TOSSUP 1: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS (10 seconds)
By definition, A and B have this property if the probability of A given B is equal to the probability of A. If the probability of A is nonzero, having this property precludes A and any other event with nonzero probability being mutually exclusive. Rearrangement of the definition proves that if A and B have this property, then the probability of A and B equals the probability of A times the probability of B. Name this term that describes two events that have no influence on each other.
ANSWER: independence (or independent events)
BONUS 1: SOCIAL STUDIES/PHILOSOPHY
Name these Greek philosophers featured in Raphael's School of Athens.
In the center of the painting, this author of dialogues like Crito and The Republic is conversing with another philosopher.
The thinker in part 1 is conversing with this mentor to Alexander the Great.
The lower left corner of the painting features this man, better known for his work in mathematics and his namesake musical tuning.
This founder of Stoicism is featured on the far left side of the painting.
ANSWERS: 1. Plato 2. Aristotle (or Aristoteles) 3. Pythagoras of Samos 4. Zeno of Citium (or Zenon ho Kitieus; prompt Zeno or Zenon)
TOSSUP 2: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
One of John Smith's purposes in coming to the New World was to investigate what happened here. Chief Powhatan claimed responsibility in killing people here, while a North Carolina newspaper stated that people here had moved. The lack of a Maltese Cross here indicated the people in this settlement left peacefully, but no substantial proof was provided by a scrolled word "Croatoan." Name this colony founded by Sir Walter Raleigh in North Carolina that vanished in the late 1590s, often referred to as the "Lost Colony."
BONUS 2: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
Give the scientific names, not the formulas, for these polyatomic anions.
With formula N-O-3-minus-1, this anion forms soluble compounds with nearly all other cations.
This anion has formula S-O-4-minus-2 and is a component of a common industrial strong acid.
The formula for this anion is M-N-O-4-minus-1. Compounds with this anion tend to form a purple color in solution.
This anion contains only nitrogen, and a compound with this anion is used to rapidly inflate airbags.
ANSWERS: 1. nitrate (do not accept nitrite) 2. sulfate (do not accept sulfide or sulfite) 3. permanganate 4. azide TOSSUP 3: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Let x equal the cosine of 38 degrees and y equal the sine of 38 degrees. Find the smallest positive angle, in degrees, whose cosine and sine are negative x and negative y respectively. It may help you to know that the cosine and sine of a given angle are the coordinates of the point on the unit circle corresponding to the angle in standard position. It may also help you to know that the point negative x comma negative y is diametrically opposite the point x comma y.
ANSWER: 218 degrees
BONUS 3: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Answer the following about Daniel Defoe and his works.
This most famous work of Defoe has the title character end up on an island, where he saves his servant from cannibals.
The work in part 1 was based on the actual experiences of this Scottish sailor.
This is the name the title character gives to the servant he saves.
This other Defoe work tells of the problems resulting from a 1665 health crisis.
ANSWERS: 1. Robinson Crusoe 2. Alexander Selkirk 3. Man Friday 4. A Journal of the Plague Year TOSSUP 4: MISCELLANEOUS/POP CULTURE
One member of this group "personally wet himself at the Battle of Badon Hill," while another is depicted only in The Book of the Film and is aptly named Not-Appearing-In-This-Film. One of them complains that he has "to push the pram a lot," while the others boast of "[impersonating] Clark Gable" and lament being "given rhymes ... quite unsingable." Name this group of central characters in the 1975 film Monty Python and the Holy Grail.
ANSWER: The Knights of the Round Table(prompt characters in Monty Python and the Holy Grail or similar answers)
BONUS 4: MATH/ALGEBRA
Pencil and paper ready. Solve the following sequence problems.
What is the tenth term in an arithmetic sequence whose first term is 5 and whose common difference is 7?
What is the sum of the first ten terms of the arithmetic sequence in part 1?
What is the common ratio of a geometric sequence whose first term is 1 and whose fourth term is 8 over 27?
What is the infinite sum of the terms in the sequence in part 3?
This piece has been the target of multiple thefts, such as the 1994 robbery from the National Gallery as well as a 2004 robbery. A fence runs from the left to the bottom right in this work, and two people can be seen in the horizon. The background of this painting was allegedly inspired by the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa that tinted much of the sky red in Europe. The central figure is in the front of this painting. Name this painting where the central figure has his hands on his cheeks looking out with an expression of horror, the most famous work of Edvard Munch.
ANSWER: The Scream (or The Cry, or Skrik)
BONUS 5: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
Name these African-American authors and playwrights.
This playwright won two Pullitzer prizes for Fences and The Piano Lesson, two of the plays in his Pittsburgh Cycle.
This author wrote of a nameless protagonist who lives underground and later joins the Brotherhood in Invisible Man.
Two important works of this playwright were The Sign in Sidney Brustein's Window and a play about the Younger family, A Raisin in the Sun.
This author, whose autobiography is titled Black Boy, wrote a novel in which Mary Dalton is smothered by Bigger Thomas.
ANSWERS: 1. August Wilson (or Frederick August Kittel, Jr.) 2. Ralph Waldo Ellison 3. Lorraine Hansberry 4. Richard Wright
TOSSUP 6: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
One method of calculating this quantity is by using Koopman's theory, which requires determining the highest occupied molecular orbital's energy. Within a group, this quantity decreases as the atomic number increases due to the shielding effect, which reduces the effective charge of the nucleus, making the outermost electrons easier to remove. Give the term for the energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom.
ANSWER: first ionization energy (accept just first ionization after "energy" is read)
BONUS 6: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Over the centuries, religion has motivated the production of much artwork. Answer the following questions about religious art.
This is the Italian name of a general type of work depicting Mary holding the dead body of Jesus. Frequently, these are sculpted images such as a marble one made by Michelangelo that can be found in St. Peter’s Basilica.
In Japan, there are many Daibutsu’s, or large statues of this religious leader. Frequently, these icons are cross-legged, though occasionally the figure stands. A famous one can be found in Todaiji Temple, and it measures nearly fifty feet tall.
The Ojibwa Nation first made these superstitious pieces of art. They were made of willow and sinew, and decorated by an individual, then hung over ones bed.
This is the name for the carved statues that can be found in the Pacific Northwest. These tall objects are typically found outdoors and typically have animals or humans with particular significance to the group that produced it.
ANSWERS: 1. La Pieta 2. Buddha 3. Dreamcatcher 4. Totem Pole
TOSSUP 7: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
One author of this nationality created Bird, the father of a mentally-handicapped child, in his A Personal Matter. Another author of this nationality wrote Snow Country and The House of the Sleeping Beauties. A famous work created by an author of this nationality tells the story of the title son of Lady Kiritsubo and the emperor; that work, considered the world's first novel, is The Tale of Genji. Name this nationality whose authors include Kenzaburo Oe, Yasunari Kawabata, Murasaki Shikibu, and Matsuo Basho, a master of the three-line, seventeen-syllable poetic form known as the haiku.
ANSWER: Japanese (or Nippon)
BONUS 7: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
Answer the following about the excretory system.
This important urine-producing organ in the excretory system is comprised of nephrons.
These ducts carry urine to the bladder.
Protonephridia are bundles of these excretory cells of flatworms and nematodes.
Insects use these tubules to expel waste. They are named for the seventeenth-century anatomist who discovered them.
ANSWERS: 1. kidney 2. ureters (do not accept urethra) 3. flame cells 4. Malpighian tubules
TOSSUP 8: LITERATURE/MYTHOLOGY
Plato called Sappho of Lesbos the tenth member of this group, and since then it has become a somewhat regular compliment. Dante, Milton, Shakespeare, and Chaucer all call upon members of this group on occasion in their works. Originally, this group consisted only of Aoide, Melete, and Mneme; however the composition of the group entirely changed and it grew to include Terpsichore, Thalia, Melpomene, and Clio, among others. Name this group from Greek mythology that inspires the creation of literature and art.
Identify these four people who've never been in Greg Gauthier's kitchen.
Even though this Cheers character blew the wad in Final Jeopardy! by identifying Archibald Leach, Bernard Schwartz, and Lucille LeSueur as "three people who have never been in my kitchen," he really hasn't been in Greg's kitchen.
Even though this president had informal advisors called the Kitchen Cabinet, he's never been part of Greg's kitchen
This man, who became president of the Cook County Board in 2006, has never cooked anything in Greg's kitchen.
Despite being the goddess of witchcraft and meeting with three witches who earlier let "fire burn and cauldron bubble," this character from Macbeth has never brought her witches into Greg's kitchen.
ANSWERS: 1. Clifford C. Clavin, Jr. (accept either underlined portion) 2. Andrew Jackson 3. Todd H. Stroger 4. Hecate ***HALF-TIME*** TOSSUP 9: FINE ARTS/JAZZ
This musician's debut was at the Apollo Theater in Harlem in 1934. This vocalist went on to sing with big bands of the era, and eventually had a successful solo career as part of Verve Records. This African-American had a range that spanned three octaves as well as a remarkably pure tone. She features prominently on more than seventy albums, some live and some studio that were recorded during her forty year career. Name this singer of A-Tisket A-Tasket, most famous for her scat singing.
ANSWER: Ella Jane Fitzgerald BONUS 9: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Identify the following Civil War battles.
Also known as the "Battle of the Ironclads," it pitted the Monitor against the Merrimack in a skirmish where both sides claimed victory.
The bloodiest battle in U.S. history was this two-day battle where Confederates lost General Johnston when General Grant's lines held.
Grant secured the Mississippi when this Mississippi town capitulated on July 4, 1863.
This bloody series of inclusive battles in Central Virginia was a tactical Confederate win with more Union casualties, but Grant's tenacity after the battle set up an eventual Confederate loss.
ANSWERS: 1. Battle of Hampton Roads 2. Battle of Shiloh (or Battle of Pittsburg Landing) 3. Vicksburg 4. Battle of the Wilderness TOSSUP 10: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
At its peak, this polity included three kingdoms, including Burgundy. Despite having a great amount of land, this polity fractured socially and religiously. The Investiture controversy involving Henry IV almost destroyed this polity, and the leader of this polity never held the same amount of power afterward. Its power greatly diminished after the Peace of Westphalia, where small territories gained great autonomy. Name this union of territories united by an emperor where among other important events, the Protestant Reformation began.
Answer the following questions about Norse mythology.
This object named Yggdrasill spreads over all the realms of the world. Changes in this thing represent the changing fate of the universe.
This wolf, a child of a god, will devour the chief Norse god at the final battle of the gods and giants. Earlier, the gods bound him because they feared him; however he bit off the hand of a god in anger.
This Norse god is the one-handed god of war whose right hand was bit off by the wolf in part two. He is also generally considered to be the namesake for Tuesday.
This is a son of Frigga, he is the god of innocence. A sprig of mistletoe thrown by the blind god Hoder killed him. He will return to the world after the final destruction to help create a new, happy race of man.
ANSWERS: 1. Ash tree (prompt on tree) 2. Fenrir (or Hroovitner, or Fenris-wolf) 3. Tyr (or Tiw) 4. Baldr (or Balder, or Baldur)
TOSSUP 11: SOCIAL STUDIES/GEOGRAPHY
Military presence on this body of water began in 1847 with the construction of two ships at Orenburg; that presence coincided with the founding of Fort Raimsk on this body of water. One island in this body of water, Vozrozohdeniye Island, was a main site of biological weapons testing in the Soviet Union. Scientists believe this body of water will continue to shrink rapidly until it totally vanishes. Name this sea between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.
ANSWER: Aral Sea
BONUS 11: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Answer the following about energy and the fact that it neither can be created nor destroyed.
Because energy cannot be created or destroyed, it must obey this type of law.
As such, when an object is dropped in a gravitational field, it exchanges potential energy for this kind of energy possessed by moving objects.
However, some forms of energy can be converted from more useful to less useful forms, increasing this quantity that measures the disorder in a system.
One consequence of losing useful energy is this speculated end of the universe, proposed by Kelvin, where the universe will run out of energy usable for work.
ANSWERS: 1. law of conservation of energy 2. kinetic energy 3. entropy 4. heat death
TOSSUP 12: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
In this character's first appearance, we learn that he was shot at the battle of Maiwand in the Second Afghan War. This character offers to publish an account of the first published case of his detective companion in A Study in Scarlet. Name this character created by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle who lives at 221B Baker Street and serves as a companion to Sherlock Holmes.
ANSWER: Dr. John H. Watson BONUS 12: MATH/GENERAL MATH
Answer the following about mathematicians from the 20th century and their contributions.
This man collaborated with Alfred North Whitehead in writing a work titled Principia Mathematica.
In Principia Mathematica, the man in part 1 stated a namesake paradox about one of these entities, whose elements consist of these entities that do not contain themselves as elements. The idea of a class can resolve the paradox.
This professor at Princeton became world-famous for proving the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture.
By proving the Taniyama-Shimura conjecture, that mathematician proved this famous unsolved theorem as a consequence. This theorem states that for positive integers n greater than 2, the equation x to the n plus y to the n equals z to the n has no solutions in positive integers.
ANSWERS: 1. Bertrand Arthur William Russell 2. sets 3. Sir Andrew John Wiles 4. Fermat's Last Theorem
TOSSUP 13: MATH/ALGEBRA (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Find the x- and y-coordinates of the vertex of the parabola whose equation is x equals y squared plus 5 y plus 4. You can use the same method for finding the vertex of a vertical parabola; however, you will have to interchange the coordinates.
ANSWER: x = negative 9/4 or negative 2.25 or negative 2 1/4, y = negative 5/2 or negative 2.5 or negative 2 1/2 (accept minus in place of negative; if variables are not specified, x must precede y; accept coordinates as ordered pair, such as the ordered pair open parentheses negative 9/4 comma negative 5/2 close parentheses [with the aforementioned alternative answers in place of the underlined numbers])
BONUS 13: SOCIAL STUDIES/RELIGION
Name these biblical locations.
Moses received the Ten Commandments on this mount.
In Genesis, Abraham began his journey to Israel from this town.
Judas betrayed Jesus in this garden.
John is said to have written Revelation on this island.
ANSWERS: 1. Mount Sinai (or Mount Horeb, or Mount Musa, or Gabal Musa, or Jabal Musa) 2. Urim (or Ur Kasdim, or Ur of the Chaldeans; do not accept Uruk) 3. Gethsemane 4. Patmos
TOSSUP 14: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
The last stage of this process has forms known as C3, C4, and CAM, but the carbon fixation is more commonly done via a process whose first step combines RuBP and Rubisco, the Calvin cycle, which uses NADPH and ATP. An electron transport chain and two photosystems are involved in this process's light-dependent reactions. Name this process where carbon dioxide and water form carbohydrates in green plants.
ANSWER: photosynthesis (accept dark reactions or light-independent reactions before "chain" is read)
BONUS 14: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. Answer the following about triangles.
Classify the triangle with sides of length 4, 6, and 7 on the basis of its sides.
For a triangle to be inscribed in a circle with one of the triangle's sides falling along a diameter of the circle, it is necessary and sufficient for it to be this type of triangle.
In an acute triangle, how many of the three exterior angles of the triangle are obtuse?
Classify the triangle with sides of length 5, 12, and 14 on the basis of its angles. It may help to use the converse of the Pythagorean theorem.
ANSWERS: 1. scalene 2. right 3. 3 (or all of them) 4. obtuse TOSSUP 15: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
This quantity can be multiplied by volume and added to internal energy to obtain enthalpy. In a fluid, an increase in this quantity affects the value of this quantity at every point in the container because of Pascal's principle. The speed of a fluid and this quantity are inversely related due to Bernoulli's principle. Lines on earth where this quantity is constant are known as isobars. Name this quantity, measured in pascals, the amount of force per unit area.
ANSWER: pressure BONUS 15: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
Name these styles from their composers and their works.
The composer Philip Glass wrote in this style, notable for its consonant harmony, steady pulse, and repetition of the same musical theme.
Jean Sibelius wrote pieces in this style, including Finlandia. Other notable proponents of it include Ludwig van Beethoven and Ralph Vaughan Williams.
Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, and other members of the Second Viennese School wrote in this unique style, which was notably atonal. The aforementioned composers wrote the operas Erwartung and Wozzeck in this style.
A style that can be applied to music, art, and literature, John Cage wrote pieces like 4'33" (four minutes and thirty three seconds) in this style of music. Its French name means vanguard.
ANSWERS: (for 1-3, accept word forms) 1. Minimalism 2. Romanticism 3. Expressionism 4. Avant-Garde TOSSUP 16: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
In the 1920s, Kurt Schwitters began to create sound poems in this style, poems that were verses without words. Other people in this group famously created art in the form of collage, photomontage, or readymades. One creator of readymades used the pseudonym Rrose Selavy when he was creating some of his pieces, and on one occasion he even dressed up as this women and had Man Ray take pictures of him. All of these are part of what art “movement” that had its name chosen at random out of a dictionary, and is the French word for hobby-horse?
BONUS 16: SCIENCE/ASTRONOMY
Answer the following about the life of a star.
During various portions of its life, a star will be in various regions of this doubly-eponymous diagram relating temperature and magnitude.
Stars will spend most of their life in this part of the diagram in part 1, a long diagonal line through the diagram.
Near the end of a star's life, after it finishes fusing hydrogen in its core, it will begin to fuse surrounding hydrogen. The star will expand and become hotter, becoming one of these stars.
At the end of a star's life, it will become a white dwarf if its mass is less than this limit, equal to about 1.4 solar masses.
ANSWERS: 1. Hertzsprung-Russell diagram (or H-R diagram) 2. main sequence 3. red giants 4. Chandrasekhar limit
TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT TOSSUP: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
One of this author's poems includes repeated permutations of the phrases "sun moon stars rain" and "autumn winter spring summer" and contrasts characters named no one and anyone. In addition to "anyone lived in a pretty how town," he wrote about his experiences with William Slater Brown as a World War I ambulance driver in his only novel, The Enormous Room. Name this poet noted for his unconventional punctuation and capitalization, especially when writing his name.
ANSWER: Edward Estlin "e. e." Cummings TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT BONUS: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Name some ancient countries in Asia.
Two dynasties in this nation were the Han, the first to accept Confucianism, and the Ming, which expanded many small-scale industries and created well-known vases.
This country was ruled by Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje dynasties in the Early Common Era but was eventually unified by the Silla dynasty. After the fall of the Silla dynasty, King Taejo combined the sovereign states and created the Goryeo dynasty, in which Buddhism became popular.
This country was ruled in the late twelfth century by Temujin, who united tribes between Manchuria and the Altai Mountains, and also trained a strong, fierce army that created the largest contiguous land empire in the world.
Jayavarman II founded this powerful empire in Cambodia in the ninth century.
ANSWERS: 1. China 2. Korea 3. Mongolia 4. Khmer ***END OF MATCH*** WHEATON NORTH FROSH/SOPH 2010
Questions by Gregory Gauthier, Jonathan Irving, Jeff Sommars, Sam Krc, and Mike Perovanovic