Appendix F - Hatchery releases of spring chinook salmon in the Umatilla subbasin
Appendix G - Hatchery releases of fall chinook salmon in the Umatilla subbasin
Appendix H - Management Plan (HGMP)
SECTION 1. GENERAL PROGRAM DESCRIPTION 1.1) Name of Program
Umatilla RiverSummer Steelhead Program
1.2) Population (or stock) and species
Endemic Umatilla River Summer Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
1.3) Responsible organization and individual:
The Umatilla River Summer Steelhead Program is co-managed by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). This HGMP has been developed and submitted by CTUIR separately from ODFW.
Fisheries Program Manager
Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation
email@example.com 1.4) Location of hatchery and associated facilities:
Adult Collection: Summer steelhead broodstock are collected at the Three Mile Falls Dam adult trapping facility located approximately 4 miles upstream from the mouth of the Umatilla River, near the town of Umatilla, in Umatilla County, Oregon. The regional mark processing center site code for Three Mile Falls Dam is 5F33427 H27 24.
Holding and Spawning: Summer steelhead broodstock are transferred to Minthorn Springs (Minthorn) for holding and spawning. Minthorn is located approximately 4 miles east of Mission in Umatilla County, Oregon. The facility is located on Minthorn Springs Creek. The creek is approximately one mile long with the facility located near the mouth at approximately Umatilla RM 64. The regional mark processing center site code for this facility is 5F33414 H14 22.
Incubation and rearing (from green egg to smolt): Green eggs are transferred to Umatilla Hatchery for incubation and rearing. Umatilla Hatchery is located along the Columbia River approximately two miles west of Irrigon in Morrow County, Oregon. The regional mark processing center site code for Umatilla Hatchery is 5F33449 H49 21.
Acclimation to release: Juvenile summer steelhead are transferred to Minthorn and Bonifer Pond (Bonifer) for acclimation and release. Minthorn is discussed under “Holding and Spawning”. Bonifer is located approximately 20 miles east of Mission in Umatilla County, Oregon. The facility lies adjacent to Meacham Creek at approximately RM 2. The pond discharges into Boston Canyon Creek, which then flows approximately 20 yards before entering Meacham Creek. Meacham Creek flows into the Umatilla River at approximately RM 79. The regional mark processing center site code for Bonifer is 5F33440 H40 21.
Type of Program:
Integrated Recovery: The Umatilla River Summer Steelhead Program integrates recovery through supplementation with harvest objectives while maintaining the endemic genetic characteristics of the target populations.
1.6) Program goal:
The goals of the Umatilla River Summer Steelhead Program are threefold: 1) Enhance production through supplementation of naturally producing populations; 2) Provide sustainable tribal and non-tribal harvest opportunities; and 3) Maintain the genetic character of the natural population.
1.7) Specific performance objectives:
Enhance production through supplementation of naturally producing populations: Adult return goals in the original master plan include 4,000 natural and 5,670 hatchery adult steelhead to Three Mile Falls Dam (CTUIR and ODFW, 1989). It was projected that these goals would be reached five years after the completion of Umatilla Hatchery. However, water and space limitations at the hatchery produced a poor quality smolt. This led to a reduction of hatchery smolt production from 210,000 to 150,000 in 1993 (1992 brood).
Provide sustainable tribal and non-tribal harvest opportunities: Tribal and sport fisheries are monitored annually to determine the success of the harvest objective.
Maintain the genetic character of the natural population: Only Umatilla stock adults are used for brood in order to maintain genetic similarity between the hatchery and wild populations. Currens and Schreck (1993 and 1995) collected and reported baseline genetic characteristics of Umatilla River summer steelhead. Additional samples will be collected approximately every five years to archive and monitor the genetic characteristics of the natural steelhead populations. Subsequent proposals to collect genetic samples have not been funded.
1.8) List of Performance Indicators designated by "benefits" and "risks"
Below is a generic list of performance indicators. Specific indicators will be developed as part of the Natural Production Plan (NPP) called for in the “Memorandum of Understanding regarding Implementation of Oregon State Law HB 3609” between ODFW, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, CTUIR and Nez Perce Tribe (HB3609 MOU).
Increase total adults returning to the subbasin.
Provide sustainable harvest opportunities for both tribal and non-tribal fisheries.
Monitor and evaluate natural life histories and supplementation strategies.
Enhance the natural spawning population while maintaining the genetic characteristics of the target population.
Does collection of wild fish for broodstock negatively affect the natural spawning population.
Introduction of hatchery fish into natural environment could function as a vector for pathogens.
Increased production beyond basin carrying capacity could detrimentally affect the existing natural population.
First generation hatchery adults spawning in the wild may reduce spawning productivity.
Hooking mortality associated with fisheries could reduce natural escapement.
1.9) Expected size of program
1.9.1 Expected Releases
Excluding 1971 through 1974 and 1976 through 1980, juvenile summer steelhead have been released into the Umatilla River basin since 1967 (Table 2). Release numbers from 1967 through 1992 were highly variable; however, numbers released from 1993 through 1999 have been between 122,000 and 158,000. The production goal for FY 2000 and subsequent years is 150,000 smolts.
1.9.2 Adult Fish Harvested
The number of hatchery fish harvested was originally expected to be about 500 fish annually. However, harvest rates have been lower than expected because of three factors: 1) Anglers are releasing hatchery steelhead, 2) Hatchery return rates are lower than expected, and 3) Angler success is lower than expected.
Non-tribal anglers are required to release wild steelhead. Tribal fishermen are encouraged to release wild fish but are only required to release wild fish below Three Mile Falls Dam. Tables 3, 4 and 5 detail the estimated harvest of Umatilla River steelhead since 1993.
1.9.3 Escapement Goals
The program goals for adult returns are 4,000 natural and 5,670 hatchery adult summer steelhead to Three Mile Falls Dam. The expected run size for 1999-00 is 1,741 (range = 1,563 – 1,918) (ODFW and CTUIR, 1999).
1.10) Date program started or is expected to start:
The current summer steelhead program (100% rearing at Umatilla Hatchery) began in 1991 with smolt releases in 1992. However, hatchery steelhead smolts have been released into the Umatilla River Basin since 1967 (Table 2).
1.11) Expected duration of program:
This is an on-going program.
1.12) Watersheds targeted by program:
The Umatilla Summer Steelhead Program targets hatchery releases in the mainstem of the Umatilla River (RM 0-80) and lower Meacham Creek (RM 2).
SECTION 2. RELATIONSHIP OF PROGRAM TO OTHER MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES
List all existing cooperative agreements, memoranda of understanding, memoranda of agreement, or other management plans or court orders under which program operates. Indicate whether this HGMP is consistent with these plans and commitments, and explain any discrepancies.
1) CTUIR. 1994. Wildlife Mitigation Plan (Draft) May 1996, Columbia Basin Salmon Policy. 1995 pg 9-10, and Water Assessment Report;
2) NMFS - Salmon & Steelhead Enhancement Plan for the Washington and Columbia River Conservation areas.Vol 1. chpt 4, 37pgs;
6) BOR. 1988. Umatilla basin Project Planning Report,
7) Umatilla County - Comprehensive Plan. 1983, chpt 8;
8) USNF - Umatilla National Forest Land & Resource Management Plan. 1990, chpt 2, pg 13. and Final EIS. 1990, chpt III, pgs 59-62;
9) CTUIR/ODFW. 1990. Umatilla River Subbasin Salmon and Steelhead Production Plan;
10) Boyce, R. 1986. A Comprehensive Plan for Rehabilitation of Anadromous Fish Stocks in the Umatilla River Basin; 11)USFWS & NMFS. 1982. Umatilla R. Planning Aid Report.
This HGMP is consistent with these plans and commitments.
2.2) Status of natural populations in target area.
2.2.1) Geographic and temporal spawning distribution of steelhead.
Steelhead spawning surveys conducted from 1989 through 1999 indicate that the majority of steelhead spawn from late February through May with the peak in early April (Contor et al. 1998). Steelhead redds have been observed in Birch Creek and in the mainstem and the major tributaries of the Umatilla River at and above Minthorn Springs at RM 64.5. A few steelhead redds are also found in some of the smaller tributaries such as Mission Creek, Moonshine Creek, Buckaroo Creek, Camp Creek and East Meacham Creek. All perennial stream reaches above RM 64 are considered suitable for summer steelhead spawning and rearing (Figure 2).
2.2.2) Annual spawning abundance for as many years as available.
From 1987 through 1998, the estimated number of adults available for spawning in the Umatilla River Basin has ranged from 857 in 1990-91 to 2,322 in 1991-92, with a mean of 1,695 (Table 1).
2.2.3) Progeny-to-parent ratios, survival data by life-stage, or other measures of productivity for as many brood years as available.
Adult returns of naturally produced steelhead are the primary measurement of productivity used (see Table 1). Abundance of natural juvenile summer steelhead emigrating from the basin has ranged from approximately 54,000 in 1998 to 73,000 in 1996 (Knapp et al. 1996, 1998a 1998b, 2000 in preparation). Other measures of productivity (monitoring and enumeration of redd counts, and juvenile abundance estimates) have been examined without acceptable results.
2.2.4) Annual proportion of hatchery and natural fish on natural spawning grounds for as many years as possible.
The percent of adults available to spawn that were of hatchery origin has ranged from 6.9% of the total run in 1987-88to a high of 58.9% in 1996-97with a mean of 27.2% (1987-1998; Table 6).
2.2.5) Status of natural population relative to critical and viable population thresholds.
Analysis of Umatilla steelhead populations by ODFW (Chilcote 1997), states “there are no obvious signs that steelhead populations in the John Day and Umatilla are reproductively failing or at critically low population levels… their capacity to respond to environmental changes is still intact.”
2.3) Relationship to Harvest ObjectivesSteelhead harvest guidelines were developed by state and tribal co-managers as part of the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR and ODFW, 1989). This plan identified hatchery broodstock, spawning escapement, and tag collection for evaluation as priorities, and specified numbers of fish allocated to these uses at varying run sizes. The plan was designed to allow harvest of fish returning in excess of these needs. However, the harvest guidelines are no longer current as a result of several adaptations in program management. Broodstock and evaluation needs are only about half what was originally projected, and non-tribal sport fishing regulations have changed to exclude the harvest of natural steelhead. No formal harvest plan has been drafted since then because the shift in fishing regulations was expected to adequately protect natural fish, while providing sport fisheries and additional spawners from hatchery fish. Reliable run prediction models have been developed for Umatilla River steelhead, and in the event of low projected returns, formal management processes are in place to modify collections and harvest prior to their entry into the Umatilla River.
Numbers of steelhead collected at Three Mile Falls Dam, harvested in fisheries, and available for spawning are given in Tables 1 and 3-7. Current collection rates for broodstock are 110 natural and 15 hatchery fish for broodstock and 105 hatchery fish for evaluation. Completed coded-wire-tag data from brood years 1991 through 1994 estimate average harvest on each hatchery brood was 55 in the tribal Columbia River net fishery, 73 in the Columbia River sport fishery (Table 1), 31 in tribal Umatilla River fishery, and 67 in the Umatilla River sport fishery. Tribal harvest of natural fish in the Columbia River net fishery is unknown, but is probably comparable to harvest rates on hatchery fish (55/year). Tribal harvest of natural steelhead in the Umatilla River fishery has averaged 3/year (Table 1). Numbers of hatchery and natural fish available for spawning from the time adults started returning from Umatilla Hatchery releases (run years 93-94 to 97-98) has averaged 684 and 899, respectively (Table 6). Information available on the incidental catch and harvest of juvenile steelhead during Umatilla River steelhead, spring Chinook, and trout fisheries is given in Table 7.
2.4) Relationship to habitat protection and recovery strategies.
The Umatilla Summer Steelhead Program is a part of an overall Umatilla Basin Salmon and Steelhead Restoration Program. In addition to on-going passage and hatchery operations, restoration efforts include on-going projects that enhance stream and riparian habitat as well as monitor and evaluate the hatchery and natural components of the restoration program.
Factors limiting the natural production of steelhead in the Umatilla River Basin include channelization, low or no summer flows, warm water temperatures, sediment, and poor habitat diversity caused by urban and rural development/land management practices. Ocean conditions and the mortalities and stress from the operation of hydropower projects on the mainstem Columbia River are important factors outside the basin. There continues to be degradation to fish habitat in these areas that hampers improvement efforts
2.5) Ecological interactions with salmonid and non-salmonid fishes or other species
Interactions with species that could negatively impact program: a) bird predation during peak smolt migration periods each spring; and b) northern Pikeminnow and smallmouth bass predation during smolt migration periods.
Interactions with species that could be negatively impacted by program: Hatchery steelhead smolts that residualize and become resident fish are much larger than wild juvenile steelhead, and compete with wild juvenile redband trout and steelhead, bull trout, Pacific lamprey, coho and Chinook salmon, margined sculpin, mountain whitefish and other non-game fish for limited summer rearing habitat.
Interactions with species that could positively impact program: Carcasses from salmon and hatchery steelhead kelts or pre-spawn mortalities add to the Umatilla River subbasin’s nutrient recharge cycle.
Interactions with species that could be positively impacted by program: Hatchery steelhead smolts could add to the food base for bull trout.
SECTION 3. WATER SOURCE 3.1) Umatilla Hatchery
The water source for Umatilla Hatchery is the Columbia River via a Ranney well system. The system was initially designed and constructed to produce a maximum of 15,000 gpm of water. However, several wells have been subject to failure (Jack Hurst, ODFW, Umatilla Hatchery, personal communication, 1999) and water capacity has been reduced to 5,500 gpm. Water from the well system is a constant 12.2oC (54 F). Water quality exceeds BPA requirements (BPA 1987) for all hatchery uses (Table 8).