A disease in which intestinal tissue replaces tissue that normally belongs in this organ is named for Norman Barrett. In ruminants, objects move both ways in this organ, while in humans, only one direction of travel is generally allowed. Objects in this organ move towards the cardiac sphincter at its lower end due to smooth muscular contractions called peristalsis. Name this muscular tube that transports boluses from the pharynx to the stomach.
ANSWER: esophagus (accept Barrett's esophagus before "this organ" is read)
BONUS 1: MISCELLANEOUS/SPORTS
Answer the following about a National League team that last won the World Series in 1908.
Name this team.
Name the team's manager as of January 2010.
In 2003, the team lost to the Florida Marlins in the NLCS, an event which some blame on this fan catching a ball that Moises Alou was attempting to field.
When the team won the 1908 World Series, they were led by a double-play combination of their shortstop, second baseman, and first baseman. Name any one of these three players.
ANSWERS: 1. Chicago Cubs (prompt Chicago) 2. Louis Victor "Lou" Piniella 3. Steve Bartman 4. (any one of) Joseph Bert "Joe" Tinker or John Joseph "Johnny" Evers or Frank Leroy Chance
TOSSUP 2: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
Like water, this molecule is a product of the Sabatier process. Another method of producing this molecule is extraction from coal beds. Like carbon dioxide, this molecule absorbs infrared radiation, making it a greenhouse gas, although it is over twenty times more potent as a greenhouse gas. Much of the concentration of this molecule in the atmosphere comes from anaerobic decay of feces, as well as livestock. Name this principal component of natural gas, the simplest hydrocarbon with formula CH4.
ANSWER: methane (accept CH4 until mentioned)
BONUS 2: FINE ARTS/MUSIC THEORY
Name these musical terms that could be seen in an orchestral score:
It means to have a sharp, sudden, and very strong accent on a note and then to return to the previous dynamic.
This Italian word means that all play together. Frequently, concertos will alternate between sections of this name and of solo sections for the featured instrument.
This phrase tells stringed instruments to strike the string with the wood of the bow as opposed to the hair. Doing this can damage the bow, though it is used in pieces such as Mahler's Second Symphony.
This is a word indicating to a solo performer that he has the liberty of taking the section in his own way. Sometimes, this section is improvised, while other times it is written ahead of time by the performer or by the composer of the work. It gives the solo performer a chance to display his talents in an extravagant way.
ANSWERS: 1. Sforzando 2. Tutti 3. Col legno battuto 4. Cadenza
TOSSUP 3: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
As a "Friend of America," this man defended a trade boycott of England in "A Full Vindication of the Members of Congress," which he followed up a year later with "A Farmer Refuted." In Rutgers v. Waddington, he argued against the legality of the Trespass Act. Important decisions this man made while in power included full repayment of American debts accumulated during the Revolution and assumption of state debts. He helped create the First Bank of the United States. Name this Secretary of the Treasury in Washington's cabinet, who famously lost his life in a July 11, 1804 duel with Aaron Burr.
ANSWER: Alexander Hamilton
BONUS 3: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
Answer the following about the development of the idea of evolution.
This author of On the Origin of Species is recognized as the creator of the modern theory of evolution.
This precursor to the man in part 1 said that organisms changed to adapt to their surroundings.
A key idea in the early development of the theory of evolution was this concept, proposed by Lyell in Principles of Geology, stating that geologic processes acting in a constant way have developed Earth.
Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge proposed this extension of the theory of evolution, stating that evolution occurs mostly in rapid periods of change separated by long periods of stability.
ANSWERS: 1. Charles Robert Darwin 2. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck 3. uniformitarianism 4. punctuated equilibrium TOSSUP 4: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Find the area of the triangle in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane that is bounded by the positive x-axis, the positive y-axis, and the line 3x + 2y = 6.
ANSWERS: 1. Henrik Johan Ibsen 2. Johan August Strindberg 3. Selma Ottiliana Lovisa Lagerlof 4. Isak Dinesen (or Karen Christence Dinesen, Baroness Blixen-Finecke, or Pierre Andrezel, or Tania Blixen)
TOSSUP 5: MISCELLANEOUS/TECHNOLOGY
Peter Gutmann published a paper about a cost analysis of content protection in this software product. The effect of negative perceptions of this software was measured when this software was rebranded as Mojave. A new feature in this software product operates under the principle of least privilege and prompts the administrator to perform certain actions; that feature is known as User Account Control. Originally codenamed Longhorn and released in 2007, name this predecessor to version 7 of an operating system produced by Microsoft.
ANSWER: Microsoft Windows Vista (prompt Vistaor Microsoft Windows; accept Windows Longhorn and prompt Longhorn before read; accept Windows Mojave and prompt Mojave before read)
BONUS 5: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
Answer the following about a master of surprise and three short stories he wrote.
This author's works include "Cabbages and Kings" and "The Princess and the Puma."
In this story, Jim and Della sacrifice their watch and hair for combs and a watch chain.
Bill and Sam kidnap Ebenezer Dorset's son in this story, but the plan backfires when they have to pay Dorset two hundred fifty dollars to take back his title son.
In this story, after Soapy fails in his plans to get arrested so he can have shelter for the winter, he reflects on amending his life--after which he is promptly arrested for loitering.
ANSWERS: 1. O. Henry (or William Sydney Porter) 2. "The Gift of the Magi" 3. "The Ransom of Red Chief" 4. "The Cop and the Anthem"
TOSSUP 6: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
One central figure in this movement wrote an anthology about a transformation to a "new psychology" and a "new spirit"; that work was written by Alain Locke. Another author of this movement penned "The Weary Blues" and wrote "A Dream Deferred," a poem alternately titled after the place central to this movement. Langston Hughes was part of what 1920s literary movement in African-American literature, named for the New York neighborhood central to it?
ANSWER: Harlem renaissance BONUS 6: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. Solve the following problems about angles in polygons, giving your answers in degrees.
What is the measure of each interior angle of a regular pentagon?
What is the measure of each exterior angle of a regular hexagon?
If a regular octagon is inscribed in a circle, and radii are drawn from the center of the circle to each vertex of the octagon, what is the measure of the acute angle between two consecutive radii?
What is the measure of the angle between the apothem of a regular decagon and the side it intersects?
TOSSUP 7: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Brian is spinning a fair wheel divided into four equal sections numbered one to four. He wants to find the probability that in three spins, he will land on a four at least once. You could list all sixty-four equal possibilities for three spins and determine which ones result in a four being spun, but it may be easier to compute the probability that no four is spun, and then subtract that probability from one to get the desired result. Using this or any other method, what is the probability that Brian will spin at least one four in three spins?
ANSWER: 37/64 or 0.578125 BONUS 7: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Answer the following about the Iran-Contra Scandal.
This president at the time suffered a great popularity drop due to the scandal.
This Marine Corps officer became the face of the conspiracy when he was questioned in front of a Congressional committee about destroying documents and lying to Congress.
This Secretary of Defense was also convicted, but later, he was pardoned without any jail time.
The Contras were mounting an insurgency in this Central American country.
ANSWERS: 1. Ronald Wilson Reagan 2. Oliver Laurence North 3. Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger 4. Republic of Nicaragua (or República de Nicaragua)
TOSSUP 8: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Prominent settlements in this civilization were Nippur and Ngirsu, the former of which arose during the Ubaid period. Fine pottery is characteristic of this civilization's earlier years, which then transitioned to unpainted pottery made by machines with wheels. Power shifted to the Lagash dynasty before they were taken over by a Semitic king. Eventually, population shifts to the north and reduced agricultural yields led to Amorite rule. Name this civilization brought to prominence by Sargon of Akkad, known as one of the first civilizations to inhabit the Cradle of Civilization.
BONUS 8: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
Identify these chemical bonds.
Atoms with equal electronegativities will form this specific type of bond, present in diatomic gases.
If the difference in electronegativity between two atoms is greater than zero but less than about 1.7, the atoms will form this type of bond, which creates a dipole moment.
If the electronegativity difference is larger than about 1.7, this bond will form, in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
This bond is characterized by the delocalization of electrons between the namesake elements, which results in an attraction between the "sea of electrons" and the positive nuclei of the atoms.
This building has architecture that evokes Solomon’s Temple of the Bible. Through the support of Pope Julius II, a certain painter covered 12,000 square feet of this building, even though the painter resented his employer. The aforementioned works were restored during the 1980s, with much controversy because critics claimed that the cleaning made the works far brighter than they ought to be. Frescoes in this building include The Last Judgment, and a decorated ceiling that includes the iconic representation of God giving life to Adam. Name this building whose ceiling was famously painted by Michelangelo.
ANSWER: Sistine Chapel (or Cappella Sistina)
BONUS 9: MATH/GENERAL MATH
Pencil and paper ready. Solve these problems about sums and products of integers.
How many integers n are there such that n plus n equals n times n?
What is the largest sum possible of two integers whose product is 60?
What is the largest product possible of two integers whose sum is 30?
The sum of the odd integers from 1 to 21 equals the product of what positive integer with itself?
ANSWERS: 1. 2 integers (0 and 2) 2. 61 3. 225 4. 11 TOSSUP 10: MATH/GENERAL MATH (10 seconds)
The extended real numbers are the real numbers combined with positive and negative versions of this entity, which comes in uncountable and countable varieties, including aleph null, the cardinality of the set of natural numbers. A sequence is said to converge if the limit of the terms a sub i as i approaches this entity is defined. Name this entity, symbolized by a sideways eight, that is contrasted with finite numbers.
ANSWER: infinity BONUS 10: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Answer these questions about the formation of the European Union.
This entity formed in 1952 is often considered the first incarnation of a European organization.
The European Economic Community and the entity in part 1 were both created these agreements, signed by six nations.
This treaty officially inaugurated the European Union.
The treaty in part 3 also called for the January 1999 adoption of this common currency in the namesake zone in the EU.
ANSWERS: 1. European Steel and Coal Community 2. Treaties of Rome 3. Treaty of Maastricht 4. euro TOSSUP 11: SCIENCE/ASTRONOMY
The tenth of these undertakings launched components named "Charlie Brown" and "Snoopy." AS-204, where Grissom, White, and Chaffee perished in a fire in a spacecraft filled with pure oxygen, later became the first of these. In one of these undertakings, a cryo-stir caused an explosion in oxygen tank two that required Lovell, Swigert, and Haise to occupy the lunar module as the spacecraft circled the moon for a return to earth; that mission was the thirteenth. Name this series of missions that sent Buzz Aldrin, Neil Armstrong, and other astronauts to the moon.
ANSWER: Apollo missions
BONUS 11: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Name the following artists of the 20th century.
This man forces those who view his artwork to question their conceptions of what they truly believe art to be. His first work, Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 caused quite a controversy while his piece Fountain provoked more of a reaction of confusion.
This Mexican communist was admired for both his paintings and his murals. One of his most famous murals entitled Detroit Industry can be viewed at the Detroit Institute of Arts
This woman was married to the answer to part two twice. Many of her paintings are self-portraits that include her very noticeable unibrow.
This surrealist painter now has his own museum in Brussels, opened after his death. He made such works as Time Transfixed that features a train exiting a fireplace and The Son of Man in which a man’s face is obscured by an apple.
ANSWERS: 1. Marcel Duchamp 2. Diego Rivera 3. Frida Kahlo 4. Rene Francois Ghislain Magritte TOSSUP 12: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
In one essay, this author uses the hopelessness of a son of Aeolus as a metaphor for the necessity of recognizing the absurdity of the human condition. He also wrote about Dr. Bernard Rieux's struggle to eradicate the title entity from Oran, Algeria, as well as a novel in which the protagonist kills an Arab and ultimately rejects religion for "the gentle indifference of the world"; that protagonist is Meursault. Name this French existentialist author of The Myth of Sisyphus, The Plague and The Stranger.
ANSWER: Albert Camus BONUS 12: MATH/ALGEBRA
Pencil and paper ready. Completely factor each of these expressions over the integers.
x squared minus 6 x plus 9
x squared minus x plus 12
x cubed minus 8
x to the fourth power minus 81
ANSWERS: 1. the quantity x minus 3 close quantity squared (or the quantity x minus 3 close quantity times the quantity x minus 3 close quantity) 2. the quantity x minus 4 close quantity times the quantity x plus 3 close quantity (accept quantities in either order) 3. the quantity x minus 2 close quantity times the quantity x squared plus 2 times x plus 4 (accept quantities in either order, accept "to the second power" in place of "squared") 4. the quantity x squared plus 9 close quantity times the quantity x minus 3 times the quantity x plus 3 (accept quantities in any order, accept "to the second power" in place of "squared")
TOSSUP 13: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
This author created Rosie Driffield, the wife of a character based on Thomas Hardy in one work, and he used the character of Charles Strickland to portray Paul Gauguin's life in Tahiti. In addition to Cakes and Ale and The Moon and Sixpence, he wrote a novel where Larry Darrell goes to India, and an autobiographical work describing the childhood of character Philip Carey. Name this author of The Razor's Edge and Of Human Bondage.
ANSWER: William Somerset Maugham BONUS 13: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
A certain group of composers gathered in Saint Petersburg, Russia from 1856 to 1870.
Give the "powerful" name of the group.
This composer wrote pieces many popular compositions, like Night on Bald Mountain, Boris Godunov, and the piano suite Pictures at an Exhibition.
This other member of the group wrote Scheherazade and The Golden Cockerel.
This leader of the group wrote a famous piece as incidental music for one of Shakespeare's plays.
ANSWERS: 1. The Mighty Handful (or The Russian Five) 2. Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky 3. Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov 4. Mily Balakirev TOSSUP 14: MATH/ALGEBRA (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. If f of x equals x squared plus 4 and g of x equals x plus 2, find g of f of 2.
BONUS 14: SOCIAL STUDIES/GOVERNMENT
Name the following positions in Congress. Do not give the name of a person holding that position.
The holder of this position may designate any member to preside over the legislative body, and this position's holder also oversees all officers of the House.
This largely ceremonial position has the responsibility of ruling on points of order, but it is more well-known for its high position on the presidential succession list, immediately after the position in part 1.
Article I, Section 3 of the Constitution makes the holder of this position President of the Senate, which allows this position's holder to cast tie-breaking votes.
Holders of this position, not mentioned in the Constitution, serve under the party leader and seek to line up party members on important issues and coordinate ideas.
ANSWERS: 1. Speaker of the House 2. President pro tempore 3. Vice-President of the United States 4. party whip TOSSUP 15: SOCIAL STUDIES/ECONOMICS
The amount of it in an economy can be quantified in three aggregates based on how accessible it is, known as M1, M2, and M3. The comparative values of ones of different countries were fixed under the Bretton Woods System. Three important qualities of one include being a store of value, a unit of account, and a medium of exchange. Historically put on the gold standard, name this alternative to barter that in the United States uses coins and dollar bills.
ANSWER: money or currency (accept clear-knowledge equivalents)
BONUS 15: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Answer the following about an old king of Britain created by Shakespeare.
Identify this title king of a Shakespeare play, who dies in a fit of insanity after seeing his dead daughter's body.
This youngest daughter speaks "nothing" of her love of the king, claiming that she "cannot heave / [Her] heart into [her] mouth." Ultimately, she is disowned.
After disagreeing with the king, this earl is banished. Later, he returns disguised as Caius.
ANSWERS: 1. King Lear 2. three daughters (or three pieces, etc.) 3. Cordelia 4. Earl of Kent TOSSUP 16: FINE ARTS/ART THEORY
One example of art forms in this country can be seen in the clay haniwa sculptures that were erected outside of tombs during the Tumulus period. Also around the same time in this country, massive mounds called Kofun were constructed as tombs for important government officials. Another form of art in this nation typically features an outdoor landscape as well as traditional characters. Name this nation where ukiyo-e-woodblock prints flourished during the Edo period.
ANSWER: Japan (or Nippon)
BONUS 16: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Answer the following about springs.
This law relates the force a spring exerts to the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium position.
In that law, the force equals minus the spring constant times the displacement raised to this power.
For a spring, this type of energy is given by one half times the spring constant times the displacement squared.
This term refers to a force that causes the amplitude of a spring's oscillations to decay over time.
ANSWERS: 1. Hooke's law of elasticity 2. first (or 1) 3. elastic potential energy (prompt potential energy) 4. damping TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT TOSSUP: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
These results can be derived from the fact that their governing force obeys the inverse-square law. One of them, known as the "law of harmonies," states that the square of the period of an object is proportional to the cube of the semimajor axis. Another of these laws states that a body will in equal amounts of time traverse equal areas of the elliptical path guaranteed by the first of these laws. Identify these laws that govern how objects orbit in a solar system.
ANSWER: Johannes Kepler's three laws of planetary motion (or Johannes Kepler's laws)
TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT BONUS: LITERATURE/MYTHOLOGY
Answer the following about the father of the gods and man in Norse myth.
This aforementioned figure sacrificed one of his eyes to Mimir for a drink from the Well of Wisdom.
The man in part 1 is constantly accompanied by two of this type of bird. Their names are Hugin and Munin, or in English, Thought and Memory.
All of the actions of the man in part 1 are in preparation for this event. It is an apocalyptic battle between the gods and the giants, in which everything will be destroyed.
This hall of the slain is the final resting place for the dead heroes who serve the man in part 1. Valkyries bring the heroes here, while the others who die in combat go to rest at Folkvangr.
ANSWERS: 1. Odin (or Wodin, or Wotan) 2. ravens 3. Ragnarok 4. Valhalla ***END OF MATCH*** WHEATON NORTH FROSH/SOPH 2010
Questions by Gregory Gauthier, Jonathan Irving, Jeff Sommars, Sam Krc, and Mike Perovanovic