This author created the missionary John Goodcountry, who influences the chief priest Ezeulu, in Arrow of God. This author wrote about the bribe accepted by Obi, the grandson of a character in a previous novel. That more famous character is exiled after killing his son Ikemefuna and later returns to Umuofia only to hang himself. Name this creator of the Ibo warrior Okonkwo and author of No Longer at Ease and Things Fall Apart who was from Nigeria.
ANSWER: Albert Chinualumogu "Chinua" Achebe BONUS 1: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Name these locations known for ancient religious sculpture.
This monument lies in the English countryside. It was built at least four thousand years ago, though scholars believe that there were two similar structures there beforehand. Most theorists believe that it was designed by a cult who built it with astronomical intents.
This Polynesian island is the home to 887 moai, large stone statues from the distant past. The islanders carved them only using handheld stone chisels.
Three pyramids of varying sizes lie near the remains of this ancient city. The largest of the monuments is the only remaining of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
This city was home to a massive statue of the Greek god Helios that lasted for less than a century. It stood near the harbor, but was destroyed by a significant earthquake that damaged much of this city.
ANSWERS: 1. Stonehenge 2. Easter Island 3. Giza 4. Rhodes TOSSUP 2: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
This quantity is equal to the time derivative of the cross product of the vector from the pivot to where the force is applied and the vector of the applied force. Like energy and work, this quantity can be expressed as a product of a force unit and a length unit. Equal to the moment of inertia times the angular acceleration, name this rotational analogue of force.
BONUS 2: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Answer the following about Theodore Roosevelt's life and career before becoming President.
After the death of his wife, Roosevelt resided on Elk Horn ranch in this state, where he worked as a deputy sheriff.
When Roosevelt returned to New York, he was eventually elected this, where he met Jacob Riis.
He was appointed by President McKinley to Assistant Secretary of this cabinet department, which ceased to be a cabinet department in 1947 when it merged with the Department of War to become the Department of Defense.
Roosevelt was elected Governor of New York in this year, two years before he served as running mate to McKinley's successful reelection bid against William Jennings Bryan.
ANSWERS: 1. North Dakota 2. president of the board of New York City police commissioners 3. Department of the Navy 4. AD 1898 TOSSUP 3: MISCELLANEOUS/INTERDISCIPLINARY
This is the first name of Mr. Rugera in Heinrich von Kleist's The Earthquake in Chile. A 1993 film starring Wes Studi describes a figure with this name as "An American Legend." This is also the last name of the Filipina singer who gained fame with Popstar: A Dream Come True. After an 1858 battle, Goyathlay was christened with this Spanish name for the saint who translated the Vulgate, to whom the Mexicans prayed, St. Jerome. After seeing a 1939 film about this figure, Aubrey Eberhardt shouted what name of an Apache leader to prove he was not scared of jumping from an airplane?
Pencil and paper ready. Identify the conic section with each of the following properties. Note that some answers may be used more than once or not at all.
This conic section consists of all the points for which the sum of the distances of the point from the two foci is a constant.
This conic section has an eccentricity between 0 and 1.
This conic section's two foci lie on the transverse axis, which is perpendicular to the conjugate axis.
This is the conic section that will be produced from the equation x squared over 4 minus 1 equals y squared over 9.
ANSWERS: 1. ellipse 2. ellipse 3. hyperbola 4. hyperbola TOSSUP 4: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Art critics of the 1880s gave the name for this style of painting as a way of mocking the painters who employed this style. One developer of this movement was the creator of The Papal Palace, Paul Signac. Another artist of the movement created a massive painting that included many people lounging on the grass as well as a woman walking a monkey. Name this movement, whose most famous piece can be seen in the Art Institute of Chicago, and is Georges-Pierre Seurat’s A Sunday Afternoon on the Island Grande Jatte.
ANSWER: Pointillism BONUS 4: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Identify these plays of Shakespeare.
In this play, Iago tricks the title Moor of Venice into believing that his wife, Desdemona, was having an affair with Cassio.
This play's first act includes a shipwreck that harms Alonso, a scene that Propsero and Miranda observe on an island.
This play centers on identically named characters Antipholus and Dromio from Syracuse and Ephesus.
Iachimo tricks Posthumus into thinking that Iachimo had seduced Imogen, the daughter of this play's title character, leading to Imogen being forced to disguise herself.
ANSWERS: 1. The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice 2. The Tempest 3. The Comedy of Errors 4. The Tragedy of Cymbeline TOSSUP 5: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY (10 seconds)
Playfair's axiom assumes their existence, which is not guaranteed in Riemannian geometry. Euclid's fifth postulate is a way of proving that two objects do not have this property. The opposite sides of both a rhombus and rectangle have this property. Two lines have this property if they are not skew and their intersection is not a single point. Name the term that describes coplanar lines that do not intersect.
ANSWER: parallel lines
BONUS 5: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
Identify these works of medieval and Renaissance Italian literature.
In this work, Machiavelli advises that a title character would "find greater security in being feared than in being loved."
This work consists of one hundred novellas told in ten days by ten characters, and it was written by Boccaccio.
Dante and Virgil ascend the seven terraces of the mountain symbolizing the title concept in this second cantica of Dante's Divine Comedy.
Set during a war between Charlemagne's Christians and Agramante's Saracens, this seminal work by Lodovico Ariosto tells of the title character's love for Angelica.
ANSWERS: 1. The Prince(or Il Principe) 2. The Decameron (or Il Decamerone or Il Decameron) 3. Purgatory (or Il Purgatorio) 4. Orlando Furioso
TOSSUP 6: SOCIAL STUDIES/GOVERNMENT
This politician represented Anita Hill during the Clarence Thomas confirmation hearings. Bill Clinton appointed this politician to serve as District Attorney in the state where she defeated Matt Salmon by about 12000 votes in 2002 to become governor. A record 180 vetoes did not stop this politician from overwhelmingly winning reelection in 2006 for a second term as governor of Arizona. Name this politician who gained national attention when Barack Obama appointed her to be the first female Secretary of Homeland Security.
ANSWER: Janet Napolitano BONUS 6: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Answer the following about fluid dynamics.
This one-word science term is defined as the ratio of an object's mass to its volume.
This value is defined as the mass-to-volume ratio of an object over the mass-to-volume ratio of water. If this value is less than one, an object will float in water.
This principle states that the buoyant force of an object in a liquid is equal to the weight of the liquid displaced.
The water with the highest mass-to-volume ratio can be found at the bottom of bodies of water. Within two degrees Celsius, what is the temperature, in degrees Celsius, at which liquid water has the highest mass-to-volume ratio?
ANSWERS: 1. density 2. specific gravity 3. Archimedes' principle 4. 4 degrees Celsius/Centigrade (accept 2-6)
TOSSUP 7: MATH/ALGEBRA (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Express your answer as a percent. The price of a dress was originally $100 and is still $100 even after a 20% price cut and a subsequent price increase by an unknown percentage that you must find. What percentage price increase must have occurred to completely offset the 20% decrease?
This is the term for flowering plants. Plants in this division are classified as monocots and dicots.
These vessels transport water from the roots to the rest of the plant.
Mitosis only occurs in cells in these regions of growth in a plant.
This part of the flower connects the stigma to the ovary.
ANSWERS: 1. Angiospermae (or Anthophyta, or Anthophyte) 2. xylem 3. meristems (or meristematic tissue) 4. style TOSSUP 8: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Andrei Kobyla is often considered the first member of this group, though his origins are not clear. This group grew greatly in power with the marriage of one of their daughters to the reigning monarch, but many died in the purges initiated by Boris Godunov. After several years and power shifts, Mikhail was offered the throne that this family would hold until 1917. Name this European family whose members included Alexander III, Peter I, and Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia.
The most common IP addresses in use in 2009 consist of this many numbers from 0 to 255, separated by periods.
Because computer scientists predict that the supply of IP addresses will run out by 2011, they are moving towards adopting this version of IP using 128 bits for addresses.
ANSWERS: 1. uniform resource locator (or universal resource locator) 2. domain name system 3. four numbers 4. IPv6 ***HALF-TIME*** TOSSUP 9: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
In one of this author's novels, Sergeant Troy is the object of affection of the woman who ultimately marries Gabriel Oak, Bathsheba Everdene. In another of his novels, the title daughter of John Durbeyfield kills Alec and flees with Angel before being caught and executed. Another of this author's novels centers on "The Life and Death of a Man of Character," Michael Henchard. Name this creator of Wessex and author of Far from the Madding Crowd, Tess of the D'Urbervilles, and The Mayor of Casterbridge.
ANSWER: Thomas Hardy BONUS 9: MATH/GENERAL MATH
Pencil and paper ready. Answer the following questions about logic.
Given that P implies Q, and Q is false, this is the conclusion we can draw by applying modus tollendo tollens.
This is the term for a statement that is always true, such as P or not P.
Because P or not P is always true, this law, stating that every proposition is either true or false, holds.
For a conditional statement P implies Q, this is the term for the equivalent statement not Q implies not P.
ANSWERS: 1. not P (or P is false, or equivalents) 2. tautology 3. law of the excluded middle 4. contrapositive TOSSUP 10: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
Gas and liquid forms of this process differ because of the state of the stationary medium involved. In one form of this process, dividing the distance moved by a substance by the distance moved by the front gives the r-f value for a component. Name this laboratory technique, commonly performed with paper, that separates a mixture into its components based on their affinities to the cellulose in the paper as a solvent carries them.
ANSWER: chromatography BONUS 10: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. Points A, B, and C are located in the Cartesian plane such that A is at the origin, B is at 0 comma 10, and C has a positive x-coordinate and a y-coordinate of 10. The angle BAC measures 60 degrees.
What is the x-coordinate of point C?
What is distance between A and C?
What is the area of triangle ABC?
If point D has a y-coordinate of 10 and has the property that angle BAD measures 60 degrees, but D is not the same point as C, in which quadrant must D be?
ANSWERS: 1. 10times the square root of 3 2. 20 3. 50 times the square root of 3 4. quadrant II
TOSSUP 11: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
When a cell containing this substance dies, part of this substance is reused via transferrin and part is excreted into the bile through bilirubin. Carbon monoxide is toxic primarily because it binds more easily to this substance than what normally binds to this substance. This substance consists of a central group surrounded by four iron-containing groups, giving this molecule a red color. Name this protein that allows oxygen to be carried in red blood cells.
ANSWER: hemoglobin (or Hb)
BONUS 11: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Answer the following about the history of China after World War II.
This former leader fled to Taiwan, where he would establish a rival nation to Mao's China.
This social program Mao instituted sought to increase industrial and agricultural outputs; however, it caused massive disruption and 20 to 40 million deaths.
In 1959, a strained relationship led to border skirmishes around the Ussuri River with very large armies between China and this nation.
This leader of the Communist Party of China in the 1980s brought capitalistic reforms to China, such as Special Economic Zones.
ANSWERS: 1. Chiang Kai-shek (or Jiang Zhongzheng, or Chiang Chung-Cheng, or Jiang Ruiyuan, or Jiang Zhoutai, or Jiang Zhiqing, or Jiang Jieshi) 2. Great Leap Forward (or Daeyuejin) 3. Soviet Union (or Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, or Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik) 4. Deng Xiaoping (or Teng Hsiao-P'ing)
TOSSUP 12: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Find the length of one side of the largest cube that can be inscribed in a sphere of diameter 12. Since you know that the space diagonal of the cube is 12, and you can also compute the length of the space diagonal via the Pythagorean Theorem, you can algebraically solve for the length of the side of the cube.
ANSWER: 4 times the square root of 3 BONUS 12: LITERATURE/MYTHOLOGY
Name these Egyptian deities.
This god was first mentioned on the Palermo Stone more than four millenniums ago. He was a merciful judge of the dead in the Egyptian afterlife, while also having green skin that symbolized rebirth.
She was a goddess worshiped as a perfect wife or mother, though also as the patron goddess of magic. The answer to part one is her brother.
This jackal-headed god was strongly associated with the afterlife in Egyptian mythology and the process of mummification. He is the son of the answer to part one.
This deity, unlike the other three, was not a resident of Duat. He was instead the god of storms, chaos, darkness, and the desert. In painted pictures, he was drawn with the head of an unknown animal.
ANSWERS: 1. Osiris 2. Isis 3. Anubis 4. Set (or Seth)
TOSSUP 13: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. A music fan club has a certain number of members, each of whom is a fan of the Beatles, Metallica, or both. You want to find the number of members in the club if there are 24 Beatles fans, 19 Metallica fans, and 5 fans of both the Beatles and Metallica. You might use a Venn diagram or the inclusion-exclusion principle, which states that the number of fans of either the Beatles or Metallica is the number of fans of the Beatles plus the number of Metallica fans minus the number of fans of both. Using this or any other method, find the number of members in the club.
ANSWER: 38 fans/club members
BONUS 13: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
Identify these novels of F. Scott Fitzgerald.
West Egg and East Egg are two of the settings of this novel about the Jazz Age, whose characters include Nick Carraway and Tom and Daisy Buchanan.
Amory Blaine is the central character in this first Fitzgerald novel.
This last novel was unfinished at the time of Fitzgerald's death, and it centers on Monroe Stahr's career as a film executive in 1930s Hollywood.
ANSWERS: 1. The Great Gatsby 2. This Side of Paradise 3. Tender Is the Night 4. The Love of the Last Tycoon: A Western
TOSSUP 14: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
The opening of this work is a setting of the hymn "God Preserve Thy People." This work includes the folk dance of "At the Gate, at My Gate." Motifs in this work include the anachronistic national anthems God Save the Tsar and Marseillaise. This piece unusually uses as an instrument a cannon. Name this piece commemorating the victory at the Battle of Borodino, in which the Russians drove back Napoleon in the title year, a work by Pyotor Ilyich Tchaikovsky.
ANSWER: 1812 Overture (or The Year 1812, Festival overture in E flat major, opus 49 [accept either underlined portion])
BONUS 14: SCIENCE/EARTH SCIENCE
Answer the following about units of geologic time.
This era contains both the Triassic and Cretaceous periods, and occurred from 245 million to 65 million years ago.
In this middle period of the era in part 1, Pangaea began to disperse, and dinosaurs roamed the earth.
The K-T boundary marks the division between the Cretaceous period and this first period of the Cenozoic era.
This epoch began at the end of the major ice age over nine thousand years ago and continues to the present day.
ANSWERS: 1. Mesozoic era 2. Jurassic period 3. Tertiary period 4. Holocene epoch
TOSSUP 15: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
In a minor scene in this work, the protagonist scares a squirrel in the forest and finds himself out of place among his injured friends, including Jim Conklin, whose death the protagonist witnesses. However, that protagonist finds power in holding Wilson’s letters and fights bravely, earning a compliment from his lieutenant. Name this novel about Henry Fleming’s experiences in the Civil War, a novel by Stephen Crane.
ANSWER: The Red Badge of Courage BONUS 15: SOCIAL STUDIES/CURRENT EVENTS
Name these senators involved in the health care debate.
This Massachusetts senator worked for years towards reform, but he died before the bill was complete.
He is chairperson of the Senate Finance Committee and shaped most of the Senate debate, despite a possible scandal involving his live-in girlfriend in his home state of Montana.
This senator voted for cloture in exchange for having his state be exempt from paying for Medicaid expansion permanently in what is commonly known as the "Cornhusker Kickback."
ANSWERS: 1. Edward Moore "Ted" Kennedy 2. Joseph Isadore "Joe" Lieberman 3. Max Sieben Baucus 4. Earl Benjamin "Ben" Nelson TOSSUP 16: SOCIAL STUDIES/GEOGRAPHY
Formed during the Jurassic Period, it is a Mesozoic-Tertiary orogenic belt of mountains. Scientists often divide it into two ranges, the Cordillera Oriental and the Cordillera Occidental, while UNESCO divides this mountain range into southern, central, and northern or humid regions. It is located on the Western Hemisphere side of the Pacific, in the Ring of Fire. It's the highest mountain range outside of Asia, and was home to the ancient Inca civilization. Name this mountain range running through Bolivia, Argentina, Chile, and other countries in South America.
ANSWER: Andes mountain range
BONUS 16: FINE ARTS/MUSICAL THEATER
Name the following works of musical theater:
This work, written by Gilbert and Sullivan and premiering in 1879, concerns the exploits of a 21 year old boy who has been apprenticed to a group of seafaring criminals who are very poor at what they do. One of its songs has the line "I am the very model of a modern Major-General."
This modern production won three Tony Awards in 2004 though it was nominated for ten. It discusses the interpersonal relations between two women who share the same love interest, thus giving the back story to L. Frank Baum's best known children’s book.
This work has been adapted to musical theater three times from the original book, the most famous of which was in 1986 by Andrew Lloyd Webber. It concerns a deformed musical genius who obsesses over a beautiful soprano.
Also nominated for ten Tony Awards, this piece won nine of them. It is set in Tsarist Russia in 1905, and focuses on the life of Tevye, the patriarch of his family, who tries to maintain a traditional lifestyle while the outside world persecutes them for their Jewish lifestyle.
ANSWERS: 1. Pirates of Penzance 2. Wicked 3. The Phantom of the Opera 4. Fiddler on the Roof TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT TOSSUP: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
A performance of Julius Caesar with this man's two brothers Edwin and Junius was considered "the greatest theatrical event in New York history." He earlier had attended John Brown's hanging in order to guard against a rescue attempt. The same night this man accomplished his most famous act was also the night where Lewis Powell and George Atzerodt targeted other government officials. After that act's completion, he stayed with Maryland doctor Samuel Mudd, Name this actor, who declared "Sic semper tyrannis" after causing the succession of Andrew Johnson by shooting Abraham Lincoln.
ANSWER: John Wilkes Booth TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT BONUS: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
Identify a major class of biologically important molecules and three types of those molecules.
This class of molecules is generally characterized by the presence of carbon atoms.
This is the term for molecules consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms connected by single bonds.
A carbon atom double bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to an O-H group forms the functional group of these compounds.