This author described the events leading to his country's revolution in The Red Wheel. This author's treatment from a certain sickness was the basis of his The First Circle and Cancer Ward. After this man won the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1974, he was exiled from the Soviet Union. Name this author of The Gulag Archipelago and One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.
ANSWER: Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn BONUS 1: MISCELLANEOUS/SPORTS
Answer the following about penalties in the NHL.
A major penalty, such as for fighting, requires a player to go to the penalty box for this number of minutes.
This NHL penalty is similar to an ejection in other sports in that the penalized player must leave for the rest of the game but a substitute may immediately replace him.
When a team is shorthanded due to a penalty, it is allowed to shoot the puck from its half of the ice past the other team's goal line; a non-shorthanded team doing that would cause this violation.
This is the maximum number of players that can serve penalty time at the same time. Hence, it is also the maximum number of skaters by which a team may play shorthanded.
ANSWERS: 1. five minutes 2. game misconduct penalty (do not accept misconduct) 3. icing the puck 4. two players
TOSSUP 2: MISCELLANEOUS/POP CULTURE
The Ditto glitch is an extension of a method originally used to obtain this entity, a method that required teleporting from a Junior Trainer and defeating a Youngster that has a Slowpoke. It was discovered "deep in the jungle" of Guyana, South America, according to journal entries in Cinnabar Mansion, and this creature gave birth to a creature residing in Cerulean Cave. Contrary to widespread rumors, it cannot be found by a truck next to the S. S. Anne. It is described as a "New Species" that is "so rare that is still said to be a mirage by many experts." Name this creature that gave birth to Mewtwo, the rare 151st Pokémon.
ANSWER: Mew (or Myu, accept Mew glitch or Mew trick before "this entity," do not accept Mewtwo or Myutsu)
BONUS 2: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. In right triangle ABC, angle C is the right angle, side AC has length 3, and side BC has length 5.
What is the length of the hypotenuse, side AB?
What is the tangent of angle A?
What is the sine of angle A?
What is the secant of angle A?
ANSWERS: 1. the square root of 34 2. 5 over 3 (or five-thirds, or one and two thirds, or 1.6 repeating) 3. 5 times the square root of 34 all over34 4. the square root of 34 over 3 TOSSUP 3: SOCIAL STUDIES/GOVERNMENT
Of the eighty-one holders of this position, the first was Edward Randolph. The original duties of this position included giving legal advice to the President and conducting suits when the United States government was involved. Name this position once held by Robert Kennedy, Janet Reno, Alberto Gonzalez, and Eric Holder, the head of the Department of Justice.
ANSWER: Attorney General of the United States
BONUS 3: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Answer the following questions about American Art.
This female painter was born in Wisconsin in 1887, but became famous in the 1920s for her Southwestern art. Some of her artwork features animal skulls while others include desert flowers.
Grant Wood painted this piece in 1930. In the background rests a two-story cottage with a distinctive window while in the foreground are a man, a woman, and a pitchfork.
This piece by Edward Hopper currently resides in the Art Institute of Chicago. It has four figures, a man looking out a far window, a man and a woman sitting next to each other, and a man dressed in white who appears to be waiting on them.
This 19th century school of art was a collection of landscape painters who had a vision influenced by romanticism. Many of the paintings of the group are of the titular locale, or the surrounding region, such as the Catskill and Adirondack Mountains.
ANSWERS: 1. Georgia Toot O’Keeffe 2. American Gothic 3. Nighthawks 4. Hudson River School
TOSSUP 4: FINE ARTS/ART HISTORY
Placido Domingo commissioned Gian Carlo Menotti to write an opera about this artist. Velázquez inspired this artist's painting of Charles IV and family, including the artist in the work itself, as in Las Meninas. Around 1800, he created two paintings La maja desnuda and La maja vestida that are of the same person and same scene, with one being clothed and the other being nude. Name this artist whose most famous works though are probably Saturn Devouring His Son and The Third of May 1808.
ANSWER: Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes
BONUS 4: SOCIAL STUDIES/RELIGION
Answer the following about the pillars of Islam.
The pillar of Sawm requires most Muslims to fast during this Islamic month.
This pillar must be completed once in the lifetime of a Muslim. It involves a pilgrimage to Mecca where the pilgrim walks around the Kaaba seven times.
Salah requires Muslims to pray this many times per day.
This first pillar of Islam is the declaration of faith, or Shahadah, acknowledging that Allah is the only god, and that Muhammad is his prophet.
ANSWERS: 1. Ramadan (or Ramazan) 2. Hajj 3. five times per day 4. Iman TOSSUP 5: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
One of this author's early dramas had the character Count Ferneze and is one of this author's early comedic works. In addition to The Case Is Altered, this author wrote about the parasitic servant Mosca and his master, the Venetian nobleman known as "the Fox." This man also wrote about a servant named Brainworm, who foils the protagonist's father's attempts to spy on his son, Edward Knowell. Name this author of Volpone, Every Man in His Humour, and The Alchemist.
ANSWER: Ben Jonson
BONUS 5: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Name these famous physicists from the twentieth century.
This Italian physicist won a Nobel Prize for his work on induced radioactivity, and he was a key figure in the Manhattan project.
This physicist's 1988 treatise on cosmology is titled A Brief History of Time.
This physicist is best known for his diagrams where every line represents a subatmoic particle.
With Einstein, this Indian physicist discovered a namesake condensate, a fifth state of matter attained near absolute zero.
ANSWERS: 1. Enrico Fermi 2. Stephen William Hawking 3. Richard Phillips Feynman 4. Satyendra Nath Bose TOSSUP 6: SCIENCE/BIOLOGY
One of these molecules was discovered by Frederick Addicott and eventually got the name abscisic acid. Another one of these compounds causes trippling and is known as ethylene, which also stimulates ripening. Another one of these compounds, gibberellins, stimulates stem growth and elongation, like auxins. Name these molecules that regulate development in certain leafy organisms.
ANSWER: plant hormones (prompt hormones)
BONUS 6: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY
Pencil and paper ready. Answer the following about geometric figures and equations used to describe them.
In the Cartesian plane, three ways of describing this figure with an equation include standard, point-slope, and slope-intercept forms.
In space under rectangular coordinates, the equation x plus y plus z equals 2 describes this type of figure.
In polar coordinates, the equation r equals n cosine theta, where n is a positive integer greater than one, describes this shape.
In the common three-dimensional coordinate system that uses rho, theta, and phi coordinates, the equation rho equals four describes this shape.
ANSWERS: 1. line 2. plane 3. polar rose 4. sphere with radius 4
TOSSUP 7: MATH/GENERAL MATH (10 seconds)
In topology, this operation applied to an infinite number of open sets does not necessarily produce an open set, as this operation does for a finite number of sets. By De Morgan's laws, performing this operation on two sets and then taking the complement is the same as taking the complement of each set and taking the union of the results. Name this operation that produces a set where each element is in all the operated-upon sets.
ANSWER: set intersection BONUS 7: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
Identify these Eugene O'Neill plays.
This posthumous play told the life of the dysfunctional Tyrone family, based on O'Neill's family, and won a Pullitzer Prize for drama in 1957.
"Homecoming," "The Hunted," and "The Haunted" are the three parts of this 1931 play based on Aeschylus's Oresteia.
Simeon, Peter, and Eben are the three sons of Ephraim Cabot in this play where Abbie Putnam and Eben commit infanticide.
Yank is the protagonist who is crushed by the title animal in this O'Neill play criticizing capitalism and the behavior of the rich.
ANSWERS: 1. Long Day's Journey into Night 2. Mourning Becomes Electra 3. Desire Under the Elms 4. The Hairy Ape TOSSUP 8: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
This leader brought an unprecedented peace of nearly forty years to his polity. He constructed roads and towns to improve his polity's administrative structure, and he extended his polity to include Germany. In 27 BC, this leader gained command over Spain, Gaul, and Syria. At Modena, this leader met his rival, who would marry this leader's sister. At the battle of Actium, this leader defeated Cleopatra and that rival, Marc Antony. Name this leader who reigned until AD 14 as the first emperor of the Roman Empire.
ANSWER: Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus (or Octavianus, or Octavius)
BONUS 8: SCIENCE/EARTH SCIENCE
Answer the following about minerals.
This mineral, a form of carbon, has a rating of 10 on the Mohs Scale of hardness.
Often confused with parting and fracture, this property of a mineral describes how a crystal breaks under stress applied to specific areas to create a new flat face.
This metal is the primary metallic component of minerals such as anglesite, pyromorphite and galena.
This property of a mineral is its color in powdered form, which can be created by rubbing a sample against a namesake plate.
Pencil and paper ready. Find the inverse function of y equals the square root of the quantity x minus 5. One way to find an inverse function is to interchange x and y and solve the new equation for y. Using this or any other method, find the inverse function of y equals the square root of the quantity x minus 5.
ANSWER: y equals x squared plus 5 (accept to the second power in place of "squared")
BONUS 9: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
Name the following composers who lived during the 1700s, none of whom are Johann Sebastian Bach.
This composer, nicknamed the red priest for his fiery red hair, wrote the Four Seasons, a series of four concerti for the violin.
A prolific Baroque composer, the pieces of this German include Water Music, Music For The Royal Fireworks and an oratorio containing the famous Hallelujah Chorus.
This composer was J. S. Bach’s youngest son, and unlike his father, he wrote music in the classical style.
Before his death in 1706, this German Baroque composer wrote numerous organ chorales, fugues, chaconnes, and one canon that remains popular to this day.
ANSWERS: 1. Antonio Lucio Vivaldi 2. George Frideric Handel 3. Johann Christian Bach 4. Johann Pachelbel TOSSUP 10: FINE ARTS/CLASSICAL MUSIC HISTORY
The youngest member of this family achieved the least fame, and his three-act operetta Katze und Maus inspired critics to tell him to write under a pseudonym in order not to shame his family. The patriarch of this family had three sons, all of whom became composers. Berlioz also dubbed this family's patriarch "Father of the Viennese Waltz." The son of that patriarch in this family wrote polkas, quadrilles, and waltzes, and he was known as "The Waltz King" due to works like "The Blue Danube." Name this family of composers, three of whom share the first name Johann.
ANSWER: Strauss BONUS 10: LITERATURE/BRITISH LITERATURE
Answer the following about the works of E. M. Forster.
In this novel, Adela Quested and Mrs. Moore travel to the title country under British rule. One theme of this novel is the tension between the British and the natives of that country.
This is the native Muslim doctor that is a central character in the work in part 1. Adela mistakenly accuses this character of raping her while they were in the caves.
The Schlegels, the Wilcoxes, and the Basts all live at the title place of this Forster novel.
In this novel, Lucy Honeychurch ultimately marries George Emerson, whom she encounters in Florence when Mr. Emerson offers the title place to Lucy.
ANSWERS: 1. A Passage to India 2. Dr. Aziz 3. Howard's End 4. A Room with a View TOSSUP 11: SCIENCE/PHYSICS
Of the four fundamental forces, this one is excluded from the grand unified theory. The Cavendish torsion balance is used to measure the constant associated with this force. That constant of proportionality for this force, whose strength was determined by Newton, is approximately 6.67 times ten to the negative eleventh newton meters squared per kilogram squared. Name this force that attracts massive objects to each other, especially bodies down to earth's surface.
ANSWER: gravity BONUS 11: MATH/COMBINATORICS, PROBABILITY, AND STATISTICS
Pencil and paper ready. Solve these combinatorics problems based on number theory.
In the base eight or octal system, how many distinct positive integers can be represented with one or two octal digits?
If the prime factorization of 315 is 3 squared times 5 times 7, how many positive integer factors does 315 have?
In base ten, how many two digit decimal numbers are there such that the first digit is a single-digit prime and the second digit is odd?
If order is irrelevant, how many ways are there to select two positive integers, not necessarily distinct, whose sum is 28?
This constant is the equilibrium constant for a reaction where the products are aqueous and the reactant is solid; accordingly, in equilibrium with excess reactant, this constant equals the product of the concentrations of the products raised to the number of times each ion appears per formula unit. When the ion product equals this constant, the solution is saturated. Identify this constant that determines the extent to which a solid turns into aqueous ions in the presence of water.
ANSWER: solubility product constant (or K-sp)
BONUS 12: SOCIAL STUDIES/WORLD HISTORY
Name these wives of Henry VIII.
Henry's first and longest marriage was to this woman, whose marriage Henry tried to annul, leading to the creation of the Church of England.
This mother of Edward VI left Henry a widower in 1537.
Hans Holbein the Younger painted a portrait of this woman for Henry. While he was impressed by the lady in the painting, he found her less desirable in person.
This wife of Henry outlived him, and after his death, married again, giving birth to a child before dying from puerperal fever.
ANSWERS: 1. Catherine of Aragon (prompt Catherine) 2. Jane Seymour 3. Anne of Cleaves (prompt Anne) 4. Katherine Parr (prompt Katherine)
TOSSUP 13: MATH/GEOMETRY AND TRIGONOMETRY (30 seconds)
Pencil and paper ready. Find the radian measure of the angle whose measure is one-third that of its supplement. It may help to know that supplementary angles have measures adding up to pi radians.
ANSWER: pi over 4 (or pi divided by 4, or one-fourth times pi or 0.25 times pi)
BONUS 13: LITERATURE/WORLD LITERATURE
Name these German authors who have won the Nobel Prize in literature.
This author's first novel was Buddenbrooks, and he created Hans Castorp in The Magic Mountain and Gustav von Aschenbach in Death in Venice.
This author wrote The Glass Bead Game in addition to Siddhartha and Steppenwolf.
This author's Danzig Trilogy comprises The Tin Drum, Cat and Mouse, and Dog Years.
This author wrote about the Faehmel family in the 1959 novel Billiards at Half-past Nine.
ANSWERS: 1. Paul Thomas Mann 2. Hermann Hesse 3. Gunter Wilhelm Grass 4. Heinrich Theodor Boll TOSSUP 14: SOCIAL STUDIES/CURRENT EVENTS
This structure's name was changed at the last minute to honor the generosity of the man who bailed out the area it sits in. This stucture's design specifications were purposely kept secret during the building process. Upgrades during the construction process led to several delays beyond the estimated early 2009 completion date Skidmore, Owings, and Merril, the same firm that designed the World Trade Center towers and the Sears/Willis Tower, was chosen as the final architect and engineer for the project. Unveiled in January 2010, name this tallest free-standing structure in the world, located in Dubai.
Answer the following about how RNA is used in the cell.
This process creates an RNA strand from a segment of DNA.
This is the type of RNA produced by the process in part 1.
This is the term for three consecutive bases on RNA that determine an amino acid to be used in making a protein.
These noncoding portions of DNA can have RNA strands created from them, but they are removed via splicing.
ANSWERS: 1. transcription 2. messenger RNA (or mRNA) 3. codon (do not accept anticodon) 4. introns
TOSSUP 15: LITERATURE/US LITERATURE
This author is not Willa Cather, but is known for a poem titled "Pioneers! O Pioneers!" In one poem, the speaker "shall mourn with ever-returning spring"; in another, the title character is described as having "fallen cold and dead." Those poems written after Lincoln's assassination are titled "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd" and "O Captain! My Captain!" Name this author whose "Song of Myself" appears in his collection of poetry titled Leaves of Grass.
ANSWER: Walter "Walt" Whitman BONUS 15: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
Answer the following about the Cuban missile crisis.
This Secretary of Defense at the time did not believe the missile posed a threat to the U.S.
This man was President of the United States during the Cuban missile crisis in 1962.
The agreement to end the standoff saw U.S. missiles removed from this country.
Embarassment from the resolution led to the downfall of this Soviet leader two years later.
ANSWERS: 1. Robert Strange McNamara 2. John Fitzgerald Kennedy (or JFK) 3. Republic of Turkey (or Turkey Cumhuriyeti) 4. Nikita Khrushchev
TOSSUP 16: LITERATURE/MYTHOLOGY
In one less commonly known myth, this Oread was killed by Pan's followers because she did not desire a relationship with men. After being killed, Gaia took the pieces of this mountain nymph and spread her throughout the world. Alternatively, the more common version of the myth starts with this nymph entertaining Hera while Zeus was pursuing other women. Name this figure who eventually fell in love with Narcissus, after which she was left with only her voice.
BONUS 16: MATH/ALGEBRA
Pencil and paper ready. Solve the following rate problems.
How many miles will a car travelling at a constant rate of 60 miles per hour travel in 4 hours?
In miles per hour, how fast is a train going if by travelling at a constant speed for 5 hours it goes 200 miles?
Two cars travel in the same direction along a straight road. One car goes at a constant 60 miles per hour, while the other goes at a constant 55 miles per hour. How many miles apart will the cars be after 6 hours?
In miles per hour, what is the overall average speed of a bicyclist who takes a round trip on a straight 30 mile road, completing the first leg of the trip at 20 miles per hour and the second leg at 10 miles per hour.
ANSWERS: 1. 240 miles 2. 40 miles per hour 3. 30 miles 4. 13 1/3 miles per hour (or 40/3 miles per hour, or 13.3 repeating miles per hour)
(MODERATOR NOTE: The correct answer to part 4 is obtained by using the harmonic mean, not the arithmetic mean.)
TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT TOSSUP: SOCIAL STUDIES/US HISTORY
In October 2009, this politician's veto of Assembly Bill 1176 became notable due to a profane acrostic message in it. He introduced reforms on teacher tenure, unions, the state budget, and redistricting in a November 2005 special election, which saw the defeat of all four of those measures. This man's election to his highest office in 2003 was made possible thanks to Gray Davis's unpopularity and a successful recall initiative. Name this foreign-born governor of California.
ANSWER: Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger
TIEBREAKER/REPLACEMENT BONUS: SCIENCE/CHEMISTRY
Answer the following about reaction dynamics.
This is the term for the reactant that is completely consumed during a reaction and that determines the amount of product produced.
Also known as the Ideal Law of Chemical Equilibrium, this law states that the product of the concentrations of products to the powers of their stoichiometric coefficients divided by the analogous product of reactants is a constant.
This principle states that a system at equilbrium that undergoes a stress will change the equilibrium to minimize the effect of that stress.
This word describes how the rate of reaction varies with respect to the concentration of a certain reactant.
ANSWERS: 1. limiting reactant 2. law of mass action 3. Le Chatlier's principle (or Le Chatler-Braun principle) 4. order ***END OF MATCH***