This organelle releases cytochrome c in apoptosis. Inner folds in this organelle's matrix-enclosing inner membrane, called cristae, are central to the Krebs cycle's electron transport chain. Like the chloroplast, this organelle reproduces through binary fission. Name this cell organelle that generates ATP for the cell to use as energy.
The theme song of this 1965 CBS show describes it "as the place to be, [where] farm living is the life for me."
This group of Revolutionary War soldiers was famously led by Ethan Allen.
This novel by Welsh author Richard Llewellyn tells the story of the Morgans, a mining family.
This term, coined by Sylvia Wright, describes any misinterpretation of a well-known phrase, such as mistaking "Surely goodness and mercy" as "Surely good Mrs. Murphy."
ANSWERS: 1. Green Acres 2. Green Mountain boys 3. How Green Was My Valley 4. mondegreen TOSSUP 2: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
This leader named Lanfranc as Archbishop of Canterbury. One factor that helped this leader win the throne was the attack by Harold Hardrada, the King of Norway, against this leader's rival at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. His survey of land ownership was collected in his Domesday book. Name this man who defeated Harold Godwinson at the Battle of Hastings in 1066, becoming the first Norman king of England.
ANSWER: William the Conqueror (or William I of England, or William II, Duke of Normandy, or William the Bastard; accept William of Normandy before "Norman" is read and prompt afterwards; prompt on William)
BONUS 2: SCIENCE/ASTRONOMY
Name these features of our solar system.
This seventh-closest planet to the sun is tilted ninety-eight degrees on its side, making its seasonal variations unusual.
This Neptunian storm was discovered by Voyager 2 in 1989 and disappeared in 1994.
This volcano on Mars is the largest in the solar system.
Pluto is the largest object found in this region, whose objects are about thirty to fifty AU from the sun and orbit faster than objects in the Oort cloud.
ANSWERS: 1. Uranus 2. Great Dark Spot 3. Olympus Mons 4. Kuiper Belt TOSSUP 3: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
One work of this author is based on a work of Theocritus and has a title referring to the care of cattle. Another of this author's works is dedicated to Maecenus and deals with the regrowth of agriculture. Name this author of the Eclogues and the Georgics who also wrote an epic poem about an opponent of Turnus who as the last Trojan finds Dido and settles in Italy, the Aeneid.
ANSWER: Virgil (or Publius Vergilius Maro)
BONUS 3: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Name these French Impressionist artists.
This painter strongly influenced the development of Impressionism. He focused much of his work on beauty and in particular sensuality. One of his works, Luncheon of the Boating Party, depicts a group of his friends.
This painter painted Olympia and The Luncheon on the Grass. In another work, A Bar at the Folies-Bergère, it is interesting to note that the mirror that can be seen behind the bartender does not accurately reflect the scene.
This painter and sculptor was strongly associated with dance as over half of his works depict dancers. A notable exception is the painting The Bellelli Family which includes no dancers, but instead has his aunt, uncle and cousins.
This artist bridged the gap between Impressionism and Post-Impressionism. Many of his works are stilllifes, which include fruit carefully placed on tablecloths. Other pieces of his include The Cardplayers, and Woman in a Green Hat.
ANSWERS 1. Pierre-Auguste Renoir 2. Edouard Manet (do not accept Monet) 3. Edgar Degas 4. Paul Cezanne TOSSUP 4: MISCELLANEOUS/POP CULTURE
Sam Murray won this show's "Tournament of Ten" in November 2009. Three months earlier, Ken Basin lost a record amount of money on this show. Its 2008-2009 season added a listing of categories from which questions come, the opportunity to "Ask the Expert," and the imposition of time limits on answering questions. Nancy Christy and Kevin Smith won this show's top prize in 2003 under current host Meredith Vieira. Name this show originally hosted by Regis Philbin, where contestants could use lifelines before giving their "final answers" in an attempt to win the title seven-figure prize.
ANSWER: Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? BONUS 4: SOCIAL STUDIES/GEOGRAPHY
Eskom, the largest producer of electricity in Africa, operates hydroelectric dams on this longest river in South Africa.
This southernmost point in Africa and the official dividing point between the Atlantic and Indian oceans is this cape southeast of the Cape of Good Hope.
The White Nile is the only river to leave this largest African lake that 19th century British explorer John Hanning Speke named.
ANSWERS: 1. Mount Kilimanjaro 2. Orange River (or Gariep River, or Groote River, or Senqu River) 3. Cape Agulhas 4. Lake Victoria Nyanza (or Lake Ukerewe, or Lake Nalubaale, or Lake Sango, or Lake Lolwe)
TOSSUP 5: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
One movement in this work had its andante maestoso melody rewritten as Thaxted, the tune for "I Vow to Thee, My Country." Like Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, the last movement of this work includes a chorus, as well as the first known fade-out ending in classical music. The first movement of this work begins in five-four time. Subtitles of movements in this work are The Mystic and The Bringer of War. Name this Gustav Holst suite whose seven movements are named for the seven title celestial bodies besides Earth.
ANSWER: The Planets (or Holst opus 32)
BONUS 5: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
Answer the following about the playwright of Suddenly Last Summer and his works.
Name this playwright, who is more famous for A Streetcar Named Desire.
In A Streetcar Named Desire, this man, the husband of Stella, rapes Blanche DuBois.
Laura, Tom, and Amanda Wingfield are characters in this play about the title collection of animals.
Reverend T. Lawrence Shannon is a character in this play set in Mexico.
ANSWERS: 1. Tennessee Williams (or Thomas Lanier Williams) 2. StanleyKowalski (accept either half) 3. The Glass Menagerie 4. The Night of the Iguana
TOSSUP 6: MATH/GENERAL MATH (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Mike wants to find the price, in cents, at which he must sell each of 100 cups of lemonade to break even. It costs ten dollars to run his stand, and each cup requires water, lemonade mix, and sugar. For each cup of lemonade, the water costs three cents, the lemonade mix costs two cents, and the sugar costs two cents. Dividing the fixed cost of running the stand by the number of cups will give you a per-unit cost for the stand, which you can then add to the cost of the ingredients to get the break-even price. At what price in cents must Mike sell his 100 cups of lemonade to break even?
ANSWER: 17 cents
BONUS 6: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Answer the following about magnetism.
This is the term for the point source of a magnetic field, conventionally designated "north" or "south."
A large magnetic field is used to cause hydrogen atoms to change spins in this type of medical imaging.
Iron, cobalt, and nickel are materials exhibiting this type of magnetism, in which their electron spins can easily be aligned to form a magnetic domain that is relatively permanent due to hysteresis.
This is the term for a coiled wire that becomes an electromagnet when current is applied.
ANSWERS: 1. magnetic dipole 2. magnetic resonance imaging (or MRI) 3. ferromagnetism 4. solenoid
TOSSUP 7: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Diplomatic relations soured by this event were repaired by the Treaty of Morfontaine. In this event, the foreign nation involved desired a formal apology from President John Adams, as well as three other items including fifty thousand pounds sterling at a meeting attended by Charles Pinckney, John Marshall, and Elbridge Gerry and their three foreign counterparts. In this event, the American delegation rejected the French terms and answered "Not a sixpence!" Name this event where Charles Tallyrand sought a bribe from the United States through three alphabetically-minded agents.
ANSWER: XYZ affair
BONUS 7: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. Compute the following surface areas and volumes.
What is the volume, in cubic inches, of a rectangular prism whose height is 2 inches, whose width is 3 inches, and whose length is 4 inches?
What is the total surface area, in square inches, of the prism in part 1?
What is the volume, in cubic inches, of a cone whose radius is 5 inches and whose height is 12 inches?
What is the total surface area, in square inches, of the cube in part 3?
ANSWERS: 1. 24 cubic inches (or inches cubed) 2. 52 square inches (or inches squared) 3. 100 times pi cubic inches (or inches cubed) 4. 90 times pi square inches (or inches squared)
TOSSUP 8: LITERATURE/MYTHOLOGY
In one myth, this female deity tries to grant immortality to a child, but the mother of the child stops her from putting the boy in the fire the last time thus failing to complete the ritual. In a more famous myth, this goddess has her daughter stolen by her brother Hades, and the Earth began to wither without the care of this goddess. Eventually, she finds her daughter but is forced to share her with Hades, which leads to the creation of the seasons. Name this Greek goddess of grain, and fertility who was also the mother of Persephone.
ANSWER: Demeter (accept Ceres until "Hades" is read)
BONUS 8: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS
Pencil and paper ready. You are investigating the mass of ACME's ball bearings. ACME claims the bearings have a mean mass of 12 grams, but you think that the actual mean mass is less than 12 grams.
What is term for the statement "x-bar is less than 12" that you want to assume by proving that the null hypothesis is probably wrong?
If you sample ten ball bearings and find their total mass to be 115 grams, what is the sample mean, in grams, that you get from that sample?
Suppose the critical region for your sample mean was all values less than or equal to 11 grams. On this basis, what is your conclusion about the null hypothesis?
If you are performing the test at a five percent level of significance, then you run a five percent risk of committing what type of statistical error?
ANSWERS: 1. alternate hypothesis (or alternative hypothesis or H-sub-a or H-sub-1) 2. 11.5 grams (or 11 1/2 grams, or 23/2 grams) 3. we fail to reject the null hypothesis (accept equivalents like "do not reject," but do not accept any mention of saying that we accept the null hypothesis or that it is true) 4. Type I error (prompt on answers such as rejecting a true null hypothesis)
TOSSUP 9: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
One element in this group was produced by the bombardment of californium with a calcium beam and is the heaviest known element. In addition to ununoctium, another element in this group is part of a trioxide compound that reacts violently with organic compounds, and that element's difluoride, tetrafluoride, and hexafluoride compounds are uncharacteristic of this group whose elements have full valence shells. Identify this group of elements including xenon, argon, neon, and helium, located at the far right of the periodic table that are named for their non-reactivity.
ANSWER: noble gases (or inert gases or group 18 or group O; prompt group VIIIa or group VIIIb)
BONUS 9: FINE ARTS/OPERA
Name these famous operas.
Mozart wrote this opera in 1791, and it includes characters such as Papageno, Papagena, and the Queen of the Night.
A Giuseppe Verdi opera, this work concerns a humpbacked court jester whose daughter dies in his arms in the final act.
Made up of four distinct epic operas, Wagner wrote this set of operas based loosely on characters from Norse mythology. If performed as a block, it would take roughly fifteen hours to complete.
Considered an American Folk Opera by the composer, it concerns African-American life in Charleston, South Carolina. It is George Gershwin's only opera.
ANSWERS: 1. The Magic Flute 2. Rigoletto 3. Ring Cycle (or Der Ring des Nibelungen, or The Ring of the Nibelung; do not accept individual sections of the larger work) 4. Porgy and Bess
TOSSUP 10: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Ron has used ten gallons of white paint to create on his driveway a filled equilateral triangle with sides of length two feet. He wants to find the number of gallons of paint it will take him to paint a larger filled white equilateral triangle on the pavement with sides of length six feet. Since all equilateral triangles are similar, you can create a proportion between the squares of the lengths of the sides and the area. Using this information, how many gallons of paint will Ron need to paint the larger six-foot triangle?
ANSWER: 90 gallons of white paint
BONUS 10: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Identify these facts about the Peloponnesian War.
Athens lost the Peloponnesian War to this belligerent, the leading city-state of the Peloponnesian League.
This Athenian general, known as the "first citizen" of Athens, led Athens at the beginning of the war.
This agreement initially ended fighting for the first half of the war, but the peace lasted less than a decade.
ANSWERS: 1. Sparta (or Sparte; or Lacedaemonia) 2. Pericles 3. Peace of Nicias 4. Sicily TOSSUP 11: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Chartres Cathedral was reconstructed in this style in the 13th century, which explains the lack of symmetry. This type of cathedral architecture evolved from Romanesque architecture in the 12th century. At this point in time, cathedrals were being built in increasingly large size, and the development of the ribbed vault, pointed arch, and the flying buttress allowed this new type of construction. Name this style of architecture, a famous example of which is the Paris cathedral Notre Dame.
ANSWER: Gothic style of architecture
BONUS 11: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Name these poems by John Keats.
This poem addresses the "still unravish'd bride of quietness" and concludes "Beauty is truth, truth beauty,--that is all / Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know."
This first long poem of Keats adapts a Greek myth in telling of the title character's love for Diana.
In this poem, after the speaker laments his pains from drinking hemlock, he exclaims that the title bird "[was] not born for death" and asks whether his experience was "a vision, or a waking dream."
The "knight-at-arms" in this poem is "alone and palely loitering" because his title lover cast him on the side of a cold hill.
ANSWERS: 1. "Ode on a Grecian Urn" 2. Endymion 3. "Ode to a Nightingale" 4. "La Belle Dame Sans Merci"
TOSSUP 12: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
In one of this poet's monodies, the speaker comes "to pluck your berries harsh and crude" in an elegy for the title character, Lycidas. He wrote of a Danite son of Manoa who on Dagon's feast day destroys a Philistine temple, leaving "calm of mind all passions spent." In addition to Samson Agonistes, this poet wrote a work of twelve books "Of Man's First Disobedience, and the Fruit / Of that Forbidden Tree." Name this blind poet of Paradise Lost.
ANSWER: John Milton BONUS 12: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Name these politicians involved in the election of 1824.
Although this candidate won a plurality of the popular vote, the House denied him the presidency.
This man eventually won the presidency, despite winning only thirty percent of the popular vote.
Instrumental in allowing the candidate in part 2 to win, he later became Secretary of State in an action often called the "Corrupt Bargain."
This Georgia candidate got the third-highest number of electoral votes, thereby knocking out the candidate in part 3 from the presidential race.
ANSWERS: 1. Andrew Jackson 2. John Quincy Adams (or JQA; prompt Adams; do not accept John Adams) 3. Henry Clay, Sr. 4. William Harris Crawford TOSSUP 13: SOCIAL STUDIES/CURRENT EVENTS
Early in his life, this man worked on films in the True-Life Adventures series. This man fought two wars in 1984 and the 2000s to "Save" the company he led. This man's longtime partnership with Stanley Gold allowed him to gain financial wealth and power over the company his father and uncle founded. Name this man who died of stomach cancer December 16, 2009, the nephew of Mickey Mouse creator Walt Disney.
ANSWER: Roy Edward Disney (prompt on Disney before it is read)
BONUS 13: LITERATURE/MYTHOLOGY
Zeus was a particularly promiscuous god. Name these children of Zeus.
Though sometimes described as the god of warfare, he is better known as the god of bloodlust. His mother was Hera, and he himself fathered more than twenty children including Eros.
This daughter of Zeus had a fraternal twin brother. She was the goddess of hunting, fertility and chastity. In one particular myth, she had a Theban prince killed by his own hounds for boasting that he was a better hunter than she.
This hero was born of the mortal mother Danae. He lived an active life, killing a notable Gorgon with the help of Hermes' sword and Athena's highly polished shield. He also eventually married Andromeda.
This different hero was given his name in Zeus' attempt to appease Hera’s anger over his infidelity. Hera did not accept Zeus' apology, and instead drove the son to slay his own children, thereby starting him on his famous adventures.
ANSWERS: 1. Ares 2. Artemis 3. Perseus 4. Heracles (do not accept Hercules, as this is asking for children of Zeus)
TOSSUP 14: SOCIAL STUDIES/GOVERNMENT
Linda Coffee and Sarah Wellington represented the plaintiff in this case against the Texas District Attorney. The plaintiff in this case was a carnival worker named Norma McCorvey. The dissent in this case was written by White and Rehnquist, while Blackmun wrote this case's majority opinion. The companion case to this case was Doe v. Bolton. Section VIII of this case's majority opinion uses the Fourteenth Amendment to establish a "right to privacy." Name this 1973 Supreme Court decision that established the right of women, up until viability of the fetus, to obtain an abortion.
ANSWER: Roe v. Wade (or Wade v. Roe; accept Norma Leah McCorvey or Norma Leah Nelson before "Norma" is mentioned)
BONUS 14: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
Answer the following about voltaic cells.
This term refers to either of the two containers surrounding the electrodes in a voltaic cell.
At this electrode, reduction takes place.
At the other electrode, this complementary process to reduction occurs.
By definition, a group has these entities, but a monoid does not. A field has these entities under addition for all elements and under multiplication for all nonzero elements. A square matrix has one of these entities if and only if it has a nonzero determinant. For real numbers, the multiplicative form of this entity is also known as the reciprocal. For any element, this entity is defined as an element so that a binary operation performed on the two elements gives the identity. Name this term for numerical "opposites," such as one and negative one under addition.
BONUS 15: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
Answer the following about meiosis.
This is the total number of daughter cells that result from a single cell undergoing meiosis.
The resulting cells are known by this term because they have half the number of chromosomes as the parent diploid cells.
In this longest phase of meiosis, the nucleolus dissolves and homologous chromosomes pair.
Occurring in the phase in part 3, this process involves exchanging chromosome parts at chiasmata, enabling genetic recombination.
This problem was first proposed by Paul Langevin. One answer to this problem notes the change in the rate of the passage of time after the turnaround, which causes the spaceship to change inertial frames. Name this relativistic thought experiment where, thanks to high speed travel, two people born at the same time can have different ages.
ANSWER: twin paradox BONUS 16: MATH/ALGEBRA
Pencil and paper ready. Consider the 2 by 2 matrix A whose entries are in the top row from left to right, 4, 2, and in the bottom row from left to right, 3, negative 1.
What is the top-left entry of the matrix 3A?
What is the top-left entry of the matrix A times A?
In this poem, the speaker asks if there "is…balm in Gilead" and demands to know what the title character’s "lordly name is on the Night's Plutonian shore!" Set "in the bleak December," this poem ends with the title character atop the speaker's "pallid bust of Pallas," while the speaker never finds out if he will be reunited in heaven with "the lost Lenore." Name this poem about a bird that continually says "Nevermore," written by Edgar Allen Poe.
ANSWER: The Raven TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT BONUS: MATH/ALGEBRA
Pencil and paper ready. Consider the function f of x equals negative two plus the square root of the quantity x minus 4.
What is f of 20?
For what values of x will f of x be a real number?
What is the root of f of x?
In simplest form in terms of t, what is f of 4t?
ANSWERS: 1. 2 2. x greater than or equal to 4 (or equivalents, like x no less than 4, 4 less than or equal to x, the interval closed bracket 4 comma positive infinity open bracket, etc.) 3. 8 4. f of 2t equals negative two plus twotimes the square root of the quantity t minus one close quantity (or f of 2t equals two times the square root of the quantity t minus one close quantity minus two)
***END OF MATCH*** WHEATON NORTH FROSH/SOPH 2010
Questions by Gregory Gauthier, Jonathan Irving, Jeff Sommars, Sam Krc, and Mike Perovanovic