What is a budget?

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Questions for discussion

Episode 11

12th may 2009
udget 2009

  1. What is a budget?

  2. Who does it affect?

  3. Who is the Treasurer of Australia and what does he do?

  4. Explain what an income is.

  5. What are expenses?

  6. Use words or pictures to describe what a surplus and deficit are.

  7. Why is this year’s budget in deficit?

  8. Where does the Government get money from when there is a deficit?

  9. What do you understand more clearly since watching the BtN story?

  10. How does the budget affect you?

Send a message or tell us what you think on the BtN story comments.

Bag ban

  1. Where in Australia have plastic supermarket bags been banned?

  2. What are the advantages of plastic bags?

  3. How many are used in Australia each year?

  4. Why were they banned?

  5. Draw a picture that shows the environmental impact plastic shopping bags can have.

  6. What is the argument for paper bags not being the main alternative to plastic?

  7. What are the alternatives for shoppers where plastic bags have been banned?

  8. What are the disadvantages of the ban?

  9. Do you think there should be a ban on plastic bags?

  10. What do you think should happen next?

`Should plastic bags be banned everywhere’ Vote in the online poll.

Emissions trading

  1. What was the main point of the story?

  2. What is carbon pollution?

  3. What is the carbon pollution reduction scheme?

  4. What is the scheme trying to achieve?

  5. Why has the Government decided to delay it?

  6. What impact could the scheme have on already struggling businesses?

  7. Why are some environmental groups happy with the Governments decision?

  8. Do you think the Government made the right decision delaying the scheme? Explain your answer.

  9. Do you think the scheme is fair? Explain your answer.

  10. What other solutions are there to reducing carbon emissions?

Go to http://www.ecokids.ca/pub/eco_info/topics/energy/quiz/index.cfm and do the energy quiz.

Cyber bullying

  1. Explain the BtN cyber bullying story to another student.

  2. What is cyber bullying?

  3. How is it different to face to face bullying?

  4. Why do you think some people that bully online would never do it face to face?

  5. Describe how cyber bullying makes the victim feel?

  6. What did the Kids Helpline cyber bullying survey find?

  7. Why do you think a lot of young people don’t tell an adult about being cyber bullied?

  8. What are some strategies to deal with cyber bullying?

  9. What do you think it means to be responsible cyber citizen?

  10. What do you understand more clearly since watching the BtN story?

How does your school deal with cyber bullying? Does your school have an acceptable computer use policy? Research and present your findings in an interesting way.
Monkey girl

  1. Retell the BtN story.

  2. Describe Kaitie Litchfield’s achievements.
  3. What is Kaitie’s book about?

  4. Where was Kaitie living when she wrote the book?

  5. How did she become Little One’s mum?

  6. What sort of monkey is Little One?

  7. Describe the relationship Kaitie developed with the monkey.

  8. Why aren’t people allowed to keep monkeys in Australia?

  9. What happened to Little One when Kaitie and her mum came back to Australia?

  10. How did this story make you feel?

Create a fact sheet about the red-tailed monkey.

Bag ban

Episode 11

12th may 2009

Learning Area

Society and Environment

Key learning

Students will explore the pros and cons of banning plastic supermarket bags.

lastic supermarket shopping bags have now been banned in South Australia but will other states follow?

Focus Questions

  1. Where in Australia have plastic supermarket bags been banned?

  2. What are the advantages of plastic bags?

  3. How many are used in Australia each year?

  4. Why were they banned?

  5. Draw a picture that shows the environmental impact plastic shopping bags can have.

  6. What is the argument for paper bags not being the main alternative to plastic?

  7. What are the alternatives for shoppers where plastic bags have been banned?

  8. What are the disadvantages of the ban?

  9. Do you think there should be a ban on plastic bags?

  10. What do you think should happen next?

Should supermarket plastic bags be banned?

Students will be exploring the pros and cons of the plastic supermarket shopping bag ban and developing an argument for or against the ban. Divide the class in half – those speaking in favour of a ban and those speaking against the ban. Begin with a class brainstorm about the advantages and disadvantages of plastic supermarket bags. Ask students to brainstorm the alternatives and the pros and cons of each. Record their responses. In addition to the questions raised from the brainstorm, students can use the following key questions to guide their research:

  • How much pollution is caused by supermarket shopping bags?

  • What is the impact of other plastic products and packaging on the environment?

  • What is the environmental impact of the alternative shopping bags?

  • Is the issue the plastic bag or the way it’s handled, disposed of and recycled?

Encourage students to think about how they record information when researching using the internet. Some different strategies include:

  • a plus, minus and interesting chart (helps students to organise information using a more structured approach)

  • skinny notes (record key words and then use these to rewrite the information in their own words)

  • Inspiration software using the RapidFire organiser (key words can be recorded during the research process then rewritten in the student’s own words)

When students have completed their research, ask them to list their arguments in point form on paper. When they have done this, ask them to choose the five best points that will form the basis for their debate.

Students will write in point form, their debate on cards that fit into the palm of their hand. Their debate needs to have an introduction (introducing the topic), middle (five main points) and a conclusion (restating their position). They can then debate the topic with another student.


Ask students to think about how difficult it was to think of arguments to support their case. Do they think they could have created a stronger argument if they were speaking for the opposing view?

Further investigation

Find out what other people think about the plastic bag ban. Survey parents, teachers, students and family members to get their opinions. Share the results with the rest of your class.

8 Related Research Links

ABC News – Plastic bag ban begins


ABC News – Nation urged to follow SA bag ban
ABC Behind the News – Plastic bags story
ABC Science – No bags, thanks!
KESAB – SA Plastic shopping bag ban
Government of SA – BYO bags

NBC – Battle of the bags


Cyber bullying

Episode 11

12th may 2009

Learning Area

Society and Environment

Key learning

Students will explore the issue of cyber bullying and create a guide to educate and support young people.

recent survey found that the problem of cyber bullying seems to be getting worse. So what is cyber bullying and how can it be prevented?

Focus Questions

  1. Explain the BtN cyber bullying story to another student.

  2. What is cyber bullying?

  3. How is it different to face-to-face bullying?

  4. Why do you think some people that bully online would never do it face-to-face?

  5. Describe how cyber bullying makes the victim feel?

  6. What did the Kids Helpline cyber bullying survey find?
  7. Why do you think a lot of young people don’t tell an adult about being cyber bullied?

  8. What are some strategies to deal with cyber bullying?

  9. What do you think it means to be a responsible cyber citizen?

  10. What do you understand more clearly since watching the BtN story?

Cyber bullying

Students will be exploring the issue of cyber bullying and what it means to be a responsible cyber citizen. A recent survey conducted by Kids Helpline found that most cyber bullying occurred at social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace. Ask students to brainstorm the positive and negative aspects of young people accessing information communication technologies and experiences they have using social networking sites.

Divide the class into groups of 4-5 students. Assign each group one of the following roles:

  • The bully (consider the reasons they do it and the excuses they use)

  • The victim (how it makes them feel and reasons why they might not tell an adult)

  • The parents (what they can do)

  • The bystander witnessing cyber bullying (their responsibilities)

  • The school (what role do schools play in the issue)

Record students’ responses and discuss questions about the issue that they may have. These questions can be used to guide their research. Other possibilities include:

  • What does it mean to be a responsible cyber citizen?

  • What can be the consequences for people who bully online?

  • What does it mean to be cyber smart?

  • Why are a lot of young people reluctant to tell an adult about being bullied online?

Students will be creating and publishing a guide to cyber bullying to educate and support other young people. Some possible final products include a:

  • Desk top published guide to cyber bullying
  • Public service announcement (video or audio)

  • Short film or animation

  • Poster

Negotiate with student places to display their published guides. These could include the schools resource centre, other classrooms or a public area in the school.

8 Related Research Links

ABC Behind the News – Kids helpline cyber bullying story
ABC News – Phone bans `not the answer to cyber bullying’
Kids Helpline
Australian Government NetAlert – Cyber bullying
Bullying No Way – Spotlight on…cyber bullying
Cybersmart kids online – Cyber bullying
Top ten tips for cyber security

Children’s BBC – Schools to battle cyber bullying


BtN: Episode 11 Transcripts 12/05/09

n this week's Behind the News:

  • Why the Government is delaying a scheme to save the planet

  • The controversial ban creating plastic bag rage

  • And the girl who has gone from monkey mum to author.

Hi I'm Nathan Bazley welcome to Behind the News.

Also on the show today –we see the results of a survey about kids and cyber bullying.

We’ll get to those items later, but first to our top story.

Budget 2009

Reporter: Sarah Larsen

INTRO: Tonight is budget night! And that's a word you're probably going to hear a lot of over the next week.

It's big news, and it affects every single Australian.

We have one every year but this year's is especially important because of the economic crisis.

Here's Sarah to explain why the budget is turning red.

SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: Ever think of how much it costs to run your day? It's probably not something you think about but you can bet your parents do. Think of what it costs to run a whole country! Just like your mum, the government has to keep a close eye on what it spends and that's the job of this guy. His name is Wayne Swan and he's the Treasurer of Australia. Over the past few months he's been very busy drawing up the country's budget. That's a document that shows exactly where the money is going.

REPORTER: Budgeting is all about balancing your income with your expenses.

Let's look at your mum as an example. Say she owns a business: If it's a good year and she gets a lot of customers she can earn, say, $60,000. Now to keep your family running it might cost her $40,000. So there's $20,000 left over. That's called a Surplus. Your mum might use it to, say, go on a holiday or she might save it for later. But in a bad year she might not earn as much. If there aren't as many customers she might only earn $38,000. That's less than what it costs to run her family. You could say her budget is in the red or you could call it a deficit. That's what's happened to the government's budget this year.

When an economy slows down governments get less money from taxes and fees but that doesn't mean they have to stop spending money.

REPORTER: In fact, the opposite's been happening. The government has just spent a huge amount of money to try to give the economy a boost.

They handed out cash in the hope people would spend it, giving more money to businesses and keeping jobs safe. There are other things that the government is planning to spend money on in its budget; like high speed internet and a new children's channel for the ABC. Even though all that spending will put the budget into deficit

KID: Hang on, how can you spend more than you earn? Where does the money come from?

REPORTER: Well if someone like your mum had a deficit she could go to a bank and ask for a loan. The government does something similar, only it goes to big international lending institutions. But because it's so big it's a lot easier to get the money.

But just like a regular bank loan, the government has to pay interest on the loan until it's all repaid. Some pollies are criticising the government for putting the country into debt.

MALCOLM TURNBULL, OPPOSITION LEADER: The way they are spending they way they are borrowing the lack of discipline they are displaying should give us no confidence.

They say the government should have tried harder to save money. But the government says it didn't have much choice and the financial crisis has forced many countries to go into debt. And it says it is worth it to keep the economy going until things get better.

Presenter: And we'll bring you all the fallout from the budget in next week’s show.


In the meantime... let's do a money quiz.

Which animal is on the five cent coin?

  1. Lyrebird

  2. Platypus

  3. Echidna

Answer: Echidna

There is actually a campaign on to get rid of the 5 cent coin because some people say it isn't actually worth much anymore. What do you think? Let us know in the guest book.

Now let’s catch up with some of the week's headlines with Catherine.

The Wire

Australia has confirmed its first case of Swine Flu.

A woman in her twenties arrived in Brissy last Thursday after a trip to Los Angeles and tests showed she has the virus.

Health officials are now getting in touch with other people on her flight.


Birthday celebrations were held for Buddha at the weekend.

The number of Buddhists in Australia is approaching half a million - it's the biggest and fastest-growing, non-Christian religion in the country.


Remember that terrible oil spill we told you about off Queensland in March - well the last Pelicans being rehabilitated are about to be released back into the wild.

Their home, Moreton Island has pretty much been cleaned up so the birds' will now be able to return.


And an Orangutan made a great escape from its enclosure at Adelaide Zoo yesterday.

Using a branch it short-circuited the electric fence surrounding the enclosure, then built a mound out of grass and branches to jump over a second wire and onto a fence!

“It was amazing how he dunnit. Because he actually got a plant, pulled it over the electric fence and then got over.”

But the animal failed to make it over a second fence and returned a short time later.


Next he'll be picking locks or something.

Emissions Trading

Reporter: Nathan Bazley

INTRO: Last year the government announced a huge Carbon Trading Scheme that it said was vital to cut air pollution to try and stop climate change.

Well now it’s changed its mind and decided to delay the scheme.

Why? Well just like the budget we were talking about before - it all has to do with the global economic crisis.

SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: Carbon Dioxide has been in the crosshairs for a long time.

We've been told over and over; if we don't reduce this stuff, the planet will suffer.

The stakes? Well, some scientists say they're high.

The Great Barrier Reef could disappear and some of Australia's best farming land could become useless.

So last year, the Government decided to do something.

They called it the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme, and its aim was to make people pay for their pollution through Carbon Trading.

It's a confusing idea, so we'd better explain it again!

Imagine the Carbon Dioxide polluting our atmosphere is rubbish.

Some companies produce a lot, others only make a bit. But what would happen if the council took away one of the bins.

GIRL 1: I can't fit all my rubbish in!

GIRL 2: I've got heaps of room.

So they could either make less rubbish or buy some bin space from their neighbour.

That's what Carbon Trading is like.

The government plans to set a limit on how much Carbon Dioxide can be produced, just like taking a bin away.

Then if companies make too much, they have to pay, or trade, things called carbon credits with other companies that have reduced their emissions.

Overall it was meant to make polluting too expensive and therefore encourage companies to clean up their acts!

Back then, the Prime Minister said it should be done as soon as possible!

KEVIN RUDD, PRIME MINISTER: To delay any longer would be reckless and irresponsible for our economy and our environment.

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: But that was five months ago. Let's fast forward to now.

KEVIN RUDD: The start date to the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme will be delayed one year to commence from 1 July 2011.

Wait, what was that?!?!

KEVIN RUDD: Will be delayed...

NATHAN BAZLEY: Okay now the Prime Minister wants to hold off a year! So what's changed?!

Well a pretty big thing we call the economy!

Over the last 6 months, it would have been pretty tough to hide from the fact that the world has gone into financial meltdown!

We've brought you stories about businesses here going bankrupt, and others laying off heaps of staff.

So what would happen to these already stressed businesses if they had to pay loads of money to buy carbon credits?

Something like this!

So to give these people a break, the Government wants to push back the start of the scheme ‘til 2011.

They also want to make Carbon permits cheaper.

Business groups say the extra breathing space will help them keep operating.

But after all these breaks for polluters you'd think environment groups would be furious!

But there is something in it for them too.

The government says it will try to make bigger cuts in carbon pollution than it was planning to.

That's made some environment groups happy too!

However don't think that means the plan will happen.

The government has to get other countries to agree to parts of it and the Opposition and the Greens say they want to make some changes before it is passed through Parliament.

So it could be a while before this becomes this.

Bag Ban

Reporter: Catherine Ellis

INTRO: Another big environmental issue at the moment is plastic bags.

For a while people have been campaigning to get them banned and now it looks like they've got their wish in one state at least.

South Australia has made it illegal for supermarkets to give them out and it looks like the idea could spread.

CATHERINE ELLIS, REPORTER: Back in supermarkets in the 1960s, it was all about paper bags and boxes.

But a couple of decades later along came the plastic shopping bag. It was waterproof, it was strong, it had handles so you could carry lots of them at once, they were reusable and cheap to make!

So convenient and successful, they began to fill supermarkets everywhere and today hundreds of billions are used world-wide.

But these days, the lightweight plastic shopping bag in supermarkets is losing its popularity because of the impact it has on the environment.

They're ending up as litter, clogging waterways and drains and environmentalists say thousands of marine animals die each year because they choke or get caught up in the bags.

Now even the plastic bags that make it to the dump take hundreds of years to break down.

Not only that, fossil fuels - coal and oil - are used to make them in the first place and during the process pollution is emitted.

So why don't we just rewind back to the 60s and start using paper bags again?

Well because they're not as good as you might think.

Experts say a lot more energy is used to produce paper bags than plastic and paper factories emit more pollution!

Now as you guys know there are lots of alternatives these days and more and more people are starting to use them.

CATHERINE: And in South Australia you pretty much have to use them because it's banned lightweight bags like you find in supermarkets. If stores use these they'll get slapped with fines.

So shoppers’ options now include green bags, paper bags, thick boutique bags, hessian bags, string bags and now these bags look like the banned ones but they're bio-compostable so they're better for the environment.

The trouble is all of the bags cost South Aussie shoppers money so if they keep forgetting to bring their bags back they have to keep buying them.

And some are taking their anger out on others.

CATHERINE: So Justin have you found shoppers giving you a hard time at all?

JUSTIN, SUPERMARKET WORKER: Yeah sometimes they do. Most of them are quite fine about it, but every now and then you'll get an angry customer leaving their groceries behind.

Around the world more and more places are getting tough on bags.

Environmentalists are thrilled, but some say the issue has got out of control and just takes the attention away from bigger packaging problems.

For example; you can take away the bag from your groceries and your fast food, but look at all the plastic and foam packaging!

And plastic shopping bags have multiple uses; bin liners, nappy bags, household storage etc. So people will now have to go out and buy bags.

CATHERINE: Health is also a worry because if people are putting raw meat or cleaning products in reusable bags, then next time fruit and vegies go in that same bag, it could make people sick.

There are a lot of arguments for and against, but how do you guys feel?

Online Pole

Now you can tell us what you think in our online poll and while you're there you can also check out our new website!

The poll question is: Should plastic bags be banned everywhere?

If you want to vote go to abc.net.au/btn

Quiz 2

Ok now it's time to do a bit of an English test.

Which word starting with C is used as a prefix to show something has to do with computers or the internet?

Answer: Cyber

‘Cyber' comes from the word cybernetics and is used in lots of ways - cyber punk, cyber gamers and the subject of our next story - cyber bullying.

Cyber Bullying

Reporter: Nathan Bazley

INTRO: You might remember before the holidays we did a story on Kids Help Line. We found out that 1 in 10 kids your age has experienced some form of cyber bullying.

The problem seems to be getting worse as well. Kids Help Line set up a survey to ask you exactly what's happening and now the results are in.

So let's take a look at what cyber bullying is, and how you can stop it.

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: You've probably heard it before - 'sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will never hurt me.'

Whoever said that hasn't experienced cyber bullying.

We all know bullying is bad - but experts are now realising cyber bullying can be worse.

The problem is, it doesn't stop at school. It can follow you wherever you have access to the Internet, or whenever you have your mobile on.

THANIA, KIDS HELP LINE: It can actually invade your personal space at home as well because it goes outside the confines of physical, face to face bullying. You can be affected when you're reading something about yourself on the internet, it can be very hurtful.

We met Thania last term. She's a counsellor with Kids Help Line.

She says she's talking to more kids about cyber bullying every day.

THANIA: It's becoming a big problem and we've actually had a big increase in calls around just cyber bullying, as opposed to bullying in the school.

So what exactly is it?

Well cyber bullying is anyone using technology to give you a hard time; that includes Myspace, Facebook, MSN, email, or even your mobile phone.

And because it's done from a long way away, bullies don't have to see the consequences of their actions.

THANIA: There are certainly people who would find it a lot easier to pick on someone online because they don't have to see that person face to face, so like you were saying it's a lot easier to type something and be nasty and not have to deal with what's going to happen.

What happens, though, can be just as bad as physical bullying, or worse.

Kids often feel alone and overwhelmed by the amount of exposure online abuse can gain.

Many also feel powerless to stop it, because it's not always clear who's responsible.

NATHAN BAZLEY, REPORTER: Last term we asked you to head to the Kids Help Line site to fill in a survey on Cyber bullying and the results have been very interesting. Not surprisingly, social networking sites seem to be the most common place for bullying, but scarily, only one third of you have told an adult about it.

So what can you do to stop to this kind of abuse?

Kids Help Line say more kids should speak out.

THANIA: For a lot of people I think the best support is people you trust, so anyone in your family and people within the school system you can talk to about what's happening.

Another place where many kids don't realise they can get help is the websites themselves.

THANIA: Get an adult to help you contact myspace or google or whatever online service you're being cyberbullied on to let them know what's going on, because they do take cyberbullying very seriously and want to protect their users.

NATHAN BAZLEY: Finally it's important to remember that while bullying can happen anytime, school is when most kids experience it. I remember I got a pretty hard time in school and I know a lot of my friends did as well. It was horrible and hurtful at the time, but it doesn't last forever.

THANIA: We talk to lots of young people that develop really great coping stratagies and ways to manage their negative emotions associated with bullying, so they end up becoming really resillant and confidant young people when they're adults, and they become very successful adults as well.


Now you should also know some sorts of cyber bullying are illegal and can get you in to trouble with police.

Time for some sports news now - here's Catherine.

The Score

Aussie Rugby League fans have big reasons to celebrate, after the Kangaroos thrashed world champions New Zealand on Friday night - 38 to 10.

Half-back Johnathon Thurston and centre Justin Hodges scored four of Australia's seven tries.

And skipper Darren Lockyer equalled Mal Meninga's Australian appearance record, playing his 46th test.


Jenson Button has won the Spanish Grand Prix.

It's his fourth victory for the season - out of five races.

Aussie Mark Webber was third.


And the National Basketball League teams are set to be announced this week with the comp to be launched in October, but the NBL is having a few troubles..

Sydney and Brisbane don't seem to have teams and last week the South Dragons announced they're pulling out of the comp.

Quiz 3

On which continent are monkeys found?

  1. Africa

  2. Asia

  3. South America

Answer: All three!

One continent that doesn't have any monkeys in the wild is, of course, Australia. Ours are all in zoos, as you'll see in this next piece!

Monkey Girl

Reporter: Sarah Larsen

INTRO: Lots of people dream of being a published author and seeing their work in a book shop. Not that many ever achieve it though, especially while they're still at primary school!

But this week Sarah met a girl who's done just that. She wrote a kids book about a very interesting experience she had a few years ago involving monkeys!

SARAH LARSEN, REPORTER: For most of us here in Australia the closest we ever get to monkeys is this. But Kaitie Litchfield has been much, much closer. This is Kaitie when she was four; up close and personal with a very cute little monkey and this is Kaitie now. At 11 years old she's a published author!

KAITIE LITCHFIELD, AUTHOR: Well I've written a book about a monkey that I handraised in Africa.

REPORTER: And what were you doing in Africa?

KAITIE: My mum was working with apes so she took me with her.

Katie and her mum were living in a country called Uganda which is here in Africa. It's home to 19 different types of primates, including these really rare mountain gorillas. It's a great place for researchers like Kaitie's mum to come to learn about these amazing animals and it made for a very interesting childhood for Kaitie.

KAITIE: It was really cool and I just felt at home there for some reason.

But while monkeys and apes attract a lot of tourists to Uganda they're not always safe out in the wild. Sometimes they're killed for their meat. Sometimes monkeys are attacked for stealing farmers' crops. That's how Kaitie came to be a mum to a red-tailed monkey called the Little One.

KAITIE: He had been orphaned by his mother who had been killed when she was found raiding some crops so he was brought to me.

REPORTER: And what did you have to do?

KAITIE: Each day I had to feed him and groom him and play with him and comfort him when he was sad.

REPORTER: So was it a bit like having a human baby?

KAITIE: Yeah, a bit, but more annoying.

REPORTER: Why was it annoying?

KAITIE: He would steal food off the plates, from the ceiling, and he needed constant care.

If raising a monkey at the age of four wasn't impressive enough, Kaitie decided to write a children's book about her experience and this year it was published!

KAITIE (reading book): I decided to call him The Little One which annoyed the adults who wanted to call him something else.

It's full of pictures from Kaitie's life in Africa. Some of them are pretty unusual.

REPORTER: Tell me about what The Little One did with the dogs and cats.

KAITIE: Well The Little One loved the dogs and cats and used to ride around on them and just hug them and they actually liked him. The Little One kind of felt at home with the cat for some reason so yeah he just like played with them a lot.

REPORTER: Now I know what you're thinking because I'm thinking it too. I totally want a pet monkey! But you know, you're actually not allowed to keep them as pets in Australia.

Kaitie had to say goodbye to the Little One when he was old enough.

KAITIE: We couldn't take him back to Australia and we couldn't keep a little monkey so we had to give him back to the zoo.

REPORTER: So was it sad having to give him up?

KAITIE: Yeah, it was sad but we knew that we had to do it, so...

Writing the book was a way of making sure her friend would always be remembered and it will give many other kids a glimpse of life as a monkey mum.


Now some of those monkeys in that story weren't the same as the one Kaitie looked after in Africa - but they were still amazingly cute.

If you want to see some of the trouble they caused me and Sarah on our shoot just hit our website!

That's it for another show. Don't forget our new website - see you later!

© ABC 2009

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