation – Germany and Habsburgs – the empire of Charles V – the making of Absolutism – Englans.

  8. Reformation and problem of secular authority – Reformation as reinforcement of Absolutism, medieval anti-clericalism – Lutheranism, Calvinism, Reformation in the national conexts – the state and Reformation in England – the Anglican compromise – the French religious wars and the political crisis.

  9. The economic expansion of Europe in the 17th century – the agricultural revolution –commercial expansion; overseas merchant trading corporations – banking – the emergence of Europe as the centre of world system.

  10. Scientific Revolution and the growth of scientific culture – secularism as a political and social ideology – the origins of Enlightenment.

  11. Peace of Westphalia and the emergence of modern European state system.

  12. The Crisis of Absolutism – England in the 17th century – Civil War – the political ideas of the Civil War – the settlement of 1688 and the beginnings of Liberalism with special reference to the ideas of John Locke


    1. Anderson, P, Lineages of the Absolutist States

    2. Aston, The Brenner Debate: Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-industrial Europe (Past and Present Publications)

    3. Baron, H., The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance: Civic Humanism and Republican Literati in An Age of Classicism and Tyranny

    4. Bernal, J. D., Science in History

    5. Black ,J., Military Revolution
    6. Braudel, F- Wheels of Commerce: Civilisation and Capitalism

    7. Carus-Wilson, E.M. ed., Essays in Economic History Vol I

    8. Cipolla, Carlo, Before the Industrial Revolution: European Society and Economy, 1000-1700

    9. Dickens, A. G., The German Nation and Martin Luther

    10. Dickens, A.G., The English Reformation

    11. Ferguson, W.K.- Europe in Transition (1300-1500)

    12. Gilbert, F, Machiavelli and Guicciardini: Politics and History in Sixteenth Century France

    13. Goodman, A and Mackay A (eds), The Impact of Humanism on Western Europe

    14. Haigh, C., The English Reformation Revised

    15. Henry, J., The Scientific Revolution and the Origins of Modern Science

    16. Hill, C., The World Turned Upside Down

    17. Hilton, R, Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism.

    18. Huizinga, Johann, Waning of the Middle Ages

    19. Johnson, Paul, The Renaissance

    20. Lindberg, C., The European Reformation

    21. Morris, J., The Nature of the English Revolution

    22. Newert, C. G. Jr., Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe.

    23. Parry, J. D., The Age of Reconnaissance

    24. Pocock, J.G.A., The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition.

    25. Rich, E. E., and Wilson,C. H., ed, The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, vol. IV.

    26. Runciman, S., The Fall of Constantinopole, 1453.

    27. Stephens,J., The Italian Renaissance

    28. Tilly, Charles ed., Formation of National States in Western Europe
    29. Underdown, David, Rebel, Riot and Rebellion: Popular Politics and Culture in England, 1630-1660.

    30. Wallerstein, E, The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (Studies in Social Discontinuity)

Paper V: History of India, 1857-1971 A.D.

  1. The Revolt of 1857: causes, course and consequences.

  2. (a) The Drain of Wealth. (b) Deindustrialisation and the Indian economy. (c) Commercialisation of agriculture. (d) Peasants and landless labour. (e) Rural credit and indebtedness. (f) The tribal dimension.

  3. (a) Ideologies of the British Raj. (b) Differential impact of colonialism. (c) Growth of modern education – Rise of a new intelligentsia and the emergence of an Indian public. (d) Growth of early political associations. (e) Socio-religious revivalist/reform movements. (h) Women in modern India.

  4. (a) Historiography of Indian nationalism. (b) The founding of the Indian National Congress. (c) The early Congress; the rise of Extremism; Partition of Bengal and the swadeshi movement. (d) Trends in Muslim politics: Aligarh movement, Muslim League, separate electorates and Lucknow pact.

  5. (a) Emergence of Gandhi in Indian nationalist politics: Rowlatt Act and Rowlatt Satyagraha; Khilafat and Non Co-operation. (b) Simon Commission, Nehru Report and Round Table Conference. (c) Civil Disobedience movement. (d) Quit India movement. (e) Role of social groups and classes. (f) Ideological trends in the Congress.

  6. (a) Revolutionaries and left movements. (b) Trade union and Kisan Sabha agitations. (c) Subhas Chandra Bose, INA trials and RIN mutiny.

  7. (a) Working of the provincial ministries. (b) Cripps Mission, Wavell Plan and Cabinet Mission.
  8. Communal politics and partition: (a) Hindu fundamentalism and Muslim separatism. (b) Demand for Pakistan. (c) Responses to Pakistan demand: all-India and regional. (d) British policy. (e) Partition and independence.

  9. (a) Partition, migration and rehabilitation. (b) Integration of princely states. (c) Agrarian reforms. (d) Framing of the Indian constitution and establishment of parliamentary democracy. (e) Making of Indian foreign policy: Non-alignment and the Third World. (f) The model of planned economy. (g) Social and political movements.

  10. (a) Beginning of the Green revolution. (b) Fragmentation of Indian Politics – rise of regional parties. (c) India’s role in the Bangladesh Crisis


      1. 1857: Essays from Economic and Political Weekly

      2. Anil Seal, Emergence of Indian Nationalism

      3. Asim Roy and Mushirul Hasan (ed.), Living Together Separately: Cultural India in History and Politics

      4. Ayesha Jalal, The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan

      5. Bipan Chandra, India’s Struggle for Independence

      6. Bipan Chandra, Mridula Mukherjee, Aditya Mukherjee, India after Independence.

      7. Eric Ericson, Gandhi’s truth: the Origins of the Militant Non-Violence.

      8. F. R. Frankel, India’s Green Revolution: Economic Gains and Political Costs.

      9. Ian Tablot and G. Singh, The Partition of India.

      10. Iqbal Narain, Twilight or Dawn: the Political Change in India 1967-71.

      11. Joya Chatterjee, Bengal Divided.

      12. Joya Chatterjee, The Spoils of Partition Bengal and India 1947-1967.

      13. Judith Brown, Gandhi’s rise to Power

      14. Mushirul Hasan, India's Partition: Process, Strategy and Mobilization.
      15. Myron Weiner, Party Politics in India : The Development of a Multi-party System

      16. P.J. Marshall, Bengal: The British Bridgehead

      17. Paul Brass, The Politics of India Since Independence

      18. R. C. Majumdar, ed., History and Culture of Indian People Vols IX and X.

      19. R.C. Majumdar, ed., British Paramountcy and Indian Renaissance

      20. Rajni Kothari, Politics in India

      21. Ramchandra Guha, India Since Gandhi

      22. S. Gopal, Jawaharlal Nehru : A Biography (Vols I-III)

      23. S. N. Sen, 1857

      24. Sankar Ghosh, The Disinherited State: A Study of West Bengal 1967-71.

      25. Sumit Sarkar, Modern India

      26. Sumit Sarkar, Swadeshi Movement in Bengal

Paper VI: History of Europe from 1789 to 1919 AD

  1. The Idea of Europe: The 18th century background – society, economy, politics, enlightenment – role of the philosophers.

  2. Trends in French Revolution: Aristocratic revolt – bourgeoisie, popular and peasant – the Constituent Assembly and its achievements – Girondins and Jacobins – the Reign of Terror and the rise and fall of the Jacobin Republic – the Thermidorian reaction and the Dictatory – Interpreting the French Revolution – Creation of a new political culture.

  3. Napoleon Bonaparte: the revolutionary legacy – the reorganization of France and the new elite – Napoleonic Empire and Europe – Fall of Bonaparte – conflicting estimation of Napoleon's character and achievements.
  4. The Vienna Congress: Metternich and the Conservative order in Europe – Liberalism – Nationalism and the revolutionary challenge to the conservative order – an overview; the Revolution of 1848 – pattern of insurrections in France and other central European countries – collapse of the Revolution.

  5. The emergence of the national states in Central Europe – Unification of Italy and Germany- Russian modernization – emancipation of the serfs and liberal reforms in Russia – France under the second emperor.

  6. Industrialisation of Europe: Difference in the industrialisation process between England and the continent – French, German and Russian industrialisation – rise of the working class, working class movement and the socialist thought.

  7. Europe in 1871: the Third Republic, Paris Commune and the new German Reich – Bismarckian diplomacy and the new balance of power

  8. European imperialism: The impetus behind colonial expansion – scramble for colonies in Asia and Africa – Eastern Question in the late 19th century and the Balkan nationalism – Wilhelm II and the new course in German foreign policy – Triple Alliance, Triple Entente and the emergence of two armed camps – the origins of the First World War.

  9. The impact of the War on old order – the collapse of the dynastic empire – Russian Revolution: Origins – the October revolutions and the success of the Bolsheviks.


1. David Thomson - Europe Since Napoleon

2. George Rude - Revolutionary Europe
3. Georges Lefebvre - Coming of the French Revolution
4. Stephen J. Lee - Aspects of European History
5. James Joll - Europe since 1870
6. Albert Soboul - Understanding the French Revolution
7. Petr Geyl - Napoleon for and against
8. Phyllis Deane - The First Industrial Revolution
9. Clive Trebilcock - The industrialization of Continental Powers
10. Pat Hudson - The Industrial Revolution
11. L.C.B. Seaman - From Vienna to Versailles

12. Denis Mack Smith - Italy: A Modern History

13. Gordon Craig - Germany, 1871-1945
14. Geoffrey Barraclough - The Origins of Modern Germany
15. Henry Kissinger - A World Restored
16. Alfred Cobban - A History of France, Vols. I-III.
17. E.H. Carr - The History of Soviet Russia, Vols. I-III.
18. Hugh Seton Watson - The Decline of Imperial Russia, 1815-1914.
19. W.L. Langer - Diplomacy of Imperialism
20. L. Kochan - The Making of Imperial Russia.
21. Ralph Finley - Modern German History
22. Christopher Hill - Lenin and the Russian Revolution.
23. Richard Pipes - A Concise History of Imperial Russia
24. A.J.P. Taylor - The Course of German History
25. --------------- - The Struggle for Mastery over Europe
Paper VII: World since 1919

  1. Peace settlements of 1919: its long-term consequences – the establishment of the Weimar Republic.

  2. Europe in the inter-war period: Consolidation and development of the power of the Soviet state – Rise of Fascism in Italy – League of Nations – The Economic Depression – the rise of the Nazi power – Germany’s aggressive foreign policy – the outbreak of the World War II and historians.

  3. The world after 1945: Origins of the Cold War and the division of Europe – the emergence of the American and the Soviet spheres of influence – the system of military and economic alliances.

  4. The decline of European imperialism: Decolonisation – national improvements of Asia and Africa – the emergence of the Third World – alternatives of the cold war and the Non-aligned movement.
  5. Regional theatres of the cold war: Korea, Vietnam, Cuba and Middle-East – Tensions within the Soviet Bloc: Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland. Bipolar World and the regional conflicts.

  6. The Communist Revolution and Emergence of China in world politics – Sino-Soviet and Sino-American relations.

  7. From Bi-polarism to Uni-polarism: Politics of détente – end of the Cold War – German Reunification – Globalization and its impact – American Uni-polarism and its significance for international politics.

  8. Rise of terrorism and the challenge to international security – 9/11 and its impact on world politics

  9. India and her neighbours: Indo-China relations – Indo-Myanmar relations – Indo-Bangladesh relations – Indo-Pakistan relations.


    1. E. H. Carr, International Relations between the Two Wars

    2. Peter Calvocoressi, The World Politics Since 1945

    3. Mcwilliams, Wayne and Piotrowski, H, The World since 1945.

    4. W Keylor, Twentieth Century World

    5. D.F. Fleming, The Cold War and Its Origins

    6. J. W. Young and John Kate, International Relations since 1945

    7. D. Rees, A Short History of Modern Korea

    8. Carl L. Brown, International Politics in the Middle East

    9. M.S. Rajan, Studies on Non-alignment and the Non-aligned Movement

    10. Donald Seekings – Historical Dictionary of Burma

    11. S. Liang Chi, Burma’s Foreign Relations: neutralism, theory and practice

    12. Kishore C. Dash, Regionalism in South Asia

    13. J.K. Ray, ed. Aspects of India’s International Relations, 1700-2000: South Asia and the World
    14. Mohan Guruswamy and Zorawar Daulet Singh, India-China Relations: The Border Issue and Beyond

    15. S.B. Jain, India’s Foreign Policy and Non-Alignment

    16. Suranjan Das, Kashmir and Sindh: Nation Building, Ethnicity and Regional Politics in South Asia

    17. P. Sukumar Nair, Indo-Bangladesh Relations

Paper VIII (Any one from two options)

(A): History of East Asia since 1839


  1. The nature of Chinese traditional society – social structure – the peasantry, the gentry class, government, bureaucracy and central control – China’s pre-modern economy.

  2. Colonial penetration and Chinese response: the tribute system, the canton system and their collapse – the opium wars and the treaty system – Rebellion in China and the White Lotus Society as a prototype – the Taiping rebellion – the Boxer rebellion.

  3. Restoration, Reform, Revolution – the Restoration of Confucian government – the self-strengthening Movement – the Reform Movement of 1898 – Dynastic reform and the Republican Revolution of 1911 – the New Nationalism.

  4. The rise of the Kuomintang – Warlordism – the May Fourth Movement – the Rise of the Communist Party – the Kuomintang-Communist conflict – the People's Republic of China and the establishment of the new order.

  5. Economic development and industrialization – Growth and change of China's foreign trade – compradors and Chinese capital – early industrialization.


  1. Pre-Restoration period – The Shogunate, the feudal society and Government – the Perry Mission and the opening up of Japan to the West – the fall of the Shogunate.
  2. The Meiji Restoration – Its nature and character – different social classes and groups behind the Restoration – contrasting response of China and Japan to the impact of the West.

  3. Abolition of feudalism and economic growth – Social and military reforms – land settlement pattern of economic growth – the role of state and private entrepreneurs.

  4. Foreign policy after Restoration – The Sino-Japanese War – Anglo-Japanese alliance – the Russo-Japanese War – Japan in the Pacific – the rise of militarism in the 1930s and 1940s – Japan in the Second World War.


      1. H. Vinacke, The History of the Far East in Modern Times

      2. J.K. Fairbank, East Asia: The Modern Transformation

      3. Immanuel Hsu, Rise of Modern China

      4. Jean Chaeneoux, China from Opium War to 1911 Revolution

      5. ---------------, China from 1911 Revolution to Liberation

      6. Israel Epstein, From Opium War to Liberation

      7. C.P. Fitzerald, Birth of Communist China

      8. Edgar Snow, Red Star over China

      9. Cambridge History of China, vol. 10

      10. George M. Bakeman, Modernization of China and Japan

      11. ----------------, The Making of Meiji Constitution

      12. Richard Story, A History of Modern Japan

      13. Sansom George, The Western World and Japan

      14. The Cambridge History of Japan, vols. 5-6

      15. G.C. Allen, A Short Economic History of Japan

(B): Aspects of the History of Modern Southeast Asia

1. Historical writings on Southeast Asia in the early 20th century – Debates on the question of ‘Indianisation’ – Post-War historiography and the ‘autonomy’ of Southeast Asia.

2. (a) Growth of early European interests in Southeast Asia: 16th to 18th centuries – Colonial penetration and indigenous response: interaction and accommodation, collaboration and resistance. (b) Establishment of the colonial regimes in the 19th century: Stamford Raffles in Java, British forward movement in Malaya, foundation of Singapore, French colonial system in Indochina, British annexation of Burma, British movement in Borneo and the Brookes in Sarawak.

3. (a) Pre-colonial polity, society, economy and culture in Southeast Asia – a brief survey. (b) Colonial impact on society: growth of Western education; changing position of women and the gender question under colonial rule; social anomalies and eradication efforts; colonial science; Western medicine and public health. (c) Independent modernisation of Siam from Mongkut to Vajiravudh.

4. Economic impact of colonialism: (a) Dutch domination in Indonesia – from the Culture system to the Liberal system. (b) Colonial policy and land question in Indochina – communication and plantation economy. (c) British economic policy in Burma – agricultural expansion. (d) Development of plantation economy in Malay. (e) Singapore as a strategic defence centre and its growing significance in international economy

5. Nationalism in Indonesia: Sarekat Islam, PKI, PNI and other political parties – Japanese impact during the World War II – Birth of Indonesian Republic and the constitution of 1945 – Indonesian National Revolution, 1945-50.

6. Early nationalist protest movement against French rule in Indochina – Rise of Ho Chih Minh and birth of Communist party – Vietminh and the August Revolution (1945) – The First Indochina war and Geneva Agreements – the nature of American participation.

7. Nationalism and religion in Burma: the Pongyis and the Sayasan Rebellion – the Thakin movement – Second World War, the struggle for independence and the transfer of power.

8. Growth of anti-Spanish sentiments in the Philippines – Dr. Jose Rizal and the propaganda movement – the anti-Spanish revolution of 1898 – the U.S. intervention and the road to self-government – Transfer of power and birth of a republic (1946).

9. Growth of nationalism in British Malaya – National liberation movement – Malaya Union Plan.

10. Decolonisation and cold war politics – Regional cooperation initiatives: SEATO, ASA, ASEAN and NAM


  1. Nicholas Tarling, ed. The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia

  2. ---------------, A Concise History of Southeast Asia

  3. D.G.E. Hall, A History of South East Asia

  4. G.M.T. Kahin, Government and Politics of Southeast Asia

  5. J.F. Cady, Southeast Asia: Its Historical Development

  6. --------------, A History of Modern Burma

  7. Swapna Bhattacharya (Chakraborti), India-Myanmar Relations: 1886-1948

  8. Frank N. Trager, Burma from Kingdom to Republic

  9. Robert H. Taylor, The State in Myanmar

  10. Michael W. Charney, A History of Modern Burma

  11. C.D. Cowan, Nineteenth Century Malay

  12. W.R. Roff, The Origin of Malay Nationalism

  13. ---------------, A History of Malaysia

  14. J.C. Van Leur, Indonesian Trade and Society

  15. G.M.T. Kahin, ed. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia

  16. Robert Van Niel, The Emergence of Modern Indonesian Nationalism

  17. Anthony J.S. Reid, Indonesian Nationalist Revolution

  18. W.M. Wertheinil, Indonesian Society in Transition

  19. David K. Watt, Thailand: A Short History

  20. --------------, Studies in Thai History

  21. David A. Wilson, Politics in Thailand

  22. Craig Reynolds, National Identity and Its Defenders: Thailand, 1939-89

  23. John D. Legge, Indonesia

  24. NI. Wright, Revolution in the Philippines

  25. M.K. Kaul, The Philippines and Southeast Asia
  26. J.V. Abueva and R.P.De Guziian, eds. Foundations and Dynamics of Filipino Government and Politics

  27. D.R. Sardesai, A History of Vietnam

  28. Joseph Buttinger, The Smaller Dragon: A Political History of Vietnam

  29. Helen B. Lamb, Vietnam’s Will to Live

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