One explanation for this feature's origin involves the disconnection of two neighboring seas thousands of years ago, resulting in the formation of the New Euxine Lake at one end of this waterway. Two bridges cross this waterway, including the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge, named for the man who conquered a city on the shores of this waterway in 1453. That city was known then as Constantinople but is now the most populous city in Turkey, Istanbul. Name this waterway, separating the Black Sea from the Sea of Marmara, a companion to the Dardanelles.
ANSWER: Bosporus Strait (or Bosphorus Strait; accept Istanbul Strait until "Istanbul" is read)
BONUS 1: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. There are two parallel lines running from left to right. The upper line has points in the order A, B, C from left to right, while the lower line has points in the order D, E, F from left to right. A vertical transversal intersects the two lines at B and E, and the order of four points on the transversal from top to bottom is G, B, E, H. Identify the following pairs of angles that are formed.
Angles ABE and BEF will be equal because they form this type of angle pair.
Angles ABG and HEF will be equal because they form this type of angle pair.
Angles ABE and DEH will be equal because they form this type of angle pair.
Angles ABE and BED will be complementary because they form this type of angle pair.
An acid's pKa can be computed by taking the volume of reagent added at the point of inflection of the curve of this process, dividing by two, and finding the corresponding pH. That point of inflection in the curve used in this process is this process's equivalence point. The endpoint of this process is where the indicator used in this process changes colors. Name this process where an acid is reacted with increasing amounts of a base to determine its concentration.
BONUS 2: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS
Pencil and paper ready. A random variable x is sampled from a continuous normal distribution with mean seventy and standard deviation ten.
What is the median of this distribution?
To the nearest percent, what is the probability that x will be between sixty and eighty?
If a certain x sampled from this distribution has a z-score of 2.5, what is the value of x?
After this novel's protagonist enrolls in the Ilium School of Optometry, he finds himself fighting in the Battle of the Bulge, where he is subsequently captured. Later, that protagonist is kidnapped by the Tralfamadorians and forced to marry actress Montana Wildhack. There, the novel’s protagonist discovers he is "unstuck in time." Name this 1969 novel about time traveler Billy Pilgrim, written by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.
ANSWER: Slaughterhouse-Five, or The Children's Crusade: A Duty-Dance With Death BONUS 3: MISCELLANEOUS/POP CULTURE
Identify these actors from films in the 2000s.
This actor starred as Del Spooner in I, Robot and Robert Neville in I Am Legend.
This actor starred in Brokeback Mountain and played the Joker in The Dark Knight, which premiered after his death in January 2008.
He won Best Actor for playing the title role in the 2004 film Ray.
He won Best Actor twice in the 2000s for his roles in Mystic River and Milk.
ANSWERS: 1. Willard Christopher "Will" Smith, Jr. 2. Heath Andrew Ledger 3. Jamie Foxx (or Eric Marlon Bishop) 4. Sean Justin Penn TOSSUP 4: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
The entity gaining power during this period gained decisive control at the battle of Hakodate, which occurred in the Boshin War, in which Yoshinobu sought to avoid losing power in this period. In this period, a legal code resembling those of France and Germany was adopted, and this period also saw creation of the Diet. Name this period, beginning in 1868, that ended the Tokugawa shogunate and saw industrialization and the end of isolationism in Japan.
ANSWER: Meiji restoration (accept words like "revolution" or other clear-knowledge equivalents in place of "restoration")
BONUS 4: FINE ARTS/JAZZ
Answer the following questions related to jazz.
Around the turn of the twentieth century, this predecessor of jazz began to develop. It is a very syncopated type of dance music, and one of its most famous composers is Scott Joplin.
By the 1930s, jazz had further developed into this genre, which features a strong rhythmic pattern as well as a large brass section. Benny Goodman was one of the first bandleaders for this type of dance music.
This instrument features prominently in much jazz music as well as band music in general. Musicians well known for playing it include Dizzy Gillespie, Don Ellis and Wynton Marsalis.
This piece opens famously with a clarinet glissando covering more than two octaves. It was originally written by George Gershwin for solo piano and jazz band.
ANSWERS: 1. ragtime 2. swing 3. trumpet 4. Rhapsody in Blue TOSSUP 5: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
This artist started his career as an apprentice to Verrocchio, with whom he created The Baptism of Christ. Shortly after this, he built a silver lyre, and was sent by Lorenzo de' Medici to give the lyre as a peace offering to the Duke of Milan. He kept extensive journals of all of his ideas, though they are written backwards. Name this Renaissance artist who made a famous painting of Jesus and the twelve apostles as well as a portrait of Lisa del Giocondo in works titled The Last Supper and Mona Lisa.
ANSWER: Leonardoda Vinci (accept either underlined portion)
BONUS 5: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
Identify a certain country and three authors from that country.
Name this country, whose policy of apartheid was criticized in Ah, but Your Land Is Beautiful, written by one of this country's authors.
This author of Ah, but Your Land Is Beautiful also told of how Absalom Kumalo moved to Johannesburg and murdered Arthur Jarvis in Cry, the Beloved Country.
In the early 1800s, this English scientist who formulated the law of partial pressures theorized that different elements have different atomic masses.
This scientist's gold foil experiment showed that the nucleus of an atom is small and positively charged.
The gold foil experiment falsified this theory in which the atom consists of negative charges in a sea of positive charge.
ANSWERS: 1. Democritus of Abdera 2. John Dalton 3. Ernest Rutherford 4. plum pudding model/theory
TOSSUP 7: SCIENCE/ASTRONOMY
One of these objects is covered with an ocean whose icy surface is cracked because of massive tides. Another one of these objects was first passed by Pioneer 10 and 11, and has a sulfur dioxide atmosphere. Another one of these entities is the largest moon in our solar system. Callisto is one of the Galilean ones, like Europa, Io and Ganymede. Identify these moons that orbit our solar system's largest planet.
ANSWER: Galilean moons/satellites of Jupiter (accept Galilean moons of Jupiter before read; prompt on moons/satellites in the Solar System before "moon" is read)
BONUS 7: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Name the following nonfiction writers from the 17th and 18th centuries.
This author contributed to the development of the scientific method with his 1620 work Novum Organum.
This author became a forerunner to modern historians when he published his seminal Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
He argued that the life of man was "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short" without the central government he advocates in his Leviathan.
This author is best known for a 1653 work on fly fishing, The Compleat Angler.
ANSWERS: 1. Sir Francis Bacon 2. Edward Gibbon 3. Thomas Hobbes of Malmsbury 4. Izaak Walton TOSSUP 8: MISCELLANEOUS/INTERDISCIPLINARY
In 1871, a populist government led by Louis Auguste Blanqui was established in this city, known as this city's "commune." It's not located in England, but this city is mentioned in the title of George Orwell's first full-length work about his own experiences in poverty: Down and Out in this city and London. This city shares its name with the mythological figure who killed Achilles with an arrow to the heel. Divided into twenty arrondisements, this city is the capital of a country that had a regime in World War II centered in Vichy. Name this city on the river Seine that is the most populous city in France.
ANSWER: Paris, France (accept Paris commune)
BONUS 8: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Name these European explorers.
This explorer, who looked for the Northwest Passage, found both a large bay in Canada and the river who mouth is in New York City, which are both named after him.
This Spanish explorer discovered Florida while searching for the Fountain of Youth.
This Portuguese explorer died in the Philippines while making his circumnavigation attempt from 1519 to 1521.
This sixteenth century Spanish explorer was the first European to discover the Mississippi River.
ANSWERS: 1. Henry Hudson 2. Juan Ponce de León y Figueroa 3. Ferdinand Magellan 4. Hernando de Soto ***HALF-TIME*** TOSSUP 9: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
This composer was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Breslau, and since he did not want to go to Poland to accept the degree, he decided to write the piece Academic Festival Overture for them to express his gratitude. He intentionally chose never to write an opera because he preferred to write music without any explicit setting. Other well-known pieces of his include the Tragic Overture, and a set of 21 dance pieces, based primarily on Hungarian themes. Name this composer of A German Requiem and a famous lullaby.
Answer the following about a phenotypical equilibrium and how it may fail to be achieved.
This doubly-eponymous law states that, under certain equilibrium conditions, the allele and genotypic frequencies remain constant and can be computed using algebra.
One way that the equilibrium may not occur is if some phenotypes are better able to reproduce than others, a phenomenon known by this name.
Another way that the equilibrium may fail is if this movement between populations occurs.
This is the phenomenon in which a small population size allows for large random variations from the expected allele frequency.
ANSWERS: 1. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (or Hardy-Weinberg law or Hardy-Weinberg principle) 2. natural selection 3. migration (or emigration and/or immigration) 4. genetic drift TOSSUP 10: SOCIAL STUDIES/RELIGION
In this religion's creation myth, the two creator deities stand atop a "floating bridge of the heavens" and thrust a spear into the ocean to create the first island. There are said to be eight million spirits in this religion. The central figure in this religion's pantheon is a daughter of Izanagi and brother of Susanoo. That deity is the sun-goddess Amaterasu. Name this traditional belief system that values "spiritual essences" called kami, still practiced by many residents of Japan.
ANSWER: Shintoism (or Kami-no-michi)
BONUS 10: MATH/GENERAL MATH
Answer the following questions from graph theory.
In an undirected graph, these entities connect pairs of vertices.
In an undirected graph, the number of the entities in part 1 that adjoin a particular vertex is this quantity of a vertex.
This is the term for an undirected graph where two vertices are connected to each other by an entity in part 1 at most once and no vertex is connected to itself.
This is the term for a directed graph where every pair of vertices is connected by a single arc going from one vertex to the other.
This set does not contain the number zero, but it can be constructed using the Peano axioms, which guarantee that every member of this set has a unique successor. This set obeys the well-ordering principle, which states that any nonempty subset of this set has a least element. The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic guarantees that every member of this set greater than 1 has a unique prime factorization. The cardinality of any finite nonempty set is an element of this set, which can be generated by starting with 1 and adding 1 repeatedly. Name this set of numbers that begins 1, 2, 3 and so on.
ANSWER: natural numbers (or N or positive integers or Z+; do not accept integers or nonnegative integers or whole numbers or Z)
BONUS 11: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Answer the following about the impeachment of Andrew Johnson.
As part of the articles of impeachment, the House charged Johnson with violating this act.
The crisis began when Johnson sought to remove this Secretary of War.
A factor in the conviction proceedings was that the removal of Johnson would cause this Radical Republican to become President.
This treasury secretary under Lincoln, who was then serving as Chief Justice, headed the trial.
ANSWERS: 1. Tenure of Office Act of 1867 2. Edwin McMasters Stanton 3. Benjamin Franklin "Bluff" Wade 4. Salmon Portland Chase TOSSUP 12: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
This concept initially included the word "Divine," which was later replaced. Frederick Turner's thesis argued that Americans were shaped through their belief in this concept. Journalist John O'Sullivan appears to have first written it about Texas, but it gained prominence when applied to Oregon. The shouts of "Fifty-four forty or fight" epitomized what belief that American was entitled to lands from "sea to shining sea"?
ANSWER: Manifest Destiny BONUS 12: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
Name these authors that are known for publishing very few novels.
The only known novel this author published is her 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird.
This author only wrote two novels, Wise Blood and The Violent Bear It Away, although she is better remembered for collections of short stories like A Good Man Is Hard to Find.
This author of The Neon Bible is better remembered for his only other novel, published posthumously, A Confederacy of Dunces.
This author of At Fault and The Awakening also wrote short stories such as one where Mrs. Millard dies of shock that her husband is still alive, "The Story of an Hour."
ANSWER: 1. Nelle Harper Lee 2. Mary Flannery O'Connor 3. John Kennedy Toole 4. Kate Chopin (or Katherine O'Flaherty)
TOSSUP 13: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
For this device, calculating T ("big-T") requires knowing the moment of inertia if this device is compound. If this device is simple, then T is given by two pi times the square root of L over g. When this device's range of motion is small, it approximates simple harmonic motion. Name this device, consisting of an object attached to a massless rod oscillating back and forth.
ANSWER: pendulum BONUS 13: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Answer the following questions about the works of Claude Monet.
Monet painted in this style of painting. The movement possessed a philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to landscape painting.
The movement described in part one was actually given its name by one of Monet’s paintings. It features water, sky, and a prominent sun.
Monet painted this series of twenty-five works that depict a rural setting at different times of the year. It is notable for its thematic use of repetition to show different perceptions of light.
This series of 250 oil paintings was painted later on in Monet’s life. Each work features Monet's flower garden.
This character "smiled ... whene'er [the speaker] passed her," but after the speaker gave commands, "all smiles stopped together." This woman ranked the speaker's "gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name / with anybody's gift," and the speaker laments that "she had / a heart ... too soon made glad." Name this woman painted by Fra Pandolf on the wall, "looking as if she were alive," the title character of a Robert Browning poem.
ANSWER: "My Last Duchess"
BONUS 14: SOCIAL STUDIES/PSYCHOLOGY
Answer the following about learning in psychology.
This Russian psychologist, considered the father of classical conditioning, trained dogs to salivate to formerly neutral stimuli, such as a bell.
In this famous experiment, John Watson trained the namesake baby to fear a white rat by hitting a steel bar any time the baby approached the rat.
One of the best-known exponents of behaviorism, this psychologist used operant conditioning to train pigeons to perform rituals in his namesake box.
This psychologist used his "Bobo doll" studies to demonstrate his theory of reciprocal determinism: that the environment and a person's behavior both affect each other.
ANSWERS: 1. Ivan Pavlov 2. Baby Albert experiment 3. Burrhus Frederic Skinner 4. Albert Bandura TOSSUP 15: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Triangle ABC is a right triangle with hypotenuse AB. An altitude drawn from C intersects AB at D. Find the length of CD if AD equals 3 and BD equals 5. You can solve the problem by setting up a similarity relation between the two triangles formed by the altitude and solve the proportion. However, it may be more helpful to know that the length of the altitude can be calculated by taking the lengths of the two segments of the hypotenuse and computing their geometric mean, which involves multiplying their lengths together and taking the square root.
ANSWER: the square root of 15
BONUS 15: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Answer the following about the bending of light.
This is the term for the bending of light that takes place when light speeds up or slows down as it crosses a boundary.
The angle at which light bends in the phenomenon in part 1 can be calculated using this law, named for the Dutch mathematician who discovered it.
This is the bending of light as it travels around obstacles or through small openings.
The phenomenon in part 3 is used with interference in this experiment by Thomas Young, which provides evidence that light has a wave nature.
ANSWERS: 1. refraction (do not accept diffraction) 2. Snell's Law 3. diffraction (do not accept refraction) 4. double-slit experiment
TOSSUP 16: LITERATURE/MYTHOLOGY
This god travelled on a solar boat known as the Mandjet in his daily duty of protecting the sun from the waters of the underworld that it went through in the night. This most widely worshiped of Egyptian deities was frequently confused with gods of other religions, thus forming composite deities. His many worshipers would offer prayers and hymns to him, and even attempted spells to help him protect the sun. This god was thought to be in control of the underworld, the earth and the sky. Name this sun god of Egyptian mythology.
ANSWER: Ra BONUS 16: MATH/ALGEBRA
Pencil and paper ready. Solve these problems about a rational expression in x.
Determine all the real numbers for which the expression quantity x squared minus 6 x plus 9 end quantity divided by the quantity x squared minus 9 end quantity is not a real number.
When x is the positive real number for which the preceding expression is not defined, the function has this type of discontinuity where the limit of the expression as x approaches that number is defined.
Find the value of the expression when x equals 10.
Find the equation for the horizontal asymptote of the graph of that expression.
ANSWERS: 1. 3 and -3 (must have both, in either order; do not prompt) 2. removable discontinuity (or hole) 3. 7 over 13 (or seven thirteenths, or seven divided by thirteen, or 0.538461 repeating) 4. y equals 1 (accept f of x in place of y)
TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT TOSSUP: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
One key step in this process can occur via lightning breaking up the namesake substance or bacteria converting it into an anion. Regardless of the method of that step occurring, that step in this process is called fixation. This process is complete when waste is converted to the product of the Haber process via ammonification. Name this process that circulates and reuses the most abundant element in earth's atmosphere.
ANSWER: nitrogen cycle TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT BONUS: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Answer the following set of questions about a certain artist and his works.
This different painting by the same artist features a bull, a horse, a dead soldier, a light bulb within an eye, daggers, and other hard to distinguish figures. It is painted in black, blue, and white.
The work in part 2 is a piece in this style, the movement of art for which the artist is most famous. Juan Gris was another famous practitioner of this style.
This artist painted the works in parts 1 and 2. He had a blue period and a rose period before he began to practice the answer to part three. He also sculpted a large statue that is currently situated in Daley Plaza.
ANSWERS: 1. The Old Guitarist 2. Guernica 3. Cubism 4. Pablo Diego Picasso ***END OF MATCH*** WHEATON NORTH FROSH/SOPH 2010