This building was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007, the most recently built building to receive that title. The primary concert hall houses one of the largest organs in the world, with over 10,000 pipes. Built on the previous home of a tram depot, this waterfront art center was designed by Jorn Utzon who received the Pritzker Prize for it in 2003, thirty years after its completion. Name this complex for the performing arts, located on Bennelong Point in the most populous city in Australia.
ANSWER: Sydney Opera House
BONUS 1: MISCELLANEOUS/POP CULTURE
Answer the following questions about some cartoons.
This Nickelodeon title character is friends with Patrick Star and Squidward Tentacles, and he "lives in a pineapple under the sea" in Bikini Bottom.
Based on a DC Comics comic book series, this cartoon's characters included Robin, Starfire, Beast Boy, Raven, and Cyborg.
In 2009, this NFL team drafted cornerback Vontae Davis with the twenty-fifth pick, and this team signed Marcus Vick for the 2006 season. One of this team's star running backs temporarily retired in 2004 after failing a third drug test; that player was Ricky Williams, who plays with current running back, Ronnie Brown. In the 1972 season, this team, led by Don Shula, became the first NFL team to go undefeated and win a Super Bowl. From 1983 to 1999, Dan Marino was the quarterback of what NFL team based in south Florida?
ANSWER: MiamiDolphins (accept either half)
BONUS 2: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Answer the following about historical events relating to the Spanish-American War.
The explosion and possible mining of this ship was a major cause of hostilities, even though some historians argue it was an accident.
After the war began, Thomas Dewey led American naval forces to victory in this battle.
The battle around this Cuban city led to the destruction of the Spanish fleet and the end of the war.
The Battle of San Juan Hill was a major victory for this regiment, also known as the First United States Volunteer Cavalry, which famously included Theodore Roosevelt.
ANSWERS: 1. U. S. S. Maine 2. Battle of Manila Bay 3. Santiago 4. Rough Riders TOSSUP 3: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
This quantity equals the ideal gas constant divided by Boltzmann's constant. This quantity is also equal to the value of Faraday's constant divided by the charge of an electron. By definition, a twelve gram mass of carbon 12 will have this number of carbon atoms. Identify this quantity, the number of elementary units in one mole of a substance, approximately equal to 6.02 times ten to the twenty-third power.
ANSWER: Avogadro's number (or Avogadro's constant; prompt N-sub-a)
BONUS 3: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS
Pencil and paper ready. Mr. A, Mr. B, Mr. C, Mr. D, and Mr. E are being photographed.
If order matters, in how many different ways can the five gentlemen arrange themselves in a line for a photo?
The next picture will depict just two of the gentlemen. If order does not matter, in how many ways can two different gentlemen be chosen for that picture?
The next picture features all five men in a line, but Mr. A insists on standing next to Mr. E. In how many ways can the gentlemen arrange themselves?
The last picture will feature all five men in two rows: a front row with three men and a back row with two men. Mr. A not only insists on standing next to Mr. E, but also has to be in the same row as Mr. E. How many arrangements are possible now?
This work opens with a quote from chapter thirty-two of Deuteronomy: "Their foot shall slide in due time." One metaphor in this work is being held by a thread like a spider over a fire. The end of this work exhorts that "every one fly out of Sodom...lest [they] be consumed." The misery, fierceness, and everlasting wrath of God are themes in what 1741 sermon by Jonathan Edwards?
ANSWER: "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
BONUS 4: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
Name these composers who composed during some stage of the classical era.
This "Father of the String Quartet" as well as "Father of the Symphony" was a friend of Mozart and a teacher of Beethoven. He was well known for his musical jokes, such as in his 94th Symphony where he put a fortissimo dynamic suddenly after a long piano section allegedly in order to awaken his audience.
Though this Italian gained fame during his life for the pieces he wrote such as Les Danaides and Tarare, he is now rarely remembered for them. Most people only know this great composer as an alleged rival of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
This man primarily composed operas during the early classical period. His most famous was the piece Orfeo ed Euridice which sent opera in a new direction.
He lived only to the age of thirty-one, but in that short time he wrote more than 1000 pieces. This Austrian composer wrote nine symphonies, including a famously unfinished one.
ANSWERS: 1. Franz Joseph Haydn 2. Antonio Salieri 3. Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck 4. Franz Schubert TOSSUP 5: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Before a celebration honoring this character occurs, tribunes Flavius and Murellus criticize commoners for not working. At that celebration, this man refuses three times to be crowned. This character's wife, Calpurnia, and a soothsayer fail to convince this character not to go to the Senate. Name this title character killed by Brutus on the Ides of March in a Shakespeare tragedy.
ANSWER: Gaius JuliusCaesar (accept either half)
BONUS 5: SOCIAL STUDIES/GOVERNMENT
Identify the following Supreme Court decisions.
In this 1966 case, the appellant's conviction of rape and kidnapping was overturned because he was not informed of his now-namesake rights to remain silent and have an attorney.
This 1824 case established Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce.
This 1919 case stated that free speech could be suppressed if there is a "clear and present danger." Oliver Wendell Holmes used the analogy of shouting "Fire!" in a crowded theater in his opinion.
In 1965, the Supreme Court overturned a state law prohibiting contraception in this case.
ANSWERS: 1. Miranda v. Arizona (or Arizona v. Miranda) 2. Gibbons v. Ogden (or Ogden v. Gibbons) 3. Schenck v. United States (or United States v. Schenck) 4. Griswold v. Connecticut (or Connecticut v. Griswold)
TOSSUP 6: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Planets moving through this substance would cause this substance's "wind." The Lorentz contraction was originally proposed to explain the existence of this substance. The existence of this substance was disproven by an experiment that used an interferometer to split and rejoin light waves; that experiment was the Michelson-Morley experiment. Name this hypothetical substance, a medium for light to travel in.
ANSWER: luminiferous aether BONUS 6: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
Answer the following about Allen Ginsberg.
Name the 1950s US literary movement that Ginsberg was part of. Other figures in this movement include Gary Snyder and William S. Burroughs.
Name the poem where Ginsberg laments that he "saw the best minds of [his] generation destroyed by madness."
In what Ginsberg poem does the speaker think of Walt Whitman "poking among the meats in the refrigerator" in the title place?
Ginsberg was a contemporary and friend of what author of Big Sur and On the Road?
ANSWERS: 1. beat generation (or beat movement) 2. "Howl" 3. "A Supermarket in California" 4. Jack Kerouac TOSSUP 7: MATH/GENERAL MATH (10 seconds)
In this activity, patterns that move across the grid indefinitely are known as spaceships. Bill Gosper won a prize for showing that there are patterns in it that can grow infinitely by creating his glider gun. In this simulation, black cells with two or three black neighbors remain black, while white cells with exactly three black neighbors become black. Name this cellular automaton, a "game" created by John Conway.
ANSWER: Conway's game of life BONUS 7: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
Answer the following about domains in the classification of organisms.
This is the number of recognized domains of organisms.
This kingdom, consisting of multicellular heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls, is part of the Eukarya domain.
Organisms in the Eukarya domain are eukaryotes, which means that their cells contain this organelle, unlike prokaryotes.
This University of Illinois professor is credited with the creation of the domain system.
ANSWERS: 1. three domains 2. Animalia (or Metazoa) 3. nucleus 4. Carl Richard Woese
TOSSUP 8: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
One result of this event was that Neuchatel, Wallis, and Geneva were added to the Swiss cantons, which were guaranteed neutrality. This event saw the creation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The main leaders at this meeting were Hardenberg, Alexander I, Castlereagh, and Metternich. Name this meeting, lasting from 1814 to 1815, in which the "four great powers plus one" sought to create peace through a "balance of power" in post-Napoleonic Europe.
ANSWER: Congress of Vienna
BONUS 8: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Answer the following about a quantity that can be measured in meters per second squared.
Name this quantity that measures the instantaneous rate of change of velocity with respect to time.
The instantaneous rate of change of the quantity in part 1 with respect to time is this quantity.
The ratio of the net force applied to an object to the quantity in part 1 is this quantity.
If the quantity in part 1 is zero for a reference frame, then that reference frame is said to be this type of reference frame, where the laws of physics hold.
ANSWERS: 1. instantaneous acceleration 2. jerk (or jolt, or surge, or lurch) 3. mass 4. inertial reference frame
***HALF-TIME*** TOSSUP 9: SCIENCE/EARTH SCIENCE
Left-lateral and right-lateral are two subcategories of one variety of these entities that is characterized by sideways movement of the objects involved; that variety is called strike-slip. Compressional forces create reverse ones, while extensional forces produce normal ones by pulling the involved objects apart. Wasatch and Liquiñe-Ofqui are examples of what boundaries between tectonic plates, a major example of which is San Andreas?
ANSWER: fault (accept strike-slip fault before read)
BONUS 9: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. Solve the following circle problems.
What is the measure in degrees of an inscribed angle that subtends an arc of 120 degrees?
The angle between two radii is 80 degrees, and a tangent is drawn from the endpoints of each radius. At what angle, in degrees, will the tangents intersect?
What is the length of a radius of a circle, in centimeters, if it bisects an 8 centimeter chord and the distance from the point of intersection to the circle is 2 centimeters?
What is the exact area, in square inches, of a circle whose circumference is 4 inches?
ANSWERS: 1. 60 degrees 2. 100 degrees 3. 5 centimeters 4. 4 over pi square inches or inches squared (or divided by pi or the like)
TOSSUP 10: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
This event began when James Barron refused to allow Salisbury Pryce Humphreys to board his ship. This event took place near Norfolk, Virginia. The British ship Leopard then fired upon the American ship, whose surrender the Leopard refused. The American ship involved in this event was searched, and four sailors on the American ship were impressed. Name this event which galvanized the American public and was a major cause of the War of 1812.
ANSWER: USS Chesapeake incident (accept clear-knowledge answers including the word Chesapeake)
BONUS 10: LITERATURE/MYTHOLOGY
Name the people related to the Trojan War.
This Greek warrior was made nearly invulnerable by his mother who dipped him in the River Styx when he was young. He features prominently in the Iliad, where he is dishonored by Agamemnon and eventually dies.
This warrior also died in the Trojan War. He died having put on the armor of a much more prominent Myrmidon in order to save their ships. His death was honored by a set of athletic competitions, organized by a close personal friend.
This woman was married to Menelaus, however Aphrodite gave her to Paris after a heated debate between goddesses. She is said to have the face that launched a thousand ships.
In Greek, this woman’s name means “she who entangles men.” She was granted the gift of prophecy; however, soon after that she was cursed so that no one would ever believe her predictions.
ANSWERS: 1. Achilles 2. Patroclus 3. Helen of Troy 4. Cassandra TOSSUP 11: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
One method of creating these entities is parapatric, which requires a large land area to reduce effective gene flow. Other methods of creating these entities are distinguished by whether there is geographical separation into allopatric and sympatric types. This term is biologically defined as a group of organisms that can naturally produce viable offspring, and examples in Homo include erectus, habilis, and sapiens. Identify this taxonomic rank immediately below genus.
ANSWER: species (or speciation)
BONUS 11: SOCIAL STUDIES/GEOGRAPHY
Name the following nations in Southeast Asia.
This former fishing village, separated by the strait of Johar from Malaysia, became a trading hub for the British. It reverted quickly back to British control, and is successful despite its small size.
Phnom Penh is the largest city and capital in this country.
This country includes the ruins of Wat Chaiwatthanaram that a Burmese army eventually sacked. Despite recent instability and repeated military coups, it still maintains a constitutional monarchy led by Bhumibol Adulyadej.
ANSWERS: 1. Republic of Singapore 2. Republic of Indonesia (or Republik Indonesia) 3. Kingdom of Cambodia (or Preahreacheanachakr Kampuchea) 4. Kingdom of Thailand (or Ratcha Anachak Thai, or Prathet Thai)
TOSSUP 12: MATH/ALGEBRA (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Two number lines are put next to each other, one on top and one on the bottom. Each number line is drawn to constant scale, but the two lines have different scales. The number 0 on the top is directly opposite the number 50 on the bottom, while the number 100 on the top is directly opposite the number 250 on the bottom. Accordingly, what number on the bottom will be directly opposite the number 75 on the top?
ANSWER: 200 BONUS 12: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Answer the following about a detective created by Agatha Christie and three works in which he appears.
This Belgian detective often refers to using "the little grey cells" and "order and method" in his deduction.
In this work, the detective investigates the death of Mr. Ratchett on the title train.
In this work set in Egypt, the detective finds out that Jacqueline de Bellefort killed Linnet Doyle so that her husband, Simon, could get the money.
Named for a children's rhyme, this novel has the detective investigate the death of dentist Henry Morley.
ANSWERS: 1. HerculePoirot (accept either half) 2. Murder on the Orient Express 3. Death on the Nile 4. One, Two, Buckle My Shoe TOSSUP 13: FINE ARTS/MUSIC THEORY
It has been shown that this trait is more common among speakers of tonal languages like Cantonese or Mandarin than it is among Europeans. Though scientists have studied people with this ability, they have not been able to detect a major difference in the auditory system of a person with this skill compared to the general population. It is known that Wolfgang Mozart had this skill since age three, and Beethoven likely had it though it is not known. Name this skill that refers to the ability to recreate a note without any external help.
Answer the following about how electrons are assigned to orbitals.
This principle states that no two electrons can share the same quadruplet of quantum numbers.
According to this principle, the structure of electrons in an atom "builds up" as each electron is assigned to the lowest available energy sublevel.
This rule states that if a sublevel is partially filled, then electrons should be spread out among the orbitals in that sublevel as evenly as possible.
After potassium and calcium fill the 4s orbital, this sublevel is filled next in the first period of transition metals.
ANSWERS: 1. Pauli exclusion principle 2. aufbau principle 3. Hund's rule 4. 3d TOSSUP 14: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
One character in this work is the "mighty Mahmud." One passage in this work mentions the "Sev'n-ring'd Cup" of Jamshyd. A famous English translation of this work was made in 1859 by Edward Fitzgerald. That translation includes the line "A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread-and Thou / Beside me singing in the Wilderness." Name this collection of quatrains attributed to Persian poet Omar Khayyam.
ANSWER: The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam BONUS 14: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Name these Mesoamerican civilizations.
This empire, containing the strong city-state of Culhuacan, was led by an eagle perched on a cactus to build their capital, Tenochtitlan, in the place now occupied by Mexico City.
This civilization, originally centered at San Lorenzo, flourished from 1400 to 400 BC before disappearing, but not before leaving behind large stone heads.
Ajawils were the small states in this civilization, the only one to develop a fully-written language in Mesoamerica. Their descendants form a large ethnic group centered around the Yucutan peninsula.
Although this group's existence is disputed, if they did exist, this civilization was centered around Tula and was known for expressive pottery and art.
ANSWERS: 1. Aztec 2. Olmec 3. Mayan 4. Toltec
TOSSUP 15: SOCIAL STUDIES/RELIGION
This figure is often represented dancing the Tandava upon the demon of ignorance, Maya. Attributes of this figure include a third eye, a crescent moon on his head, and a blue throat. He has five mantras and five faces. A famous depiction of this figure is as the "Lord of the Dance," or Nataraja. Name this member of the Trimurti of Hinduiusm, who is often depicted with four arms as he starts the dance to destroy the world.
ANSWER: Shiva (or Siva, or Rudra)
BONUS 15: MATH/ALGEBRA
Pencil and paper ready. Answer the following questions about logarithms.
What is the logarithm base 4 of 16?
What is the inverse function of f of x equals the common logarithm of x?
If a number is multiplied by a power of a real number b greater than 1, the integer portion of the logarithm base b of that number will change. What is the name for the decimal portion of the logarithm that will not change?
Express the logarithm of 5 base 3 as a quotient of two natural logarithms.
ANSWERS: 1. 2 2. f inverse of x equals (or y equals) 10 raised to the xth power 3. mantissa 4. the natural logarithm base e of 5divided by (or over) the natural logarithm base e of 3 (accept ln in place of natural logarithm)
TOSSUP 16: MATH/ALGEBRA (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Find the number of positive integers n that satisfy the following inequality: 12 is less than 72 minus 5 n.
ANSWER: 11 BONUS 16: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Name these Renaissance artists.
This Florence native painted in the style of the Florentine school. His most noteworthy works were The Birth of Venus, and Primavera, which features Mercury, the three graces, and Venus, among other figures.
This artist was born with the name Tiziano Vecelli but was better known by another name. He primarily painted portraits, and in these pieces he used color in fresh ways. Pieces he painted include the Pesaro Altarpiece and Venus of Urbino.
This early Renaissance artist primarily gained fame as a sculptor. He worked with Filippo Brunelesschi doing excavations, but later he sculpted his masterpiece David. This David features David standing with his weight on one leg while his opposite hand rests on his hip.
This painter died at the young age of 37, although he had already completed many great works. One of his works includes over twenty academics in conversation in Athens.
ANSWERS: 1. Sandro Botticelli 2.Titian 3. Donatello di Niccolò di Betto Bardi 4. Raphael Sanzio da Urbino
TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT TOSSUP: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Trapezoid ABCD has bases AB and CD. Point E is the midpoint of AD, and point F is the midpoint of BC. Find the length of segment EF, in meters, if the length of AB is six meters and the length of CD is ten meters.
ANSWER: 8 meters
TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT BONUS: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
Identify these Greek plays.
In this Sophocles play, the title character kills his father Laius and marries his mother Jocasta, and ultimately he blinds himself at the end of the play.
This Aristophanes play pans the Sophists and their leader Socrates, who appears as a character, along with Strepsiades and Phidippides.
In this Euripides play, Jason leaves the title character for the Princess of Corinth. In revenge, the title character kills the princess and her sons.
This Aeschylus play is about a battle between groups led by Polynices and Eteocles.
ANSWERS: 1. Oedipus the King (or Oedipus Rex or Oidipous Tyrannos) 2. The Clouds (or Nephelai) 3. Medea (or Medeia) 4. Seven Against Thebes (or Hepta epi Thebas)
***END OF MATCH*** WHEATON NORTH FROSH/SOPH 2010