Workbook “Ah, but a man’s reach should exceed his grasp



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WORKBOOK

“Ah, but a man’s reach should exceed his grasp,


Or what’s a heaven for?”

(R.Browning: “Andrea del Sarto”)



WRITING TOPICS





  1. Whoever gets success becomes a target.

  2. People attend colleges or universities for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge).Why do you think people attend colleges?

  3. If you could make one important change in the university you attend, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer.

  4. It has been said, “Not everything that is learned is contained in books”. Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books.

  5. Effective advertising sells products. Describe an advertisement and explain why it is effective.

  6. A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. discuss the advantages and disadvantages of it.

  7. We all work with many different kinds of people. In your opinion what are some important characteristics of a co-worker? Use reasons and specific examples.

  8. What are some major characteristics of a leader?

  9. Passions in business are weaknesses

  10. There is no bad merchandise, only bad tradesmen

  11. There is a connection between pleasant scents and sales.

  12. The most important things in life are invisible.

  13. Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth – Do you agree or disagree?

  14. “Life flashes by like lightening”. Comment.


READING PASSAGES


1. Read and answer the following questions:

The following opinions were expressed in response to a questionnaire about LOVE

A student, 21: I love women and I love sex. I’m not sure what love is. I guess love is sex. If I could, I would make love to a different girl every night. No, I’m not thinking about marriage. Maybe when I’m old.
A teenage girl, 16: I dream of love almost day and night. I imagine places where I’ll meet my perfect man. He takes my hand and we walk through a green forest smelling of pine trees. We communicate without words, finally he kisses me. No, we don’t make love. That would be too vulgar! Love is pure!
A businessman, 40: I haven’t got time for love, or marriage, or family. Occasional sex with a stranger is everything I can allow myself. I admit it’s becoming less and less exciting – every time a different woman, a different hotel room and the same old scenario. Late dinner at an expensive restaurant, lots of alcohol, a taxi to the hotel….. and typical symptoms of the-morning-after. The worst thing is, you wake up lonely.
A man, 70: Love? Well, I love my granddaughter, she’s the sweetest little creature in the world. Sexual love? I don’t know. After all, what really counts is friendship, loyalty and day-to-day care, and not romantic sighs or passionate love-making.
A girl, 6: I love my doggie Nancy, and I’ll never leave her. And she loves me too. When Daddy gets angry with me, I talk to Nancy – she understands everything.
A man, 32: There’s no life without love. I’d love to be a father, but although I’ve been going out with my boyfriend, George, for three years now, I don’t think he’s going to get pregnant. Sex? I’d rather go for a long walk in the rain.


  1. Add your own definition to the above ones.
  2. Which of the men respinding to the questionnaire value friendship over sex?

  3. Who agrres to the opinion that love should be platonic?

  4. What are these people’s attitude towards sex, marriage.


  5. Which of the opinions annoyed you? Which made you laugh? Why?



2. In the library of an American university, the librarian left a notice saying : “Back in a minute”. Someone then scribbled the signature “Godot”.

Graffiti, the art of writing on the walls, is believed to be as old as the human race. It is a way of commenting on current social and political events, and of mocking advertising slogans. It can alos be a way of expressing oneself for people who have no chance or no courage to express their views in public. Graffiti writers use all sorts of walls available but probably the most popular are public lavatory walls, maybe because of the privacy they guarantee. Most grafiti are witty and humorous and provide excellent free entertainment. How do you like the following?

Keep Britain Tidy. Kill a tourist ( added to the environment protection slogan)

Jesus saves – Today he is the only one who can afford to

Join the army – Meet interesting people and kill them

God is dead – Nietzsche Nietzesche is dead-God.

However, graffiti can also be a form of vandalism. Some graffiti writers vandalise walls of builings with obscenities and various kinds of abuse. Compared to many of these, the following slogan does not seem obscene at all:

“Eat beans. America needs gas”

In most countries graffiti is regarded as a criminal offence. In Britain, if you are caught painting walls, you can be punished with a fine, or even sent to prison for up to ten years. Local authorities organize graffiti removing squads, and the London Underground spends about two million pounds every year on cleaning trains and station walls. This, however, does not discourage numerous graffiti writers who cover the walls of the whole world with thousands of new pictures and comments every year.

  1. What the most popular graffiti in Romania? Who writes them, and with what intention?


  2. What is your personal attitude to graffiti?


3. Two battleships assigned to the training squadron had been at sea on maneuvers in heavy weather for several days. I was serving on the lead battleship and was on watch on the bridge as night fell. The visibility was poor with patchy fog, so the captain remained on the bridge keeping an eye on all activities.

Shortly after dark, the lookout on the wing of the bridge reported. ”Light, bearing on the starboard bow”.

“Is it steady, or moving astern?” the captain called out.

Lookout replied, “Steady, captain, “which meant we were on a dangerous collision course with that ship.

The captain then called to the signalman, “Signal that ship: We are on a collision course, advise you change course 20 degreesy”

Back came a signal. “Advisable for you to change course 20 degrees”

The captain said, “Send, I’m a captain, change course 20 degrees.”

“I’m a seaman second class,” came the reply. “You had better change course 20 degrees.”

By that time, the captain was furious. He spat out, “Send, I’m a battleship. Change course 20 degrees.”

Back came the flashing light. “I’m a lighthouse.”



We changed course.


  1. What does “the lighthouse” represent for you?



4. Read the texts and comment upon them:

A. “You and your parents can stop worrying – Pasteur, Edison, Darwin and lots more were far from being geniuses in their teens.

History books seldom mention it, but the truth is that many of our greatest figures were less than inspiring when they were teenagers. They were given to daydreaming, indecision, plain dullness and they showed no promise of being great.

So, if you suffer from the same symptoms, don’t despair. The world was built by men and women whose parents worried that they would never amount the “hill of bens”. You don’t hear too much about their early failure because parents prefer to cite more inspriring examples” (Ch.D. Rice, It’s Never Too Late for Success)


B. “Does advertising manipulate people into buying what they don’t need? Critics say that advertising is so powerful and persuasive that people have no choice but to buy what they see advertised, regardless of their actual need for these products.

On the other side of the controversy, defenders acknowledge that the whole reason to advertise is to persuade. But they believe that advertising can’t create demand for a product no one wants. Advertising may bring people int oa store to buy, but if they can’t find the right size or colour, or if the quality isn’t acceptable they can – and do – leave without buying. People are also able to ignore advertising messages by turning down the radio or simply turning the page in a magazine or newspaper.” (Advertising and Promotion Industry)



C. “A winner is not afraid to do his own thinking and to use his own knowledge. We must know the rality by ourselves to become a credible, responsive person, and to separate facts from opinions not pretending to have answers for everything. A winner listens to others, ovaluates what they say, but comes to his/her own conclusions. A winner can be spontaneous. He does not have to respond in pre-determined, rigid ways. He can change his plans when the situation calls for it. He enjoys work, other people, life in general” (Winners)

D. “If you asked most newspaper editors what they thought their job was, they would probably say they had the duty to keep the public informed. But when one looks at the average newspaper in Britain today, one can’t help asking in return: “informed of what?” Most of the items are trivial and apart from that, all the news seems to be bad. If they were honest, the editors would say that all they are interested in is selling their papers. It seems that most people enjoy reading about other people’s misfortunes and in this case editors should admit that their real aim is not to inform the people but simply to entertain” (Synthesis Plus)

E. “Present viewing statistics indicate that the average Briton who reaches the age of 65 will have spent nine years of his life watching television. Children of 16 will have devoted more than twice as many hours to TV than to their school-teachers.

It is certain that four decades of TV have not produced wiser, kinder, more humane, more articulate, more concerned societies than we had before. Only broadcasters and home secretaries resis the overwhelming evidence that TV has been a major contributin in the increase of violence. Other consequences of too much TV are a decline in learning levels, less communication between parent and child, difficulty in expressing ideas logically, a disinclination to be involved and exercise choice” ( Milton Shulman, The Times)


F. Pattie thought that she had been assigned a routine job. When however she started working on the programme on AIDS, her life changed. After reading a large number of letters and talking to many patients on the phone, she chose the 40-year old Terry to be the main character in her documentary. Pattie feld that the last chapter of the film would probably be Terry’s funeral. “I was already impressed by this charming and good-looking man when we first talked for the first time. He was the first AIDS patient I had met face to face and as usual I called him a victim. He protested against the label, saying that he did not let us treat him as a patient. He fought for his life to the last minute, while encouraging other sufferers…

5. My neighbour works sixteen hours a day. Being a professor in physics, he spends all day in front of the computer, either generating complicated calculations or writing papers for various scientific magazines and conferences. He treats teaching during seminars and going to conferences as entertainment. He is incapable of reading a book other then professional stuff and, if he goes to a party, he gets so bored with people and their small talk that, after half an hour he takes an encyclopedia or an atlas of astronomy from the bookshelf and plunges into it in the nearest armchair.

Doctors have interpreted this kind of behaviour as pathological and named it “workaholism”. “Workaholics spend most of their lives working and find it impossible to relax and rest, no matter how tired and overworked they are. They usually don’t take holidays, and weekends are a nightmare for them. If it’s possible they spend their weekends in the office or at least take home some urgent work to do. Their spouses and friends abandoned them long ago and they have no time, or will, to make new acquaintances. The species of workaholics breeds especially well among business executives, politicians, scientists and computer programmers. And it seems that in the present day business world, demanding and full of stress, the species has every chance for fast development.



  1. What are the professions most infected by workaholism?

  1. How do you see the future of workaholism?

  2. What do you think is the ideal proportion between work and leisure?


6. It is often said that we learn things at the wrong time. University students frequently do the minimum amount of work because they ‘re crazy for a good social life instead. Children often scream before their piano practice because it’s so boring, have to be given gold stars and medlas to be persuaded to swim, or have to be bribed to take exams. But when you’re older?

Some people fear going back to school because they worry that their brains have got rusty. But the joy is that, although some parts have rusted up, your brain has learnt all kinds of other things since you were young. It has learnt to think independently and flexibly and is much better at relating one thing to another. In some ways age is a positive plus. For instance, when you’re older, you get less frustrated. Experience has told you that, if you’re calm and simply do something carefully again and again, eventually you’ll get the hang of it.



7. BUSINESS TYCOONS

America once idealized the businessman who amassed a vast financial empire, the business “tycoon”, the enterpreneur who not only made it big but made it very big.

The great tycoons were fierce competitors, single-minded in their pursuit of financial success and power. Among the giants wer J.P.Morgan, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller and Henry Ford. Some of these men were honest, according to business standards of their day; others used force, bribery and guile to achieve their wealth and power.

J.P.Morgan, perhaps the most flamboyant of the enterpreneurs, operated on a scale of magnificence. He displayed ostentation in his private and business life. He and his companions gambled, sailed yachts, gave lavish parties, built palatial homes and bought the art treasures of Europe.

In contrast, such men as John D.Rockefeller and Henry Ford demonstrated puritanical qualities. They retained their small-town values and lifestyles. They demonstrated that personal virtues could bring success; theirs was the gospel of work and thrift. Later their heirs would establish the largest philantropic foundations in America.

Nowadays the high-salaried manager replaced the business tycoon.


  1. What is a tycoon?

  2. Can a life based on principles and values be a source of wealth?



8. DOES HONESTY ALWAYS PAY?


  1. Can you think of a situation when it might not be a good idea to say exactly what you think?

  2. What kind of people could be described as dishonest?

What exactly is a lie? Is it anything we say which we know is untrue? Or is it something more than that? For example, suppose a friend wants to borrow some money from you. You say, ‘I wish I could help you but I’m short of money myself’. In fact, you are not short of money but your friend is in the habit of not paying his debts and you don’t want to hurt his feelings by reminding him of this. Is this really a lie?

Professor Jerald Jellison of the University of Southern California has made a scientific study of lying. According to him, women are better liars than men, particularly when telling a ‘white lie’ such as when a woman at a party tells another woman that she likes her dress when she really thinks it looks awful. However, this is only one side of the story. Other researchers say that men are more likely to tell more serious lies, such as making a promise which they have no intention of fulfilling. This is the kind of lie politicians and businessmen are supposed to be particularly skilled at: the lie from which the liar hopes to profit or gain in some way.

Research has also been done into the way people’s behaviour changes in a number of small, apparently unimportant ways when they lie. It has been found that if they are sitting down at the time, they tend to move about in their chairs more than usual. To the trained observer, they are saying, ‘I wish I were somewhere else now’. They also tend to touch certain parts of the face more often, in particular the nose. One explanation of this may be that lying causes a slight increase in blood pressure. The tip of the nose is very sensitive to such changes and the increased pressure makes it itch. Another gesture which gives liars away is what the writer Desmond Morris in his book “Manwatching” calls ‘the mouth cover’. He says there are several typical forms of this, such as covering part of the mouth with the fingers, touching the upper-lip or putting a finger of the hand at one side of the mouth. Such a gesture can be interpreted as an unconscious attempt on the part of the liar to stop himself or herself from lying.


Of course, such gestures as rubbing the nose or covering the mouth, or squirming about in a chair simply tend to occur more frequently in this situation. It is not one gesture alone that gives the liar away but a whole number of things, and in particular the context in which the lie is told.
Choose the best answer:


  1. According to the passage, a ‘white lie’ seems to be a lie




  1. that the other people believe

  2. that othe people don’t believe

  3. told in order to avoid offending someone

  4. told in order to gain some advantage




  1. Research suggests that women




  1. are better at telling less serious lies than men are

  2. generally lie far more than men do

  3. make promises they intend to break more often than men do

  4. lie at parties more often than men do




  1. One reason people sometimes rub their noses when they lie is that




  1. they eish they were somewhere else

  2. the nose is sensitive to physical changes caused by lying

  3. they want to cover their mouths.

  4. they are trying to stop themselves from telling lies




  1. It would appear from the passage that




  1. there is no simple way of finding out if someone is lying

  2. certain gestures are proof that the speaker is lying

  3. certain gestures are proof of lying only if they are repeated frequently

  4. people lie in some situations more often than in others.


9. WHAT’S LEFT AFTER RECYCLING AN OPEL?

Every Opel has always been built to last as long as possible. But today, we are building our new models in such a way that they can also be taken apart as easily as possible. The various materials which make up today’s cars are much too valuable to be simply thrown away. And our environment is just too valuable to be spoiled with piles of discarded cars. Recycling is better…….for Opel and the environment.

RECYCLING DOESN’T START AT THE SCRAPYARD. The problem is critical. Experts estimate that in the future up to 12 million used vehicles will be scrapped in Europe annually. It is therefore becoming increasingly important to introduce environmentally acceptable recycling methods. Recycling metals does not represent a major problem anymore. Depending on type, metals are recyclable at an 80 to 98% rate. Plastics account for about ten percent of a vehicle’s unloaded weight, and this proportion is likely to rise even further. But none of these plastic parts can be simply shredded, sorted magnetically and then melted down like iron or steel. Therefore, plastics must be produced from the beginning with recycling in mind.
THE ART OF PRECYCLING. Our engineers and material specialists have been developing ideas and new methods for systematical plastics recycling for years. Working in close cooperation with various specialist recycling companies, they now aim to bridge any remaining gaps in the recycling circuit. An Opel Astra that rolls off the assembly line today, for example, is equipped exclusively eith coded, recyclable plastic parts….a concept that could be called “pre-cycling”. And some of these parts have themselves already been manufactured from recycled plastics.

Ultimately, our goal is to have one thing left over from a ripe-for-the-scrap-heap Opel: a fond memory.

(From: Time Magazine, 1993)
Write: TRUE/FALSE


  1. The text is a paid advertisment for Opel.

  2. The text is taken from an Opel manual.

  3. The text is taken from a green magazine giving positive examples to be followed by other companies

  4. The text is critical of car manufacturers, including Opel, that are not doing enough for the environment

  5. The text is introducing a major breakthrough in recycling techniques.
  6. In the future, at least 12 million cars in Europe will be sent to the scrapyard every year.


  7. Recycling methods somtetimes pollute the environment.

  8. Metal amounts to 80-90 percent of the full weight of a vehicle.

  9. Plastics amount to 10% or more of the full weight of a vehicle.

  10. Recycling metal has longer traditions than recycling plastic.

  11. The methods for recycling plastics are to be modelled on the well-known processes used for metals.

  12. The amount of useful recycled iron and steel will weigh less than the metal going into the process.

  13. There are no technical problems left for large quantities of plastic to be recycled.

  14. Pre-cycling means producing environmentally friendly materials

  15. The ultimate aim of Opel manufacturers is to be able to make use of ll parts of a vehicle when it is not running any more.


10. THE GOOD NEWS ABOUT GOSSIP

Intelligent people talk about ideas



Average people talk about events

Common people talk about other people”

You are going to read a magazine article about gossip. Choose from the list A-H the sentence which best summarizes each part (1-6) of the article. There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use.


A There are different types and definitions of gossip

B Gossip can make us more sympathetic towards others

C A lot of gossip is not based on truth

D Gossip can be beneficial as well as unpleasant

E We like to learn about the misfortunes of successful people

F We sometimes gossip to convince ourselves that we’re no different from most

people

G When people gossip, it sometimes reveals an unpleasant side to their characters


H Most people enjoy gossiping

0

Nobody likes to admit it, but nothing is as much fun as talking about who’s doing what, where and with whom. Whatever you call it, other people’s lives are a constant source of fascination.


1.

The word ‘gossip’ conjures up an image of a group of people huddled in a corner, whispering about someone else’s misfortune or sharing some scandalous news about a neighbour or colleague. However, not all gossip is negative. Most of it is harmless and in fact, some gossip is positively good for you. Sharing information can help keep groups and communities together. Talking about people we know gives us a sense of belonging.


2.

When we chat about other people’s lives, we’re also looking for reassurance that our own behaviour is normal. It’s a relief to know we’re not the only ones who sometimes do things we’re ashamed of . And when we discuss someone’s problems at home, at school or at work, we want confirmation that other people’s lives are just as fraught with difficulty as out own.


3.

Bits of information passed around also help us understand how other people think and what’s happening in their lives. Knowing that someone is under pressure because of a personal problem allows you to be more sensitive and tolerant. At best it stops you putting your foot in it, as Donna, a secretary, knows. ‘It’s impossible to keep anything a secret at work. I discovered my boss was having problems at home. I was glad I knew, otherwise I might have been tempted to call him a miserable old fool.’

4.

Most men think women wast time chatting about inconsquential things. However, Robin Dunbar, Professor of Psychology at Liverpool University, says men gossip just as much as women. ‘Both sexes spend about two-thirds of their time talking about personal relationships and social behaviour, but they call it different things. Women gossip, men talk about office politics. Women spend more time talking about othe people’s relationships and men spend more time talking about themselves.’

5.

However, not all gossip is an innocent exchange of information. Sometimes it’s all too tempting to pass on nasty tales about people you don’t like – or even people you do. This tends to happen when we’re jealous of other people. We use the information that reaches us through others to compare our lives with everyone else’s. Subconsciously, we’re assessing our relationships and our lifestyles, and deciding whether we’re doing better or worse. Who can honestly say they don’t experience a slight feeling of satisfaction when people whose lives they envy suffer a major setback?


6.

Gossip columnists play on our need to compare our lves to other people’s. There’s no reason why we should care that a celebrity is in trouble. However, the rich and famous are held up as role models, so we see their lives as more interesting than our own. When they have problems we can identify with, we feel better. Some people enjoy such gossip so much that even the lives of characters in TV soap operas fill their discussions, as if they really existed.


11. THE IDEA OF SUMMERHILL

This is a story of a modern school – Summerhill. Summerhill began as an experimental school. It is no longer such: it is a demonstration school, for it demonstrates that freedom works.

When my first wife and I began the school, we had one main idea: to make the school fit for the child – instead of making the child fit the school.

Obviously, a school that makes active children sit at desks studying mostly useless subjects is a bad school. It is a good school only for those who believe in such a school, for those uncreative citizens who want docile, uncreative children who will fit into a civilization whose standard of success is money.

I taught in ordinary schools for many years. I knew the other way well. I knew it was all wrong. It was wrong because it was based on an adult conception of what a child should be and of how a child should learn.

Well, we set out to make a school in which we should allow children freedom to be themselves. In order to do this, we had to renounce all discipline, all direction, all suggestion, all moral training, all religious instruction. We have been called brave, but it did not require courage. All it required was what we had – a complete belief in the child as a good, not an evil, being.

My view is that a child is innately wise and realistic. If left to himself without adult suggestion of any kind, he will develop as far as he is capable of developing. Logically, Summerhill is a place in which people who have the innate ability and wish to be scholars will be scholars; while those who are only fit to sweep the streets will sweep the streets. But we have not produced a street cleaner so far. Nor do I write it snobbishly, for I would rather see a school produce a happy street cleaner than a neurotic scholar.

………Lessons are optional. Children can go to them, or stay away from them. There is a timetable – but only for the teachers.

The children have classes usually according to their age, but sometimes according to their interests. Summerhill is possibly the happiest school in the world. We have no truants and seldom a case of homesickness…

The function of the child is to live his own life, not the life that his anxious parents think he should live. All this interference and guidance on the part of adults only produces a generation of robots……

Free children are not easily influenced; the absence of fear accounts for this phenomenon. Indeed, the absence of fear accounts for this phenomenon and is the finest thing that can happen to a child.

Discussion questions:


  1. In what ways does a child usually have to fit a school?

  2. What are the freedoms that children at Summerhill enjoy?

  3. The author holds quite strong views on education, the innate qualities of children, and the way adults interfere with learning. Which of these views do you agree with?

  4. What were you afraid of when you were younger?

  5. Writing topic: A teacher that had a lot of influence on me.

 Group work. In column A put a number of 0-3 according to the importance attached to these aims at the school you attend. In column B, put a number of 0-3 according to what you think the ideal school’s priorities should be. Compare your conclusions as a class.







A

B

Helping you to develop your personality and character







Helping you to do as well as possible in the exams







Teaching you about right and wrong







Showing you how to get on with other people







Teaching you about what is going on in the world today





Keeping you occupied








Helping you with things you will need to know when you leave school (running a home, managing money, etc)







Making school a pleasant place to be in








12. BRIBERY – AN UNAVOIDABLE EVIL?

Students who take Economic studies are sometimes a little amazed at finding out that in their syllabus, there are also lectures on business ethics. Seldom do they realize that later on in the career they are going to follow they shall be tempted to compromize n order to obtain what they want; they may not be fully aware that bribery, under its different appearances, is increasing in many countries, in some it was even a style of life for centuries.

Talking about moral integrity is easy, but what about real life when confronted with such a situation? Some years ago, British Leyland, an English car manufacturer, was accused of having alloted dubious funds and of other suspicious practices, such as the payment of extremely important funds to certain agents and customers, additional discounts and payments to different secret accounts in Switzerland. The company denied these allegations, which were withdrawn later on. Nevertheless, in that same period, there were some people in the car-building industry, willing to confess off the record: “Look. This is the situation, we sell cars abroad for over a million pounds yearly. Who is to suffer if we spend some more millions bribing some of our customers? If we didn’t do it , someone else would.”

Bribery and suspicious payments have become a fact in the commercial life: for instance, the Chrysler Corporation, the third largest car manufacturer in the US has revealed that between 1971 and 1976 it had made such suspicious payments of more than two and a half million dollars. Over 300 other American companies have revealed the same thing. These payments can be divided into three cathegories.

The first category includes the payments made for political purposes to secure important contracts. For example, the American conglomerate ITT (International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation) offered an important sum of money to a presidential candidate in a time when it was investigated for additonal violations of the anti-brust law. It turned out that the same company was willing to fund the attempt to overturn the Marxist government in Chile, ruled by president Salvadore Allende.

In the same category can be included the big payments to the running families in certain countries or to their closest counsellors to arrange weapon sales or important contracts in the building or petro-chemistry industry.

A witness stated in front of a court investigating a case referring to a weapon sale contract to Iran that a British company had paid one million dollars to a go-between who had helped it to successfully clinch a tank sale to Iran. It is also known that there are countries that have put pressure on some foreign companies in order to obtain donations for some political parties.

The second category covers the sums paid to obtain faster the official agreement for a certain project, that is to speed up the biroctarical gearing.

The third category includes the sums paid in countries where they pay bribes in order to botain the conclusion of some contracts. On this list there are some countries in the Close and Middle East. Sometimes, an expensive gift is necessary to soften up a member ot the government, or a lesser sum is paid to some influential customs officials to clear goods.

Could one draw up a code able to impose some rules to the companies and to outlaw bribery under all its aspects? The International Commerce Chamber is for a code of ethics able to outlaw taking and giving bribes. Unfortunately, the members of the Chamber have different opinions on the way in which the code should be enforced. The British wish the system was strict enough to make the firms behave. “It is useless to have a quiet dog”, they say. But the French delegation considers that drawing up and imposing laws is government’s task. The task of a business community as the ICC is to establish the right and the wrong, without imposing anything.

Although one may exagerate in saying that industry is blocked by bribery, the businessment often find themselves nowadays in circumstances when it is hard for them to concord their commercial interests and their consciousness.

MULTIPLE CHOICE

The Muddle of MBA’s

It is incongruous that the number of British institutions offering MBA courses should have grown by 254 per cent during a period when the economy has been sliding into deeper recession. Optimists, or those given to speedy assumptions, might think it marvellous to have such a resource of business school graduates ready for the recovery. Unfortunately, there is now much doubt about the value of the degree – not least among MBA graduates themselves, suffering as they are from the effects of recession and facing the prospect of shrinking management structures.

What was taken some years ago as a ticket of certain admission to success is now being exposed to the scrutiny of cost-conscious employers who seek “can-dos” rather than “might-dos”, and who feel that academia has not been sufficiently appreciative of the needs of industry or of the employers’ possibility contribution.

It is curious, given the name of the degree, that there should be no league table for UK business schools; no unanimity about what the degree should encompass; and no agreed system of accreditation. Surely there is something wrong. One wonders where all the tutors for this massive infusion of business expertise came from and why all this mushrooming took place.

Perhaps companies that made large investments would have been wiser to invest in already existing managers, perched anxiously on their own internal aldders. The Institute of Management’s 1992 survey, which revealed that eighty-one per cent of managers thought they would be more effective if they received more training, suggests that this might be the case. There is, too the fact that trining alone does not make succesful managers. They need the inherent qualifications of character; a degree of self-subjugation, and, above all, the ability to communicate and lead; more so now, when empowerment is a buzzword that is at least generating genuflexions, if not total conviction.

One can easily think of people, some comparatively unlettered, who are now lauded captains of industry We may, therefore, not need to be too concerned about the fall in applications for business school places, or even the doubt about BMAs. The proliferation and subsequent questioning may have been an inevitable evolution. If the Management Charter Initiative, now exploring the introduction of a senior management qualification, is successful, there will be a powerful corrective.

We believe now that management is all about change. One hope there will be some of that in the relationship between management and science within industry, currently causing concern and which is overdue for attention. No-one doubts that we need more scientists and innovation to give us an edge in an increasingly competitive world. If scientist feel themselves undervalued and under-used, working in industrial ghettos, that is not a promising augury for the future. It seems we have to resolve these misapprehensions between science and industry. Above all, we have to make sure that management is not itself smug about its status and that it does not issue mission statements about communication without realising that the essence of it is a dialogue. More empowerment is required – and we should strive to achieve it.

Choose the right answer:


  1. What is the writer’s view in the reading passage? He believes that…….




  1. there are too many MBAs

  2. the degree is overvalued

  3. standards are inconsistent

  4. the degree has dubious value




  1. According to the passages, employers…….

  1. feel that they have not been consulted sufficiently about their needs

  2. consider that cost-consciousness is the most important qualification

  3. are more concerned about the value of the degree than graduates themselves

  4. feel that MBAs will not be necessary because of shrinking management structures




  1. According to the passage,…..




  1. managers need a degree and the ability to communicate

  2. training needs to be done in groups to be successful

  3. managers today must have good communication and leadership skills

  4. industrial managers do not need to write letters




  1. In the writer’s opinion,…..




  1. science increases competition

  2. scientists are undervalued

  3. the management of science needs reassessment

  4. management feels smug about its status

READ the following statements and say how they reflect the information in the reading passage: A- if you agree with the statement; D- if you disagree with the statement, U – the information is not clearly given in the passage.

- Example: The number of MBA courses being offered more than doubled during the recession - A

  1. Employers today are looking for proven experience rather than potential ability

  2. Most managers interviewed felt that their colleagues needed more training

  3. The Management Charter Initiative is an attempt to standardize MBAs.

  4. Companies would have benefited more from investing in their own staff rather than recruiting MBAs.



SENDING MESSAGES IN THE HUMAN JUNGLE
When we walk through the city we are bombarded by stimuli of all kinds, such as traffic, crowds and noise, and most city dwellers experience a kind of information overload, which is dealt with by using an attentional filtering process. It is as if we have tunnel vision, or to those which are important to us. We don’t stop, we keep our faces blank and eyes straight ahead, and in doing so, we are not just protecting ourselves but are avoiding overloading other people as well. We thus ignore certain things in the environment, and this applies particularly to things that regularly appear in the line of sight as we walk through the street. Commuters on their way to work may filter out or not even notice the sight of young people who have been sleeping rough in the sam spot for some time.

When we are overloaded in the fastmoving, ever-changing environment of the city, we make use of stereotypes as convenient shorthand ways to make quick judgements about situations and people. They may not always be accurate, and they can often be dangerously wrong, but they are used regularly in a relatively benign way. Passing someone on the way to work, we may often summarise their social position and attitudes by briefly glancing at their dress, or the car they are driving or the newspaper they are reading.

The problem with the shorthand of stereotypes is that they restrict experience. By using limited clues to provide us with a rapid opinion of other people or places we may choose to limit oru interactions. We may decide not to go certain places because we believe they will not offer something we enjoy. However, the stereotypes we use ofer a rapid way of summing up others without investing much energy or effort, and provide us with a way of dealing with the wide diversity of city life.

In the city, we not only use stereotypes to enable us to decode information but also make use of them in order to present an image of ourselves. When we are in public, we use dress and other non-verbal clues to create a stereotype that signals oru social group, attitudes and personality to others. this enables us to make contact with other like-minded people and avoid others whom we regard as different.

In the context of the city, modes of dress are particularly important with regard to self-presentation. Different groups often use clearly identifiable styles of clothes so that they can be easily recognised. Using T-shirts and clearly labelled identifiers of places visited or affiliations are ways in which we can identify oruselves and have a clear opener for social itneraction with others, and the structure of clothes is changing to cater for these needs. It is becoming increasingly common for brand names to be placed on the outside of garments, and this labelling makes it easy to transmit information about fashion and price instantly, and lets others tell at a distance whether an individual has similar tastes and is a suitable person to associate with.

Besides clothers, make-up and in particular hairstyle are all part of the process of giving off signals as to our group. The way the hair is worn in some traditional societies signals status and psotion, and in the city, hairstyles also signal group membership. Some other signals are much more subtle and may involve small differences in behaviour. In England, where social grouping or class continues to make social distinctions, people’s accent and the manner of speaking are all clues to our social group. Class distinctions tend to be relatively fixed, although in the context of the city, where greater variety is permitted, they are more likely to be secondary determinants of friendship and association.

Choose the best answer:


  1. People walking in cities ignore much of the stimuli around them because




  1. there is too much information to take in

  2. everyone else is expressionless

  3. the environment is already familiar to them

  4. they do not wish to talk to other people




  1. In the city, we assess people by using stereotypes because




  1. we all have prejudices against certain groups

  2. they enable us to form reliable impressions of others

  3. we need to make judgements very quickly

  4. they need to be given the benefit of the doubt




  1. According to the text, the main disadvantage of using stereotypes is that they




  1. may make us miss out on potentially pleasurable experiences

  2. have the potential of leading us into dangerous situations

  3. can rarely be relied upon

  4. make us mentally lazy




  1. In the city, clothes are particularly important because




  1. they can help to create a particular stereotype

  2. they allow people to express their individuality

  3. they give a great deal of information about an individual

  4. people are becoming increasingly interested in fashion

Now choose the best word:



  1. Under the………….. I refused the offer.

a.circumstances b. on behalf

c. opportunity d. occasion




  1. Lending them so much money is out of the ……..

a. question b. bargain

c. chance d. risk



  1. The new tax put a heavy………….. on their budget

a. debt b. bond

c.responsibility d. burden




  1. The discovery was a major……………for all research fields.

a. breakthrough b. break in

c. breakdown d. breakout




  1. Have you paid the…………..for the conference?

a. due b. fee

c. hire d. money




  1. Are you ……..enough to ask your boss for a rise?

a. strong b. bald

c. fearless d. bold




  1. If you will only………….a minute. I’ll put you through.

a. hold out b. hand on

c. hang on d. call off




  1. When she……….. she’ll take more care of her grandson.

a. dismisses b.resigns

c. retires d. pensions


9.What does GMT stand for?

a. estimate b. measure

c. conceal d. represent
10.Being a book-keeper is boring in my opinion.

a. assistant b. accountant

c. clerk d. librarian
11. We need a score of industrious people to finish it in time.

a. honest b. careful

c. hard-working d. useful
12. Which is your favourite brand of cigarettes?

a. choice b.kind

c.mark d. filter
13.They have lowered the price of cars.

a. increased b.limited

c.reduced d.kept
14.The ad in the newspaper offered me the long-wished for opportunity.

a. article b.announcement

c. information d. headline



  1. Make the report brief next time, will you?

a. clear b. short

c. plain d. long

17.Where do they bring the raw material from?

a.necessary b. processed

c. crude d. solid

18. The accident in the works grieved everybody

a. mine b. port

c. plant d. lab


  1. Nobody knew what the cargo of that plane really was.

a. mission b.make

c. load d. purpose




  1. I’ve just got his wire.

a. letter b. phone-call

c. telegram d. message




CLOZE EXERCISES
HEALTH IN THE PALM OF YOUR HAND
Contrary…… a widely held belief, the “life line”……..the palm of your hand does…… indicate how long you are going ….. live.

To serious……..readers it really shows just how well you are going to live it.

For those…..believe in the power of the palm to indicate…….. future, breaks in the life……… signal illness or other major change.

Likewise, the “line of fate” shows events which …….. influence our lives.

The line of head…… connected with intelligence. The “heart line” ……. said to control ……… your emotional and your sexual life.

The “sun line” hints……… your artistic inclinations.

Your general……. of health is indicated by the “health line”. However, it is ……… always present, which is a good sign. For if it is there, you should. ……… care of your health.

Palmistry has some support from doctors. In the sixties links were found ….. abnormal hand prints and a German measles epidemic. …….. doctors in Japan claim they ……… accurately predict a patient’s susceptibility to a disease by a simple examination of………. palm prints.

So ……… time you go to the seaside or circus and have your palm …….., remember to ask about your health. You might find out more about the future than through a ……. to the doctors.!


ATTITUDES TO WORK AND LEISURE

Use the following words or phrases in its correct place below.

constructively rewarding challenge

conditioned aimless initiative

creativity 9 to 5 reglementation

scope aspire fulfilment

Most adults……………. to more leisure but, in fact, not many people have the necessary……….. to use the free time they already have very ……….. The sad fact is that we need work because it imposes the discipline we need. Life seems ………… and we secretly look forward to our work again. We dream about personal…………. but probably find it more in our work than in our leisure time. This depends on age. The young are free from work and responsibility, and freedom comes naturally to them. However, after they begin jobs they become ……….. to work. They find they need it, however, much they complain about its routine and …………. Obviously this again depends on the kind of work. Those with ………… jobs which require …………., receive genuine satisfaction from their work, but most of us are in conventional………………jobs which offer little ……….for imagination. We leave our work only to face a leisure that we find difficult to cope with. Our mistake is in regarding leisure as a chance to do nothing, whereas in fact it should be looked on as a …………….
CAN FOOD AFFECT BEHAVIOUR?

When ……… than 8,000 youngsters in detention centres ……. placed on a new diet, their guards couldn’t believe the difference. The inmates’ problem behaviour – everything …….. fighting to stealing - fell ……. nearly ……… half when all junk food was banned from ……. menu. The youngsters were studied by top criminologist Dr. Stephen Schoenthaler, ……. is convinced that the food …… eat does affect our behaviour.

Another dramatic diet experiment on more than one million American schoolchildren over four years showed a 15% ….. ….. in overall academic ability. Junk food was ……….. by wholefood. Sugar was ……. down, artificial colourings, flavouring…….. preservatives were eliminated.

……. one third of a person’s food intake in the UK is sugar. So, if the rest of the diet is high…….. fats, heavily processed and overcooked, this can ……. to “borderline malnutrition”, says Ian Stoakes, development director of the British Society ……. Nutritional Medicine.

Modern methods of processing and condensing food …….. us to consume far more “empty calories” than ever……… For example, sugar is not poisonous, ………. it doesn’t contain any nutrients.

While ……… of us could munch our way through the six feet of sugar cane it takes to produce two teaspoons of sugar, we can easily get …….. times that amount in a day when it ……. to the “hidden” sugar in everything, from biscuits…….. baked beans.

However, ……… everyone agrees that food can affect behaviour. When the new study is completed, it should…….. us more about diet and behaviour links.

adequate strategies low price issue

successful

“You should set realistic objectives for your business and develop appropriate ……………. to achieve them. These objectives must be compativle with your personal ambitions and values. Most………………strategies tend to be simple and concentrate on the business’s strength while building an………….. defence against its weaknesses. An over-elaborate strategy which prevents management from concentrating on the key issues is a common………… So too is failing to define the true nature of your business and its markets. For example, does a manufacturer of home computers serve the market for personal computers or that for executive toys?

Price strategy will be a key for the new business. It is surprising how often new companies underprice their products. It is generally unwise to choose a strategy involving high volumes of……………….. products. In addition to the manufacturing and distribution problems which could arise, you will be vulnerable to attack from an established competitor by sustained price cutting.” (How to Set up Your Own Business – by David Philip, 1995, p.10)




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