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Artificial Production

Artificial production within the Umatilla subbasin includes summer steelhead, coho, and spring and fall chinook salmon programs. The summer steelhead, spring chinook, and subyearling fall chinook programs are funded by BPA as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The fall chinook yearling program is funded under the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers John Day Mitigation Program, and the coho are produced under the Mitchell Act.

The first releases of hatchery summer steelhead occurred from 1967 through 1970 and were of Skamania and Oxbow stocks (Appendix D). The first release of Umatilla stock steelhead occurred in 1975 and releases every year since have been of endemic stock. Broodstock for the program are collected at Three Mile Dam on the lower Umatilla River. Historically, numbers released and release locations have varied; however, the current program is to acclimate and release 150,000 smolts annually into Meacham Creek and the upper mainstem Umatilla River.

Coho salmon have been released from 1966 through 1969 and from 1987 to the present and have been primarily of Tanner Creek stock (Appendix E). Broodstock for the program are collected at Bonneville Hatchery. Historically, numbers released and release locations have varied, however, the current program is to acclimate and release 1,500,000 smolts annually into the mainstem Umatilla River.

Spring chinook salmon from Carson stock have been released since 1986 (Appendix F). Beginning with the 1998 releases, Carson stock spring chinook returning to the Umatilla River have been the primary broodstock source for the Umatilla River program. The goal for the program is to collect all broodstock at Three Mile Dam. Historically, numbers released and release locations have varied, however, the current program is to acclimate and release 710,000 yearling smolts annually into the upper mainstem Umatilla River.

Fall chinook salmon have been released in the Umatilla River Basin every year since 1982 (Appendix G). These releases have included both yearling and subyearling life history stages. The 1982 release was from Spring Creek tule stock. Since then, all releases have been of upriver bright stock. Upriver brights returning to the Umatilla River have been the primary broodstock source for the yearling John Day Mitigation Program since 1997. Broodstock for the program are to be collected at Three Mile Dam and Priest Rapids Hatchery. Historically, numbers released and release locations have varied, however, the current program is to acclimate and release 480,000 yearling and 600,000 subyearling smolts annually into the mainstem Umatilla River.

In addition to the juvenile release programs, an adult fall chinook-outplanting program was initiated in 1996. Surplus upriver bright stock from Priest Rapids and Ringold Springs hatcheries are released into natural production areas in the mid Umatilla River. The goal of the program is to release 1,000 adults annually. Actual releases have ranged from 200 to 970. (Table 49). There are also plans to outplant 100 surplus spring chinook from Ringold Springs Hatchery into Meacham Creek. This program has not been initiated to date.

Table 49. Fall chinook adult outplants released into the Umatilla River since 1996


Year

Number of adults released

1996

712

1997

940

1998

200

1999

970

2000

471

Historically, legal-sized rainbow trout were stocked throughout the Umatilla River basin. Stocking over the past decade however, has occurred only in the mainstem Umatilla River and lower McKay Creek. From 1990 through 1993, approximately 8,000 legal sized Cape Cod rainbow trout were stocked in the upper Umatilla River. In 1994, stocking of legal sized rainbow trout was relocated downstream to the Pendleton area to reduce interaction with wild redband rainbow/steelhead trout in the upper Umatilla River. In 1999, all stocking of rainbow trout within the Umatilla Basin was discontinued in an effort to protect wild stocks of redband rainbow/steelhead trout. Numbers of trout stocked in the Umatilla River is summarized in Table 50.

Table 50. Rainbow trout stocked in Umatilla basin streams, 1991 – 2000 (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife data).


Year

Stream

Location

Number

1991

Umatilla River

Forks Area

8,004

1992

Umatilla River

Forks Area

7,802

1993

Umatilla River

Forks Area

7,814

1994

Umatilla River

Pendleton Area

7,820

1995


Umatilla River

McKay Creek



Pendleton Area

Below Reservoir



3,401

2,000

1996


Umatilla River

Pendleton Area

4,991

1997

Umatilla River

Pendleton Area

5,008

1998

Umatilla River

Pendleton Area

4,597

1999

Umatilla River

Pendleton Area

3,800

2000







0

Umatilla Hatchery, constructed and operated under the Fish and Wildlife Program, is the central production facility for the Umatilla Basin Fish Restoration Program. It is operated by ODFW and currently produces summer steelhead, spring chinook, and subyearling fall chinook salmon. A number of out of basin hatchery facilities also produce fish for the program. Bonneville Hatchery produces yearling fall chinook, Little White Salmon Hatchery produces spring chinook, and Cascade Hatchery and Lower Herman Creek Ponds produce coho salmon.

There is also a hatchery facility proposed in the Umatilla Hatchery Supplemental Master Plan. This hatchery would be located at the same site as the existing South Fork Walla Walla adult holding facility. The hatchery would produce additional yearling spring chinook smolts for the Umatilla River in order to achieve natural production, broodstock and harvest objectives. The master plan for this project is scheduled to go through the NPPC review process later in 2001.

An integral part of the artificial production program for the basin also includes juvenile acclimation and adult holding and spawning satellite facilities. These facilities are all operated by CTUIR under the Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance project. There are five acclimation facilities in the basin; Bonifer Pond, Minthorn Springs, Imeques C-mem-ini-kem, Thornhollow, and Pendleton. The first acclimation facility (Bonifer) was constructed and began operations in 1983. With the completion of the Pendleton facility in 2000, all juvenile salmon and steelhead released into the basin are now acclimated.

There are also three adult facilities associated with the Fish Restoration Program. Summer steelhead are held and spawned at Minthorn, fall chinook at Three Mile Dam, and spring chinook at South Fork Walla Walla. Three Mile Dam may also be used for holding and spawning coho salmon. Broodstock for these facilities are collected and transported from the Three Mile Dam Adult Trapping and Handling Complex by the Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations project. The number of broodstock collected at Three Mile Dam and green eggs taken for each species is listed in Table 51.


Pacific Lamprey


CTUIR has been working cooperatively with the USGS-Biological Resource Division, Columbia River Research Lab (CRRL) in Cook, WA to develop and refine artificial propagation techniques for Pacific lamprey. Lamprey were collected from the John Day River in 1998 and manually spawned at CRRL in June 1998. Although, these techniques have not been finalized and are still under refinement, it is one option that the CTUIR is considering for reestablishment of lamprey in CTUIR’s ceded areas.

Lamprey collected from the John Day River and the John Day Dam are being used to reestablish larval abundance in the Umatilla River by outplanting them in prime natural production locations close to spawning time. In 1999, CTUIR collected 100 adult lamprey by hand at Tumwater Falls on the John Day River approximately 16 km above the confluence with the Columbia River in July and August. An additional 500 adult lamprey were collected at the John Day Dam fish ladder during winter dewatering and maintenance. All lamprey were transported to the CRRL, and treated with oxytetracycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg for bacterial infections and treated with 37% formaldehyde (formalin) for external parasites. Fish were maintained in 0.9-m diameter tanks supplied with river water at a temperature of 6-8C. To induce sexual development of lamprey, water temperature was increased from 6C in May to 15C by mid June 2000.

Table 51. Number of broodstock collected at Three Mile Dam and green eggs taken



Brood

Year


Summer Steelhead

Coho

Fall Chinook

Spring Chinook

Number

of Brood


Collected

Number

of Green


Eggs Taken

Number

of Brood


Collected

Number

of Green


Eggs Taken

Number

of Brood


Collected

Number

of Green


Eggs Taken

Number

of Brood


Collected

Number

of Green


Eggs Taken




























1983

161

132,000




















1984

52

100,000



















1985

104

150,000



















1986

69

166,000



















1987

148

239,760

















1988

133

121,980



















1989

150

214,712



















1990

92

130,274



















1991

202

410,356







347

601,548








1992

225

476,871







211

195,637







1993

128

255,441

580

676,171

347

352,320







1994

135

234,432



















1995

154

223,525


860

945,828













1996

133

215,408







576

778,058







1997

110

209,639







299

641,961

597

1,029,237

1998

116

228,622







199

257,311

202


455,953

1999

128

224,716







464

541,821

631

942,988

2000

130

200,825







603




619

1,120,995





















































Total

2,370

3,934,561

1,440

1,621,999

3,046

3,368,656

2,049

3,549,173



























Lamprey were checked weekly for ripeness and checked for disease before release into the Umatilla River. In May of 2000, 600 adult lamprey were released at river km 119 near Meacham Creek. In 2000, adult lamprey were collected only from the Columbia River mainstem at John Day Dam. The goal is to outplant 500 adults annually into the Umatilla River to begin restoration efforts. The numerous habitat enhancement actions ongoing and proposed for salmonids are also expected to benefit Pacific lamprey. Continual evaluation of adult outplanting will be necessary to determine success of restoration efforts.






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