This work was nominated for the Tony Award of Best Musical in 1957, but it lost to The Music Man. Arthur Laurents, writer of the book, believed that the story was too tragic, so he felt the need to add comic relief in the character of Officer Krupke. The majority of the other characters in the musical fall into one of two groups, either the Sharks, or the Jets. Containing songs like "America," "Maria," and "One Hand, One Heart," name this work by Leonard Bernstein, a modern day adaptation of Romeo and Juliet.
This longest bone in the human body is found in the upper leg.
Known as the kneecap, this bone increases the leverage at the knee joint.
This shin bone, like the fibula, is found in the lower leg.
Known as the tail bone, this bone at the bottom of the vertebral column is a vestigial structure.
ANSWERS: 1. femur 2. patella 3. tibia 4. coccyx TOSSUP 2: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
This President ordered Douglas Macarthur's army in Washington to clear the Bonus Army. Previously, his endorsement of Warren Harding resulted in his appointment as Secretary of Commerce. His later "Southern Strategy" alienated African-American leaders who then turned to the Democrats for support. His administration saw passage of the highest tariff in American history, the Hawley-Smoot tariff. Name this President who overwhelmingly defeated Al Smith in the 1928 election but lost to FDR in 1932 due to unpopularity caused by the Great Depression.
ANSWER: Herbert Clark Hoover BONUS 2: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Name these museums.
This museum of art and culture was founded in 1764 by Catherine the Great, and is located in Saint Petersburg, Russia. It contains a notable collection of Egyptian antiquities.
This museum has multiple buildings, one of which is a massive glass pyramid while another is a much older palace. Pieces included in this famous French museum include Liberty Leading The People, the Venus de Milo, and the Mona Lisa.
This museum and art gallery in Madrid features primarily European art of the last millennia. Las Meninas, painted by Diego Velázquez, is the most famous work in the museum.
This art museum located on the edge of Central Park has a collection of more than two million works of art. It contains many pieces by American painters such as George Caleb Bingham, Winslow Homer, Thomas Eakins, and James Whistler.
ANSWERS: 1. The State Hermitage Museum 2. The Musee du Louvre 3. El Museo del Prado 4.The Metropolitan Museum of Art (prompt on Met)
TOSSUP 3: SCIENCE/EARTH SCIENCE
One method of measuring this quantity is with a psychrometer, a device that requires dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperature readings. The dewpoint is the temperature at which this quantity reaches its maximum. Temperature and this quantity are the two variables in computing the heat index. Name this weather quantity, often expressed as a percentage, that is the ratio of the pressure of water vapor to that pressure in saturated air, a measure of how much water vapor is in the atmosphere.
ANSWER: relative humidity BONUS 3: MISCELLANEOUS/POP CULTURE
Name these musical works by the late Michael Jackson.
This 1982 album featured "Beat It" and "Billie Jean" as well as the title song, and it became the world's best-selling album in 1984.
This song was the second track on this album Bad and reached number 1 on Billboard's Hot 100. After the title line, the speaker states that "you really turn me on" and "you knock me off my feet."
Released in 2001, this was Michael Jackson's last studio album.
As part of the Jackson Five, Michael Jackson sang the lead vocals in this 1970 song in which the speaker makes the title promise "where there is love."
ANSWERS: 1. Thriller 2. "The Way You Make Me Feel" 3. Invincible 4. "I'll Be There"
TOSSUP 4: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
For a substance having this property, the terms enantiotropic and monotropic are used to state whether one form of that substance is more stable than the others under all conditions. Phosphorus has this property because it can occur in either a volatile white form or a more stable red form. Name this property of an element that allows it to exist in two different forms with different physical properties, such as carbon being in graphite, coal, and diamond.
ANSWER: allotropy (accept word forms)
BONUS 4: SOCIAL STUDIES/ECONOMICS
Identify these historical schools of economics.
This school of the 16th through 18th centuries, whose advocates included Jean Baptiste Colbert, advocated production and accumulation of silver and gold, as well as a positive balance of trade.
That philosophy was replaced in the late 18th century by this philosophy that emphasized free markets and limited regulation.
Named for the British economist who wrote General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money, this school encourages the use of government action to strengthen demand in a recession.
This economic school, whose proponents included Arthur Laffer and Milton Friedman, advocated lower taxes to stimulate private sector growth.
ANSWERS: 1. mercantilism 2. laissez-faire economics 3. Keynesian economics (or John Maynard Keynes) 4. supply-side economics (prompt on voodoo economics)
TOSSUP 5: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
One of this poet's early works is prefaced by notes by "E.K." and contains twelve poems about the title characters, one for each month. In addition to The Shepheardes Calender, he wrote a more famous work in his namesake stanza, that has the Knight of Temperance as well as the Knight of Chastity, which begins with the Redcross Knight slaying a dragon to free Una before being recalled to serve the title character, Gloriana. Name this author of The Faerie Queene.
ANSWER: Edmund Spenser BONUS 5: SOCIAL STUDIES/GOVERNMENT
Identify the following abilities of the President.
If a bill arrives at the President's desk and there are less than 10 days left in the Congressional session, the President can refuse to sign it, resulting in this.
When the President enters into an arrangement with a foreign power that is not ratified as a treaty, that arrangement is known by this name.
An important part of the separation of powers doctrine is this principle allowing the executive branch to resist demands for information or subpoenas. The Supreme Court case U.S. v. Nixon limited the application of this principle.
Although their constitutionality is questionable, these presidential decrees including the decision to intern Japanese-Americans and committing troops to Kosovo in 1999.
In "The Destruction of Sennacherib," the Assyrian's cohorts are "gleaming in purple and" this color. Because the Prince of Morocco selects a chest of this color, he loses the opportunity to marry a wealthy woman in a Shakespeare play. An 1896 speech protesting the accumulation of wealth by William Jennings Bryan was titled "Cross of" this color. One half the quantity one plus root five is known as this color ratio. Name this color that also identifies the philosophical maxim "do unto others as you would have others do unto you."
ANSWER: gold (or golden)
BONUS 6: MATH/ALGEBRA
Pencil and paper ready. Consider the quadratic expression x squared plus 17 x plus 70.
What is the expression's leading coefficient?
What are the two roots of the expression?
What is the value of the expression's discriminant?
At what value of x will the expression attain its minimum value?
ANSWERS: 1. 1 2. negative 7 and negative 10 (must have both in either order, accept minus in place of plus) 3. 9 4. -8 1/2 (or -17/2 or -8.5)
TOSSUP 7: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. In a Cartesian plane, point A has coordinates 0 comma 0 and point B has coordinates 6 comma 8. Find the coordinates of point C given by the following construction: draw circles of radius 10 with centers A and B, connect A and B by a line, connect the points of intersection of the circles with another line, and let point C be the intersection of those two lines. The construction created a line that was a perpendicular bisector to segment AB; thus, C is the midpoint of segment AB. Find the coordinates of point C.
Answer these questions about early American poets and poetry.
This man penned lyrics to the tune of "Anacreon in Heaven" titled "Defence of Fort M'Henry"; those lyrics later became our national anthem.
This prominent female poet penned "To My Dear and Loving Husband" and collected her poems in The Tenth Muse, Lately Sprung up in America.
This slave praised George III's repeal of the Stamp Act in "To the King's Most Excellent Majesty."
This poet wrote a poem "to him who in the love of nature holds / Communion with her visible forms" titled "Thanatopsis," in addition to "To a Waterfowl."
ANSWERS: 1. Francis Scott Key 2. Anne Bradstreet 3. Phyllis Wheatley 4. William Cullen Bryant TOSSUP 8: MATH/ALGEBRA (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Solve the following linear system of two equations in two variables. The first equation is x plus 2y equals 11, and the second equation is 2x minus y equals 7.
ANSWER: x equals 5 and y equals 3 (accept as ordered pair open parenthesis 5 comma 3 close parenthesis)
BONUS 8: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
Answer the following about Jorge Luis Borges.
Most of Borges' work was originally published in this language.
Borges was an author from this country. His story "El Sur" is set in Buenos Aires in this country.
This object is a motif of Borges' work and titles a collection of Borges stories. An Octavio Paz collection of essays is titled this "of Solitude," while a García Marquez novel is titled "The General in His" one of these objects.
In this Borges story, German spy Yu Tsun kills Dr. Stephen Albert to divulge the location of British artiller. Albert had been working on reconstructing the title novel.
ANSWERS: 1. Spanish (or español) 2. Argentina 3. labyrinths 4. "The Garden of Forking Paths" (or "El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan")
***HALF-TIME*** TOSSUP 9: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS (10 seconds)
The original formulation of this problem was created in 1959 by Marvin Gardner and involved three prisoners and a warden, who knew which of the three prisoners was to be executed. In 1990, Marilyn vos Savant published the correct solution to this problem, which states that by switching doors after a goat has been revealed, the probability of winning a car increases from one third to two thirds. Name this probability problem based on a hypothetical situation from Let's Make a Deal.
ANSWER: Monty Hall problem (accept equivalents for problem, accept Three Prisoners problem before "prisoners" is read)
BONUS 9: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Answer the following about annexation treaties that added area to the United States.
The United States acquired this territory of over five hundred thousand square miles in 1867 in a treaty that became known as "Seward's Folly."
This treaty known as "Venta de La Mesilla" was signed into effect by Franklin Pierce and approved by the US Senate in 1854. It gave the United States parts of the modern states of Arizona and New Mexico.
This treaty that gave the US lots of land in the West in exchange for fifteen million dollars ended the Mexican-American War.
This 1846 treaty was negotiated by Secretary of State James Buchanan and British Envoy Richard Pakenham. It ended a border dispute from the earlier Treaty of 1818.
This god is red haired and bearded. His nemesis is a massive snake that he met when he accidentally caught it on a fishing trip. In the last battle, this god will fight and kill the Midgard snake with his father, though the snake will kill him as well. When fighting the snake, likely he will use his short-handled hammer named Mjollnir that magically returns to its owner after being thrown as well as being endowed with the power to shoot lightning bolts. Name this Norse god of thunder.
ANSWER: Thor BONUS 10: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
Answer the following about works by composer Ralph Vaughan Williams.
His third symphony is better known under this title. It shares this name with a more famous work, Beethoven’s sixth symphony.
Vaughan Williams also wrote a fantasia on this traditional folk song. The hymn "What Child Is This" shares the same tune as the original song.
His second symphony shares this name with Joseph Haydn’s final symphony. It also is the name of the most populous city in Vaughan Williams’ home country.
Vaughan Williams' best-known orchestral piece, this piece that draws its main melody from a sixteenth century English composer who is credited for this in the title.
ANSWERS: 1. A PastoralSymphony 2. Fantasia on Greensleeves 3. A London Symphony 4. Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis, (or Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis, or Tallis Fantasia)
TOSSUP 11: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
Mechanisms that enable this ability usually involve negative feedback. The "plateau" named for this ability consists of the conditions under which life can be sustained. One example of this ability is that the human body's temperature is usually 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Name this ability for a living organism to maintain stable living conditions in its environment.
ANSWER: homeostasis BONUS 11: MATH/GENERAL MATH
Pencil and paper ready. Answer the following questions about vectors.
What is the vector sum of the vectors 2 comma 3 and 4 comma negative 1?
What is the magnitude of the vector 2 comma 3?
What is the dot product of the vectors 2 comma 3 and 4 comma negative 1?
What is the magnitude of the cross product of the vectors 2 comma 3 comma 0 and 4 comma negative 1 comma 0?
ANSWERS: 1. the vector 6 comma 2 2. the square root of 13 3. 5 4. 14 TOSSUP 12: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
In one minor scene in this novel, the narrator fills old cars with sawdust; that scene is part of one of the fifteen intercalary chapters in this work. Chapter six introduces the neighbor who refuses to move with his family, Muley Graves. The death of Jim Casy and the final scene where Rose of Sharon nurses a dying man are in what novel where the Joad family moves from Oklahoma to California, a work by John Steinbeck?
ANSWER: The Grapes of Wrath BONUS 12: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
Answer the following about how substances dissolved in a solution can affect that solution's properties.
This is the term for any substance dissolved in a solution.
When a reagent is dissolved in a solution, this physical property increases. It is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a substance equals the atmospheric pressure.
This is the collective term for the property mentioned in part 2, in addition to freezing point depression because they depend of the concentration of dissolved substances rather than their identity.
This law states that the vapor pressure of a solution equals the vapor pressure of the solvent times the mole fraction of dissolved reagent.
ANSWERS: 1. solute 2. boiling point (or boiling point elevation) 3. colligative properties 4. Raoult's Law
TOSSUP 13: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Two answers required. The delta baryons are composed of these two particles, which are the only ones that can decay to each other via W particles. Name these constituents of the neutron and the proton, that do not affect the strangeness, charmness, topness, and bottomness numbers, and are the two lightest flavors of quarks.
ANSWER: up and down flavors of quarks (accept in either order)
BONUS 13: LITERATURE/MYTHOLOGY
Name the following characters from Greek mythology.
This titan was the son of Iapetus and the Oceanid Asia. After losing in the war between the titans and the Olympians, Zeus sentenced him to stand on the edge of Gaia and hold up Ouranos, to prevent the two from rejoining.
This son of Zeus was the god of poetry, games, healing and prophecy. He is the only major god to have the same name in Greece and Rome.
This woman proved that it is never a good idea to beat Athena in a contest and boast about it. She beat her in a weaving competition, and as a result she was turned into a spider.
This female deity was born of Cronus. This beautiful Goddess was an unfaithful wife to Hephaestus, who was not the father of her son Eros.
ANSWERS: 1. Atlas (or Telamon) 2. Apollo 3. Arachne 4. Aphrodite TOSSUP 14: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
This sculpture was originally meant to depict Dante sitting in front of the gates of hell, considering his epic poem. It is because of this that the statue was originally named The Poet rather than this more common name. This work has been often parodied by having a man pose seated with his right elbow resting on his left knee. Name this work that depicts a nude man in deep meditation made by Auguste Rodin.
ANSWER: The Thinker (or Le Penseur)
BONUS 14: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. Answer the following about geometric constructions.
These two objects are the only tools allowed to be used in a geometric construction.
Euclid's first proposition in The Elements is to construct this specific figure on a given line segment AB by using that segment as the radius of two circles centered at A and B and finding the intersection.
The last construction in the first book of The Elements is of this shape, which is used in Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean theorem.
One construction that is impossible to perform is this construction, because it requires constructing a segment whose length is the square root of pi. The Indiana pi bill implicitly redefined pi in an alleged method of performing this construction.
ANSWERS: 1. unmarked straightedge and (collapsible) compass (accept either order, accept unmarked ruler in place of straightedge but do not accept an unclarified answer of "ruler") 2. equilateral triangle 3. square 4. squaring the circle (or constructing a square whose area is equal to that of a given circle or equivalents)
TOSSUP 15: SOCIAL STUDIES/PHILOSOPHY
This thinker added an essay titled "An Attempt at Self-Criticism" to his first work, which he published fourteen years earlier. This author of The Birth of Tragedy, Out of the Spirit of Music also critiqued Christianity in On the Genealogy of Morals, a follow-up to a work this thinker wrote four years after The Gay Science, Beyond Good and Evil. Name this German thinker who created the idea of a "superman," the author of Thus Spoke Zarathustra who famously declared "God is dead."
ANSWER: Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche BONUS 15: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Answer the following about an author of a collection of short pieces, Juvenilia, and three of her works.
In this work, Elizabeth Bennet ultimately marries Mr. Darcy.
This first novel of that author revolves around the daughters Elinor, Marianne, and Margaret Dashwood.
The Allens invite 17-year-old Catherine Morland to Bath at the start of this posthumous novel of hers.
ANSWERS: 1. Jane Austen 2. Pride and Prejudice 3. Sense and Sensibility 4. Northanger Abbey TOSSUP 16: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
This man gained importance after the suicide of his cousin Crown Prince Rudolf and his father's subsequent passing of the succession rights. His attempts to marry Sophie Chotek were met with great resistance due to her lack of a proper royal lineage. He eventually persuaded his father to allow the marriage, but his children would not be allowed to become successors to the throne. This man is most remembered for an event occurring on June 28, 1914, in Sarajevo. Name this son of Franz Joseph, who survived one assassination attempt that day, only to fall to the bullets of Gavrilo Princip.
ANSWER: Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria
BONUS 16: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Answer the following about voltage in circuits.
This law states that voltage is the product of current and resistance.
The sum of the potential changes around a closed circuit must equal zero according to this scientist's second law.
Despite its name, this term for the voltage a battery generates is not actually a force.
This circuit component with variable resistance is often used as a voltage divider.
ANSWERS: 1. Ohm's Law 2. Gustav Robert Kirchhoff 3. electromotive force (or emf) 4. potentiometer
TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT TOSSUP: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Find the number of distinguishable permutations of all the letters of the word squeegee, spelled S-Q-U-E-E-G-E-E. Since squeegee has four e's, you'll have to divide the number of ways to arrange all eight letters by the number of ways to arrange the four e's. If you simplify that expression, you can determine that the answer must be eight factorial over four factorial.
ANSWER: 1680 distinguishable permutations (or arrangements or the like)
TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT BONUS: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Name these figures in Latin and South American independence movements.
This "father" of South American independence helped found "Gran Columbia," and he was known as "The Liberator."
He fought on the side of the Spanish against the French at the Battle of Bailen, but turned against Spain, capturing Lima and intending to liberate Peru. Later, he returned to his native Argentina.
Considered a founding father of Chile, this leader of Irish and Basque descent survived the Battle of Rancagua and was installed as Supreme Dictator of Chile.
This priest led the Mexicans in rebellion against the Spanish, which started with a speech known as the "Grito de Dolores" where he called for an uprising that would remain true to the Catholic faith.
ANSWERS: 1. Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios y Blanco 2. José Francisco de San Martín Matorras 3. Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme 4. Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo y Costilla y Gallaga Mondarte Villaseñor
***END OF MATCH*** WHEATON NORTH FROSH/SOPH 2010
Questions by Gregory Gauthier, Jonathan Irving, Jeff Sommars, Sam Krc, and Mike Perovanovic