Like the gas constant, this positive variable can be found experimentally by plotting k against the inverse temperature. This quantity appears in the numerator of the exponent of the Arrhenius equation. Imparting this quantity to a system creates a namesake complex. This quantity can be reduced by creating an alternate pathway with a catalyst, allowing the reaction to reach equilibrium faster. Give the term for the energy that must be supplied to enable a reaction.
ANSWER: activation energy (accept just activation after energy is read; prompt E-subscript-a)
BONUS 1: FINE ARTS/ART THEORY
Name these following art types or movements.
This style of art originated in Italy in the beginning of the 20th century. The starter of the movement, Marinetti, brought his strong contempt of the old to the style. Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, a sculpture by Umberto Boccioni is an example of this style.
The name of this form of art reflects its lack of stability. It was invented in 1931 by Alexander Calder, and a common type involves dowels, and string hung from a ceiling.
This new form of art consists of the artist or another person executing a task of some nature for an audience as a more poignant way of emphasizing their point. An example of this could be seen in the work Trans-fixed, in which Chris Burden was nailed to the back of a Volkswagen.
The name of the group comes from the French for "wild beast." This loose group of 20th century painters painted vibrantly with bright colors, abstraction, and wild brush strokes. A notable member of this group is Henri Matisse.
ANSWERS: 1. Futurism 2. Mobile sculpture 3. Performance art 4.Fauvism (or Les Fauves)
TOSSUP 2: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
This man often led opposition to the New Whigs led by Charles Fox while this man was a member of the British House of Commons. His storied career suffered great damage due to his role in the impeachment of William Hastings, where he argued forcefully that the British Empire was a moral instrument, not just one for personal gain. Name this Irish-born author of Reflections on the Revolution of France, often considered the father of modern conservatism.
ANSWER: Edmund Burke
BONUS 2: MATH/GENERAL MATH
Answer the following about prime numbers.
This is the term for an integer greater than 1 that is not prime.
This is a prime number that is one less than a power of two.
A prime number of the type in part 2 must be a factor of an even version of this kind of number that is equal to the sum of its proper factors,
This mathematician names prime numbers that are one more than two raised to a power of two, as well as a theorem stating that, for any prime p, any integer a raised to the p power is congruent to a modulo p.
ANSWERS: 1. composite number 2. Mersenne prime number 3. perfect number 4. Pierre de Fermat TOSSUP 3: MISCELLANEOUS/SPORTS
An important decision the captain makes in this sport is when to declare. In this sport, balls hit over the boundary on a fly are worth six, while those bouncing over the boundary are worth four. Many formats of playing this sport limit the number of overs, each of which consists of six balls that are bowled. A run is scored when two batsmen successfully exchange creases. Name this popular British commonwealth sport played with a pair of wickets.
ANSWER: cricket BONUS 3: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Answer the following about lines in triangles.
This is the term for a segment from a vertex that intersects the opposite side at right angles.
This is the term for a segment connecting a vertex and the midpoint of the opposite side.
The three segments of this type all intersect at a single point and meet at the incenter of a triangle.
Three segments that meet at a single point are known by this name. Ceva's theorem can be used to show that three segments from a vertex of a triangle to the opposite side have this property.
ANSWERS: 1. altitude 2. median 3. angle bisectors 4. concurrency (accept word forms)
TOSSUP 4: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
This author wrote a novel about Undine Spragg's attempt to make it in New York, as well as an unfinished novel about Nan and Virginia St. George. In addition to The Custom of the Country and The Buccaneers, she wrote about the engagement between May Welland and Newland Archer, as well as a novel about a woman who refuses to marry Mr. Rosedale and is the enemy of Bertha Dorset, Lily Bart. Name this author of The Age of Innocence, The House of Mirth, and Ethan Frome.
This 1969 case upheld the right of the plaintiff to wear a black armband in protest of the Vietnam War and established that the freedom of speech does not stop at the schoolhouse gate.
This president was the victorious general at the Battle of Buena Vista and was known as "Old Rough and Ready."
This occupation is in the titles of a 1915 novel by Ford Madox Ford, titled the "Good" one, and Faulkner's first novel, titled their "Pay."
Harvey Birch is the protagonist of this 1821 James Fenimore Cooper novel, based on Sir Walter Scott's Waverley novels.
ANSWERS: 1. Tinker v. Des Moines School District (or Des Moines School District v. Tinker) 2. Zachary Taylor 3. soldiers 4. The Spy: A Tale of the Neutral Ground (MODERATOR NOTE: The keywords of the answers form the title of the John Le Carre novel Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy.)
TOSSUP 5: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
The main precursor to this device was the Leyden jar. The quantity associated with this device can be calculated as the ratio of charge to voltage. A dielectric separates the two parallel plates in the basic form of what circuit component, whose namesake quantity is measured in farads, that stores electrical charge?
ANSWER: capacitor BONUS 5: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Answer the following about Egypt.
This Egyptian city was home to a lighthouse that was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
This "founder of modern Egypt" ascended to the position of Wali in 1805 and reigned over Egypt for forty years.
This man became Egypt's second president after leading a coup against Farouk I in 1952, and he later displaced Muhammad Naguib.
Parade Magazine's list of the world's worst dictators ranks this current president of Egypt 20th for alleged use of torture and questionable election tactics.
ANSWERS: 1. Alexandria 2. Muhammad AliPasha al-Mas'ud ibn Agha (accept either underlined portion) 3. Gamal Abdel Nasser 4. Muhammad Hosni Mubarak
TOSSUP 6: MATH/ALGEBRA (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. A 300 mile highway forms a straight line connection between Springfield and Capital City. A car and a bus both arrive at Capital City at the same time, although the bus leaves Springfield before the car. Find the number of hours between the bus's departure and the car's departure if the bus travels at a constant speed of 40 miles per hour and the car travels at a constant speed of 60 miles per hour.
ANSWER: 2.5 hours or 2 1/2 hours or 5/2 hours or 2 hours 30 minutes BONUS 6: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
Name these Russian authors.
This author wrote about how a lover of Count Vronskii gets herself run over by a train in Anna Karenina, in addition to writing War and Peace.
This playwrights's works include The Seagull, The Cherry Orchard, and Uncle Vanya.
Nikolai and Pavel are among the older liberals who are counter to the younger nihilists, such as Evgenii Bazarov, in this author's Fathers and Sons.
Two works of this author that have been adapted into operas include Boris Godunov and Eugene Onegin.
ANSWERS: 1. Leo Tolstoy 2. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov 3. Ivan Turgenev 4. Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin
TOSSUP 7: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
In 1721, this composer obtained a post in the church in Hamburg, which required him to write two cantatas for every Sunday service as well as additional music for church holidays. Because of this, the Guinness Book of World Records lists him as the most prolific composer of all time, but with a mere 800 of his 3000 pieces surviving. He is well known for composing concertos for unusual sets of instruments, such as his concerto for two violas. Name this composer who is best known for a set of more than 40 pieces that reflect the suffering of Jesus prior to the cross, his Passions.
ANSWER: Georg Philipp Telemann
BONUS 7: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Name these British acts that motivated American independence.
This series of laws restricted shipping and were part of the impetus for the Anglo-Dutch Wars. The Molasses Act and other Sugar Acts were offshoots of these acts, and they continued to restrict shipping to British colonies.
This 1765 act was passed to pay for the Seven Years War and taxed printed items such as magazines and legal documents.
There were actually five different laws within this 1767 series of acts. Its original intention was to pay colonial officials, but the hostility eventually resulted in the Boston Massacre.
These acts preceded the outbreak of war by two years. As a direct reaction to the Boston Tea Party, they were the most sever and punitive, and they closed the Port of Boston and required quartering British troops in American homes.
Depending upon the source, this figure may be either a god or a giant. Because he helped to kill another god, this deity was punished by being chained to a rock until the end of time with a deadly snake above his head dripping poison on him. This deity is the husband of Sigyn and father of Sleipnir. In Norse mythology, when problems occur, such as theft or deception, typically the gods assume that it is this deity’s fault, and quite often they are correct. Name this Norse trickster god.
BONUS 8: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
Name these organs in the human body.
This is the human body's largest organ, and it has layers named the subcutis, dermis, and epidermis.
Bile produced in the liver is stored in this organ.
Raymond Cattell theorized sixteen factors of this concept, while neuroticism and openness to experience are two of the "Big Five" traits of this concept. Keirsey used four-letter designations to classify sixteen temperaments of this concept, such as ISTP, one of these that suggests sensing, thinking, and perception in addition to introversion. Name this concept that describes the unique characteristics of a human being.
ANSWER: personality BONUS 9: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
Identify these works of Mark Twain.
The title character of this novel and his companion, an escaped slave named Jim, meet the dueling Grangerford and Shepherdson families, two fraudsters who claim to be the Duke of Bridgewater and the Lost Dauphin, and Tom Sawyer.
The title character, Hank Morgan, ends up in England in 528 in this Twain satire.
This short story's title character, Dan'l Webster, is owned by the gambler Jim Smiley, who makes a bet that it can jump higher than a stranger's creature.
This collaboration with Charles Dudley Warner uses the Hawkins family to satirize the corruption in America after the Civil War and lends its name to the post-Civil War period in American history.
ANSWERS: 1. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn 2. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court (or A Yankee at the Court of King Arthur)3. "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" (or "The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County" or "Jim Smiley and His Jumping Frog") 4. The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today TOSSUP 10: MATH/GENERAL MATH (10 seconds)
Euclid's proof that there are an infinite number of primes is an example of this type of proof, which uses the law of bivalence. That proof involves the construction of the product of all primes plus 1, which Euclid shows to be a prime number as well. Name this method of indirect proof, which begins by assuming the opposite of the statement to be proved to deduce a logical impossibility.
ANSWER: proof by contradiction (or reductio ad absurdum or reductio ad impossibile or apagogicalargument; accept indirect proof before mentioned)
BONUS 10: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Identify these poets laureate.
He wrote The Prelude and "Tintern Abbey" and collaborated with Samuel Taylor Coleridge on Lyrical Ballads.
This poet of Maud and "The Lady of Shalott" is best-known for "The Charge of the Light Brigade."
He wrote Wodwo, Crow, and Moortown Diary, and his Birthday Letters were about his relationship with his wife, Sylvia Plath.
In addition to creating the play Marriage A-la-Mode, this first poet laureate also wrote Absalom and Achitophel.
ANSWERS: 1. William Wordsworth 2. Alfred, Lord Tennyson (or Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson) 3. Edward James "Ted" Hughes 4. John Dryden TOSSUP 11: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
At the end of this work, the traitorous stepfather of the title character has his limbs torn off, and thirty of his relatives are hanged. That traitor, Ganelon, knowing that the title character would command the rear guard, leads the Saracens to ambush that group at the battle of Roncesvalles. Accompanied by Turpin and Oliver, the title character intially refuses, but ultimately decides to blow his horn, only to end up blowing up his own head calling for help from Charlemagne. Identify this work by Turold, a major epic poem of medieval French literature.
ANSWER: The Song of Roland (or La Chanson de Roland)
BONUS 11: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Answer the following about the electron.
In 1897, this man determined the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron and is credited with the discovery of the electron.
In an atom, electrons reside in these regions that are distinguished by the principal quantum number n. When an electron drops from an outer one to an inner one, EM radiation is emitted.
Also known as the antielectron, this particle emitted in beta-plus decay has positive charge and is the antiparticle of the electron.
Electrons, muons, and tauons, and their antiparticles belong to this group of elementary particles that are lighter than quarks.
ANSWERS: 1. Sir Joseph John "J. J." Thomson 2. energy levels or shells (do not accept energy sublevels or subshells) 3. positron 4. leptons
TOSSUP 12: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
This author's poem in memory of C.T.W. criticizing imprisonment was titled "The Ballad of Reading Gaol." In one of this author's plays, the title character's husband invites Mrs. Erlynne and the title character finds out thanks to Lord Darlington. Another play has the antagonist Mrs. Cheveley and protagonists Robert and Gertrude Chiltern. Name this playwright of Lady Windermere's Fan and An Ideal Husband as well as the author of his only novel, where the title character tries to keep the immortality portrayed in the title object, The Picture of Dorian Gray.
ANSWER: Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde BONUS 12: SOCIAL STUDIES/GEOGRAPHY
Name these lakes.
Sharing the name of a sourtheastern African country it borders, this is the second largest lake in Africa by volume.
The Straits of Mackinac connect these two Great Lakes that are hydrologically a single body of water.
This brackish lake, adjacent to the Gulf of Venezuela, is generally considered to be the largest lake in South America.
This lake, the deepest in North America, is the source of the Mackenzie River.
ANSWERS: 1. Lake Malawi (or Lake Nyasa) 2. Lake Michigan and Lake Huron (must have both in either order) 3. Lake Maracaibo 4. Great Slave Lake
TOSSUP 13: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
The publication of opinions on Louisville Joint Stock Land Bank v. Radford and two others on Black Monday directly resulted in this event. Princeton University professor Edward S. Corwin suggested the end result. The National Committee to Uphold Constitutional Government was created to oppose this event. FDR used Fireside Chat nine to recover from this, but the retirement of a Supreme Court justice undercut his position and popular support. Name this scandal where Roosevelt proposed to add justices to the Supreme Court in order to pass his New Deal programs.
ANSWER: court-packing scheme/plan (or Judiciary Reorganization Bill of 1937; prompt Black Monday before it is read)
BONUS 13: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
Answer the following about phase changes and phase diagrams.
This is the point on a phase diagram where the solid, liquid, and gaseous phases of a substance are all in equilibrium.
The phase of a substance depends on its temperature as well as this quantity.
This is the direct change of a substance from solid to gas.
This is the amount of energy that must be imparted to change a substance from a solid to a liquid. When a solid is heated, its temperature stays constant while it melts until this amount of energy is imparted.
ANSWERS: 1. triple point 2. pressure 3. sublimation 4. heat of fusion (or standard enthalpy of fusion or specific melting heat)
TOSSUP 14: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
Of the bases that form double hydrogen bonds in nucleic acids, this base is the only one that is a purine. In RNA, this base bonds to uracil, while in DNA it bonds to thymine. A compound based on this base is the most common energy currency of the cell, ATP. Name this nitrogenous base found in DNA commonly denoted A.
ANSWER: adenine (do not accept adenosine; prompt A before "ATP" is read)
BONUS 14: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Name these architects.
This American man was a leader of the Prairie School movement as well as a proponent of organic architecture, such as in Fallingwater, a Pennsylvanian home built over a waterfall. He also designed multiple studios for his personal use, some of which were named Taliesin.
This man worked primarily in Chicago, and became well known for his building of steel high-rises. He designed the Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building in Chicago, as well as a "Golden Door" for the 1893 World’s Columbian Exposition.
This Chinese-American architect has made prominent buildings in China, the United States, and France. These buildings include the Bank of China Tower, the John F. Kennedy Library, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
This German-American was noted for his sayings of “less is more” and “God is in the details.” He is famous for designing a modernist high-rise in the Seagram Building as well as building the glass Farnsworth House.
ANSWERS: 1. Frank Lloyd Wright 2. Louis Henri Sullivan 3. Ieoh Ming Pei 4. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (prompt on partial answer)
TOSSUP 15: FINE ARTS/OPERA
Based on an 1804 play by Friedrich Schiller, this opera was its composer's last. The story includes characters Hedwige and Jemmy, the wife and son of the title character. At the beginning of Act II, Arnold and Matilda, the daughter of the antagonist, meet to express their love. Matilda's father is the antagonist, Gessler, the Austrian governor of Switzerland. Name this Rossini opera in which the title character is able to shoot an apple off of his son's head.
ANSWER: William Tell (or Guillaume Tell)
BONUS 15: MATH/ALGEBRA
Pencil and paper ready. Solve the following problems about ages, giving your answer in years.
Don is now one-fourth the age of his father. If his father was 50 exactly six years ago, what is Don's age now?
Alice is one year older than Bob, who is one year older than Charlie. If the sum of their ages is 72, what is Charlie's age?
Reginald is twice as old as Merv. What is Merv's age if the product of their ages in years is 288?
Julia spent one sixth of her life in childhood, then one twelfth of it in adolescence, then two thirds of it with her husband, then her last seven years as a widow. How many years did Julia live?
ANSWERS: 1. 14 2. 23 3. 12 4. 84
TOSSUP 16: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. A circle centered at point A has a radius of 2. Points B and C lie on the circle, and triangle ABC is an equilateral triangle. Find the exact area outside of triangle ABC but inside the sector of the circle bounded by minor arc BC and radii AB and AC.
ANSWER: 2 times pi over 3minus the square root of 3 (or negative square root of 3 plus 2 times pi over 3 or two-thirds pi instead of "2 times pi over 3" or radical instead of "root" in any answer)
BONUS 16: SOCIAL STUDIES/CURRENT EVENTS
Answer the following about aerial incidents of 2009.
This child was the subject of a hoax his parents created to gain publicity for a TV show; that hoax cost over two million dollars in search efforts.
This man, at number two on Time's list of the Top 100 Influential Heroes and Icons of 2009 heroically saved all the lives on US Airways Flight 1549 by ditching the plane into the Hudson.
On Decmeber 25, 2009, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab disrupted Northwest Airlines Flight 253 destined for this city.
This airline suffered a major loss on June 1, 2009, when an A330 aircraft crashed into the Atlantic, killing all 228 aboard.
ANSWERS: 1. Falcon Heene (or Balloon Boy) 2. Captain Chesley Burnett "Sully" Sullenberger III 3. Detroit, Michigan 4. Air France TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT TOSSUP: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
A geometric hypercube, which is the four dimensional analog to a cube, features prominently in one of this artist’s works. This surrealist artist employed many symbols in his work, such as the egg, the elephant, and the clock. He held famous luncheons at a hotel where he would meet with leaders in different fields, in the hope that he would gain inspiration from them. His most famous work includes water, a dead tree, and four melting timepieces. Name this man famous for his eccentric mannerisms and his distinctive moustache, the painter of The Persistence of Memory.
ANSWER: Salvador Domingo Dalí TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT BONUS: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS
Pencil and paper ready. You are rolling two fair six-sided dice numbered from one to six. One die is yellow and the other is blue.
What is the probability that the sum of the numbers rolled will be 8?
What is the probability that the sum of the numbers rolled will be 8 given that the yellow die has a 3 showing?
What is the probability that the sum of the numbers rolled will be 8 given that there is at least one 3 showing?
If the sum of the numbers rolled is 8, what is the probability that the two dice show the same number?
ANSWERS: 1. 5/36 or 0.138 repeating 2. 1/6 or 0.16 repeating 3. 2/11 or 0.18 repeating 4. 1/5 or 0.2 ***END OF MATCH*** WHEATON NORTH FROSH/SOPH 2010
Questions by Gregory Gauthier, Jonathan Irving, Jeff Sommars, Sam Krc, and Mike Perovanovic