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3.2) Three Mile Falls Dam

Water for the Three Mile Falls Dam adult facility is pumped directly from the Umatilla River. The Denil steeppass utilizes 2,900 gpm and the holding pond uses 1,450 gpm. Both the steeppass and holding pond pumps run continuously. The fish lock system uses 630 gpm, but is used only during handling operations (approximately two hours per day). The water source is the same as used by the natural population.
Water temperatures at Three Mile Falls Dam range from approximately 0oC (32o F) in winter to over 21oC (70o F) during the summer. Sediment loads vary dramatically during the return season (late August through early June). High sediment loads are experienced annually during high flow conditions.

3.3) Minthorn Juvenile Acclimation and Adult Holding Facility

Minthorn receives its water from Minthorn Springs Creek, which is formed from the inflow of several springs located immediately south of the Umatilla River. Water through the brood holding area is supplied by gravity and ranges from approximately 500 to 2,100 gpm. The water supply to the raceways is pumped from the creek with a single-pass pass water-pumping rate of approximately 800 gpm per each of two raceways. During the summer steelhead adult holding period (September to May), average monthly water temperatures range from approximately 7.0 to 13.0o C. During the juvenile acclimation period (mid-March to early May), temperatures range from 8.0 to 11.0o C.

3.4) Bonifer Pond

Bonifer Pond is fed by gravity from three nearby springs. Flows range from approximately 750 to 1,850 gpm. During the juvenile acclimation period (mid-March to early May), average monthly temperatures range from approximately 7.5 to 11.0o C.

3.5) Natural Production

Natural spawners use the water available in the streams of the Umatilla River Basin. Water quality is relatively high in the headwater streams where steelhead spawn and rear. The spawning streams contrast greatly to the lower Umatilla River and lower tributaries where sediment loads are high in the spring and summer water temperatures are often lethal to salmonids (Contor et al. 1998). Water quality in this desert basin contrasts to the hatchery, as there are often large daily fluctuations in water temperature. During the winter and spring, rain-on-snow events interspersed with cold periods often produce large fluctuations in stream flow. During spawning and incubation, the streams are often high and turbid.



SECTION 4. FACILITIES

4.1) Brood stock collection

Broodstock collection is conducted solely at the Three Mile Falls Dam east bank adult trapping facility. The facility consists of a vertical slot fish ladder, Denil steeppass, adult holding pond (raceway), and fish handling and sorting complex. The construction and operation of the facility has no effect on the critical habitat for summer steelhead.

The dimensions of the holding pond are 14' wide by 36' long by 3.5' deep (approximately 1,800 cubic feet). The holding pond has a jump screen located at the upper end and jumpout panels located at both upper corners to prevent adults from jumping out of the pond. The holding pond is located above the 100 year flood level.

The water supply for the holding pond is pumped directly from the Umatilla River at a rate of 1,450 gpm. A low water discharge alarm is located on the pond supply line to signal any loss of flow to the holding pond. No backup pumps or emergency generator system are located at the site. In case of water loss to the pond, two options are available to on-site personnel. During power outages or other short term losses of flow, the outlet gate from the pond can be closed to maintain water depth. For pump failures or other long term losses of water supply, adults can be dipnetted out of the pond and returned to the river.


4.2) Spawning

Since 1988, all summer steelhead spawning has occurred at Minthorn. The facility includes a concrete channel that functions as a fish ladder/trap, inlet/outlet water control structure, and summer steelhead broodstock holding area. The brood holding area is approximately 25 feet long by 8 feet wide. Water through the pond is supplied by gravity from Minthorn Springs Creek. Depth is controlled by dam boards and is usually held at 4 feet. The pond has vertical bar screens with 1 ½ inch spacing at both the influent and effluent ends and is surrounded by a chain link fence topped with barbed wire. The fence provides security and prevents fish from jumping out or escaping due to flood events. Floating covers are placed over approximately one third of the pond to help alleviate disturbances to the fish and to help prevent fish from jumping. The top of the concrete walls and bottom of the chain link fence are overlapped with rubber matting so that if the fish do jump, injuries will be minimized. The fence has three gates for accessing the pond for unloading adults and spawning. Adjacent to the pond is a concrete slab used during the spawning operation. The entire facility is covered with a roof to provide protection for fish, eggs and personnel. In an extreme emergency, the fish can be released into Minthorn Springs Creek by pulling the effluent screen and dam boards and letting the fish swim out volitionally.

Beginning in early February, the fish are treated two days per week with formalin to help control prespawning losses due to fungus. During the spawning period (April - May), treatments are increased to three times per week. A one-hour flow through treatment at approximately 167 ppm is used. ODFW pathology personnel are available to address disease concerns.

The location of the facility blocks approximately one mile of habitat that might be utilized for spawning and rearing. This habitat is limited, however, as flows are as low as 500 gpm and temperatures often exceed 20o C during the period from June to September.


4.3) Incubation

Fertilized eggs are transported from Minthorn to Umatilla Hatchery in five-gallon buckets with chilled water. Umatilla hatchery incubation equipment consists of four separate units of Marisource incubators (Heath tray type). Water can be pumped directly from the well or mixed with chilled water. Three units can be supplied with well water at 12.2oC (54oF) or mixed with chilled water 7.2oC (45o F) for any combination of temperatures from 7.2-12.2oC (45-54o F) provided that 300 gpm of chilled water is not exceeded. The fourth unit can be mixed with water chilled to 3.3oC (38o F) to achieve any combination of temperatures from 3.3-12.2oC (38–54o F) provided that 60 gpm of chilled water is not exceeded. Numerous systems continually monitor temperature, mechanical systems, electrical systems, and flow. Alarms sound if any system fails or is out of criteria. Continual monitoring of systems and preventative maintenance is used to prevent system failure. An emergency gas powered pump installed in the aeration tower structure supplies water for incubation in the event of aeration lift pump failure. In the event of total system failure resulting in total loss of water, eggs may be transported to Irrigon hatchery (if they are still operational and have necessary space).

Pathogen free water is used for incubation at Umatilla Hatchery for the summer steelhead program. This is a direct preventive measure at minimizing the risk of introducing pathogens into the hatchery program, thus minimizing the risks to fish in the natural environment after these fish are released. Sanitary measures are taken at Umatilla Hatchery to prevent transmission of pathogens from one stock to another by disinfecting equipment in Iodophor.
4.4) Rearing

Umatilla Hatchery has three different types of rearing units. There are eight 21' Canadian style early rearing tanks located in the main building adjacent to incubation. Water is pumped to an aeration tower and then is gravity fed to the tanks. Steelhead are started in these tanks in early July. The fish are moved outside to Oregon ponds when densities reach approximately 80 pounds in each tank. Umatilla Hatchery has 10 Oregon ponds. Rearing dimensions are 91'X18.75'X3.67'. These ponds are designed for serial reuse in-groups of two ponds, upper and lower. If necessary, they can also be individually supplied with fresh water. Steelhead are reared in these ponds until grading occurs in late October. They are then moved to Michigan style ponds. Umatilla Hatchery has 24 Michigan style ponds, with rearing dimensions of 91'X9'X2.75'. Water is supplied to these ponds in reuse groups of three ponds each. Each pond has a submersible pump that supplies 950 gpm of water to oxygen contact columns, located at the head of each pond. Oxygen is introduced and unwanted saturated gas is removed from incoming water at this point. Each pond has its own oxygen supply line. Supplemental oxygen is either delivered from oxygen generators, (pressure swing absorption units) or from an on-site bulk liquid oxygen tank. Steelhead are reared at enhanced densities to evaluate the effectiveness of these ponds. Steelhead are transferred in the spring to Bonifer and Minthorn for acclimation and release. All ponds have a high-low water level alarm, and for Michigan ponds, pump failure and oxygen flow alarms. In the event of total system failure, fish could be moved to nearby Irrigon Hatchery if pond space were available and all logistics were in place prior to the time of failure. Monitoring and maintenance of the water supply system, and forecasting for contingencies, are the best means for dealing with the possibility of rearing pond system failure.

Pathogen free water is used for rearing the fish at the Umatilla Hatchery for the summer steelhead program. This is a direct preventive measure at minimizing the risk of introducing pathogens into the hatchery program, thus minimizing the risks to fish in the natural environment after these fish are released. Sanitary measures are taken at Umatilla Hatchery to prevent transmission of pathogens from one stock to another by disinfecting equipment in Iodophor. In addition, a fish health program is in place to monitor and evaluate the health status of summer steelhead juveniles reared at Umatilla Hatchery.
4.5) Acclimation/release

The Minthorn acclimation/release facilities include two-10 hp pumps, standby generator, two raceways (each 120 x 12 x 4 feet), and outlet pipe for releasing fish. The pumps and generator are located in the upper level of an enclosed pump house well above the 100-year flood levels. Water is pumped from the creek to each of the raceways. The outlets of the ponds have both vertical bar screens with one-quarter inch spacing and woven wire screens with one quarter inch openings to keep fish from escaping. Beginning in FY 2000, the ponds will be covered with netting to prevent bird predation. In case of power failure, a standby generator provides emergency power to the pump(s). In addition, there is a backup pump and both ponds are equipped with high-level and low-level float alarms. In the event of a power or pump failure or pond level alarm, an audio message is sent to a security company who then notifies specified individuals of an alarm condition at the facility. Fish are released from the facility by pulling the dam boards, lowering the pond and crowding out the fish. The fish then exit the pond through an underground pipe to Minthorn Springs Creek. In an extreme emergency, the fish can be released in this way. The ponds are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected prior to fish being placed into them, and ODFW pathology personnel are available to address disease concerns.

The location of the Minthorn facility blocks approximately one mile of habitat that might be utilized for spawning and rearing. This habitat is limited, however, as flows are as low as 500 gpm and temperatures often exceed 20o C during the period June to September.

Bonifer consists of a 1.75-acre earthen pond that holds approximately 4.5 acre-feet of water, and concrete water control outlet structure that also functions as a fish release channel and ladder/trap if desirable. Bonifer is fed by gravity from three nearby springs. The outlet structure has horizontal bar screens with one quarter inch spacing to prevent fish from escaping and dam boards for controlling pond water depth. Additional channel guides allow for installation of a ladder and V-trap. Two of the three springs are screened to keep fish out. The third spring has no screen. It is extremely small and overgrown with vegetation and fish do not enter it. The springs and pond are bordered by a solar powered electric fence to keep domestic cattle and other large animals away. Juveniles are unloaded into the pond via a permanently installed pipe, and fish are released from the facility by pulling the dam boards in the outlet structure and lowering the pond. The fish then exit the pond volitionally through the outlet structure. In an extreme emergency, the fish can be released in this way. Because Bonifer is a natural pond that can not be completely drained, it is not disinfected prior to fish being placed into it. ODFW pathology personnel are available to address disease concerns.

The facility blocks approximately 5/8 total miles of habitat in the three springs that might be utilized for spawning and rearing as well as the pond area itself. This habitat is extremely limited for spawning as the springs and pond are laden with silt and vegetation and very little gravel exists. In addition, juvenile rearing is limited as temperatures often exceed 20o C during the summer and flows are low as 750 gpm.


SECTION 5. ORIGIN AND IDENTITY OF BROODSTOCK
5.1) Broodstock source

Summer steelhead releases of Skamania and Oxbow stocks were made in the Umatilla River basin from 1967 through 1970 (Table 2). In 1975, one release of Umatilla stock steelhead occurred and fish releases every year since 1981 have been from endemic Umatilla stock.


5.2) Supporting information for broodstock program

5.2.1) History

Summer steelhead releases of Skamania and Oxbow stocks were made in the Umatilla River basin from 1967 through 1970 (Table 2). In 1975, one release of Umatilla stock steelhead occurred and fish releases every year since 1981 have been from endemic Umatilla stock.

Since 1982-83, all broodstock for the program have been trapped at Three Mile Falls Dam. Brood were collected at the west bank ladder from 1982-83 to 1986-87 and at the east bank ladder from 1987-88 to the present.
5.2.2) Annual number of broodstock collected

The number of summer steelhead broodstock collected for holding/spawning since 1982-83 has varied from 52 during the 1983-84 run year to 225 during the 1991-92 run year (Table 9). Historically, the ratio of males to females has varied. The collection goal for the 1999-00 run year is 125 adults (55 unmarked females, 55 unmarked males, and 15 additional coded-wire tagged hatchery males). The collection goal in following years is anticipated to be similar.

5.2.3) Past and proposed level of natural fish in brood stock.

From 1982 to 1990, only unmarked summer steelhead were collected for broodstock (Table 9). Beginning in 1990, first generation hatchery fish were also collected to ensure meeting broodstock goals. The proportion of hatchery fish collected has ranged from 2.3% of the total number collected in 1992-93 to 51.0% in 1990-91. The collection goal for the 1999-00 run year is 125 adults (55 unmarked females, 55 unmarked males, and 15 additional coded-wire tagged hatchery males). The collection goal in following years is anticipated to be similar.

5.2.4) Genetic or ecological differences

The broodstock for this program is collected entirely from the Umatilla River. Broodstock is consists of both natural steelhead captured in the Umatilla River (55 males and 55 females), and 15 (male) hatchery steelhead verified to be of Umatilla River origin (see sections 6.2.4 and 10.2).


5.2.5) Reasons for choosing existing stock

The endemic stock was selected because of their sufficient abundance and based on the tenet that they would have the best local adaptations and highest likelihood of natural production success in the Umatilla Basin. Umatilla Basin natural steelhead survived more than 100 years of human impact in a desert system including dams, dewatering of migration corridors, roads, logging, grazing, and urban agricultural development.


5.3) Unknowns

The number of unmarked strays used for broodstock is unknown.



SECTION 6. BROOD STOCK COLLECTION
6.1) Prioritized goals

The goal of the program is to concurrently enhance production through supplementation of naturally producing populations and provide sustainable tribal and non-tribal harvest opportunities while maintaining the genetic character of the natural population.


6.2) Supporting information
6.2.1) Proposed number of each sex

The broodstock goal is to collect 55 males and 55 females of natural origin. In addition, 15 males of hatchery origin are also collected.

6.2.2) Life-history stage to be collected

All fish collected for broodstock are adults.


6.2.3) Collection or sampling design

Over the last decade, all adults that returned to the Umatilla River have been trapped at Three Mile Falls Dam. All brood have been collected at the east bank adult facility and are collected from September through early May. Beginning in December 1999, adults returning to Three Mile Dam will be trapped one week and allowed to volitionally migrate one week. Brood are collected by selecting 10% of the unmarked return by week in order to collect a representative cross-section of the total run as brood. When adults are trapped on alternate weeks, the 10% rate will still be followed. The percent of one salt and two salt adult returns is monitored continuously throughout the season and a similar proportion of one salt and two salt adults are selected for brood. Determinations of one salt and two salt adults are based on a fork length of less than or greater than 26 inches. The male:female ratio in the brood is not representative of the ratio in the total return. Fifty percent of the unmarked brood are of each sex, whereas females have comprised an average of 68.7% of the total run since 1988.

Adults returning to Three Mile Dam ascend a vertical slot fishway ladder, but are precluded from swimming upstream by use of a barrier gate at the top of the ladder. Adults then ascend a Denil steeppass and fall into an adult holding pond where they are trapped. Disposition of the fish trapped generally occurs daily in order to minimize upstream passage delays. During periods when few adults are being trapped, adults may be held up to 72 hours. During handling operations, all adults are anesthetized with CO2 to minimize stress. Mortality of listed steelhead can occur during the holding and handling operations at Three Mile Dam. Over the last eight years, average annual mortality at the facility has been 0.22% with a range of 0.00%-0.62%.

6.2.4) Identity

There is one population of summer steelhead in the Umatilla Basin above Three Mile Dam with a high degree of diversity (Currens and Schreck, 1993 and 1995). All unmarked adults that enter the trap at Three Mile Falls Dam are assumed to be of Umatilla origin (but could include unmarked strays), and may be selected for broodstock. Fifteen CWT hatchery males are also selected for broodstock. Coded wire tags are read prior to spawning in order to preclude the use of any stray hatchery males.

6.2.5) Holding

Since 1988, all summer steelhead holding/spawning has occurred at Minthorn. Adults are held in a concrete pond with a total volume of 800 cubic feet (see section 4.2 for more details). Historically, holding densities have ranged from approximately 3.6 to 7.3 cubic feet per adult and flows have varied from approximately 2.2 to 19.0 gpm per adult. The broodstock goal for FY2000 is 125 adults, which will result in a maximum density of approximately 6.6 cubic feet per adult and a flow of 4.1 to 17.3 gpm per adult. The variation is a result of lower flows in Minthorn Springs Creek in the fall and late spring and because 1,600 gpm is diverted into the acclimation ponds during the period mid-March to early May when juveniles are being acclimated.

From September to early February, the fish are left undisturbed. Beginning in early February, the fish are treated two days per week with formalin to help control fungus. During the spawning period (April - May), treatments are increased to three times per week. A one-hour flow through treatment at approximately 167 ppm is used.

Total mortality of fish held at Minthorn has ranged from 8.6 to 34.4% and has averaged 18.8%. Mortality of unmarked fish has ranged from 7.6 to 34.4% and has averaged 18.4%. In some years, however, a portion of the males were live spawned and held through the end of the spawning season. Had these fish been killed at the time of spawning, mortality numbers would have been lower. Prespawn mortalities are built into the broodstock collection goals. At the end of the spawning season all remaining hatchery fish are sacrificed for coded wire tag recovery and all unmarked fish are released back into the Umatilla River.

6.2.6) Disposition of carcasses

All summer steelhead broodstock carcasses are buried in the regional landfill.



SECTION 7. MATING
7.1) Selection method

From early April to late May, broodstock are sorted weekly for maturation. Fish are anesthetized with MS-222 and ripe fish are held in live totes until all fish have been sorted. All ripe females (all unmarked) are spawned on any given spawn day. Unmarked males, at a proposed rate of one male for every ripe female, are selected randomly throughout the broodstock population. To ensure having sufficient numbers of mature males on spawn days, extra marked males are also selected randomly for use. The goal is to spawn only unmarked males. However, if a sufficient number of naturally produced males are not available on spawn days, hatchery males are also used.


7.2) Males

The goal is not to re-use males, but historically, this has sometimes been unavoidable. Obtaining adequate quantity and quality of milt from the males is often difficult, and in a limited number of instances, re-use of mature males has been necessary. Before any hatchery males are spawned, coded wire tags are recovered and read on the spot to ensure the fish is of Umatilla River origin. If it is not from Umatilla Hatchery, the fish is discarded and another fish is selected. Backup males have not been used, primarily because matrix schemes are utilized (see section 7.3 for details).

7.3) Fertilization

A 3 x 3 spawning matrix is utilized whenever possible and matings are random. Hatchery males are used only when there are insufficient numbers of mature unmarked males available on a given spawn day. When only two females are available, a 2 x 2 matrix is used and when only one female is available, the eggs have been fertilized with the milt from a single male. Beginning in FY2000, single females will be fertilized with the milt from two males. Each 1 x 1(2), 2 x 2 or 3 x 3 cross is considered a single-family group.

Females are killed and bled by severing the caudal peduncle. The undersides of the fish are cleansed with a solution of Argentyne and are then wiped with a clean towel. The eggs from each female are stripped into a colander to remove excess ovarian fluid. When a 3 x 3 matrix is used, the eggs from each female are mixed and divided equally into three cups. If a 2 x 2 matrix is used, the eggs are mixed and divided equally into two cups. Males are generally killed for spawning, cleansed with Argentyne, and the milt is stripped into individual cups. If males are live spawned, they are marked with an opercle punch for identification and placed back into the holding pond. They are not used again unless absolutely necessary. When a 3 x 3 matrix is used, the milt from a single male is used to fertilize one third of the eggs from each female. If a 2 x 2 matrix is used, the milt from each male is used to fertilize one half the eggs from each female. After the milt is added, well water from Umatilla Hatchery is added and the eggs and sperm are mixed and allowed to stand for approximately one minute or longer. The fertilized eggs from each cup (one family group) are then poured into a colander and combined. The eggs are then poured into a bucket with Umatilla Hatchery well water, rinsed, poured back into the colander, and then are placed into a solution of Argentyne and allowed to water harden for one hour. At the end of the hour, the eggs are again poured into a colander and then into a bucket of fresh well water with a watertight lid for transport to Umatilla Hatchery. Colanders, spawning knives and other equipment are disinfected with Argentyne between each family group.

At the time the males and females are stripped, milt and ovarian fluid samples are taken to test for replicating viral agents. After spawning, pyloric caeca, kidney and spleen samples are also taken to test for bacterial kidney disease and other culturable pathogens. Samples of the lower intestine are examined for Ceratomyxa shasta.

Fish health procedures used for disease prevention include: 1) Draining ovarian fluid from eggs by use of colander; 2) Water hardening in Iodophor @ 75ppm for one hour and then for 15 minutes at the hatchery upon arrival to the facility; and 3) Annual fish health monitoring of Umatilla summer steelhead brood stock to detect any virus or replicating agents or bacterial pathogens that could place the listed fish at risk. For results from this monitoring see BPA annual reports 1992-1997 (Fish Health Monitoring & Evaluation, Keefe, Hayes, Focher & Groberg, et al.)
7.4) Cryopreserved gametes

Cryopreserved gametes are not collected on Umatilla River broodstock.





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