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SECTION 8. REARING AND INCUBATION



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SECTION 8. REARING AND INCUBATION
INCUBATION:
8.1) Number of eggs taken and survival objective to ponding

Historically, the number of eggs taken since 1983 has varied from a low of 100,000 eggs in 1984 to a high of 476,000 in 1992 (Table 10). During those years, smolt production goals for the Umatilla River varied significantly. Since 1993, eggs takes have been between 210,000 to 255,000 eggs. The production goal for FY2000 is 227,000 green eggs, which will produce 150,000 smolts. The survival objective from green egg to ponding is 82.8%.


8.2) Loading density

Umatilla hatchery incubation consists of four isolated units of Marisource (Heath tray type) incubators as described in section 4.4. Loading densities are initially 8100 green eggs/tray and do not exceed 10,000 individuals/tray from green egg stage to ponding.


8.3) Influent and effluent gas concentration

Oxygen saturation levels average 10 ppm influent and 9 ppm effluent.


8.4) Ponding

Steelhead are ponded into Canadian style troughs the first week of July at approximately 950 temperature units and 3,500 fish per pound.


8.5) Fish Health monitoring

There have been no unusual disease related egg stage problems or yolk sack malformation in the Umatilla Summer Steelhead Program. Mortality rates have been normal. Formalin at 1:600 concentration for 1hr/day is applied to eggs daily from the green to pre-emergence stages (see Sections 8.12, 10.6.1 2, and Appendix D-1 for additional details).

REARING:

8.6) Number of fish ponded and survival objective to release

The fry to smolt survival objective is 80%. A total of 188,000 fry are ponded to produce 150,000 smolts. The 80% survival includes 10% graded pre-smolts not included in the 150,000 smolt goal.


8.7) Density and loading.

Swim-up fry are transferred from heath incubators to Canadian troughs in July at approximately 3,500/lb. They are ponded in one Oregon raceway in August at approximately 450 fish/lb. In September or October, they are graded into three sizes and are split into a three pass Michigan pond system with the smallest fish being put into the first pass. Density and loading for Michigan and Oregon raceways (1991-97 brood years) is presented in Table 12.


8.8) Influent and effluent gas concentrations

The maximum and minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations observed in Michigan and Oregon raceway’s influent and effluent were 14.5 and 5.7, and 10.6 and 5.7 PPM, respectively (Table 8).


8.9) Length, weight, and condition factor.

Length, weight, and condition factor are evaluated during monthly, pre-release, and release monitoring. (Table 17).


8.10) Growth rate, energy reserves

No energy reserve parameters are monitored or evaluated. Growth rates were determined from monthly length-weight monitoring. Mean growth rates for recent broods (1995-98 broods) were 0.70 mm/d (SD=0.06) for length and 0.51 g/d (SD=0.08) for weight.

8.11) Food type and amount fed, and estimates of feed conversion efficiency.

Bio-Oregon moist diet is fed exclusively. Approximately 38,000 pounds are fed annually, with a conversion rate of 1.39.

8.12) Health and disease monitoring.

Personnel from the La Grande Fish Pathology Laboratory conduct monthly monitoring and pre-liberation monitoring of summer steelhead reared at Umatilla Hatchery. All raceways are monitored for specific fish pathogens and parasites. A pre-liberation examination is conducted within four weeks prior to release of fish at Umatilla Hatchery. Epidemiological, statistical and diagnostic methods are used when fish health problems occur. Information is used to determine how rearing strategies or fish culture methods might be modified to improve fish health.


8.13) Smolt development indices

Visual estimates of smoltification (parr, intermediate smolt, smolt) in combination with condition factor (see Section 8.9) are used to evaluate smoltification. Descaling and smoltification observations are presented in Table 13.


8.14) Use of "natural" rearing methods.

Bonifer is a “natural” earthen pond. One group of 50,000 smolts is released from Bonifer after being acclimated for four weeks.



SECTION 9. RELEASE

9.1) Life history stage, size, and age at release.

From 1967 to 1988, summer steelhead were released into the Umatilla River basin as subyearlings and yearlings and sizes ranged from 5.5 to 240/lb (Table 2). In addition, eggs were outplanted in 1968 and unfed fry were released in 1988. Since 1989, all releases have been with yearlings and fish have ranged in size from 4.5 to 8.7/lb., other than a small number of fish released at 12.5/lb. in 1991 as part of an ODFW passage evaluation study. The release size goal since 1989 has been 5.0/lb and it is anticipated this will continue to be the goal for future releases.

9.2) Life history stage, size and age of natural fish of same species in release area at time of release.

At the time of hatchery smolt releases, naturally produced steelhead rear near and migrate past the acclimation and release facilities. Juvenile natural steelhead at ages 0+ to 1+ rear in the area with the majority ranging from 60-130 mm FL. The majority of natural smolts migrating out of the Umatilla River are age 2+ (110-200 mm FL), but age 1+, 3+ and 4+ smolts have also been documented (Table 14). Resident redband trout also rear and spawn naturally near the acclimation facilities in the winter and early spring. Naturally produced adult steelhead also migrate, hold and spawn near the acclimation facilities at the time of release. Figure 3 and Table 15 summarize life histories and distributions of natural steelhead in the Umatilla River Basin.

9.3) Dates of release and release protocols.

Historically, fish releases have occurred both in the spring and fall (Table 2). Since 1984, however, all releases have been in the spring (March to early June), other than a small release of subyearlings in December, 1988. From 1967 to 1983, all releases were made directly into the Umatilla River. From 1984 to 1992, twelve groups of fish were acclimated prior to release, while all other groups were released directly into the Umatilla River. All of the acclimated groups were force released. Since 1993, all steelhead have been acclimated prior to release, other than a small group of fish released directly into the Umatilla River in 1994 as part of another ODFW passage evaluation study. Acclimated fish were force released from 1993 to 1996, while all releases since 1997 have been volitional beginning the last week of holding. After one week of volitional release, the remaining fish are forced out. It is anticipated that future releases will also be volitional.

9.4) Locations of releases.

All summer steelhead releases made from 1967 to 1983 were made directly into the upper Umatilla River at undetermined locations (Table 2). Beginning in 1984, releases were made in the lower Umatilla River (RM 3 to 27.3) as well as in the upper river (RM 64 to 89). In addition, releases were made in the South Fork of the Umatilla River (above Umatilla RM 89), at acclimation facilities (RM 64 to RM 2 of Meacham Creek), and in Meacham Creek (RM 0.5 to 11). Since 1993, all releases have been from Bonifer (RM 2 of Meacham Creek) and Minthorn (RM 64), other than a small number of fish released in the lower Umatilla River (RM 27.3) in 1994 and one group of fish released at Thornhollow (RM 73.5) in 1996. It is anticipated that future releases will also be from Bonifer and Minthorn.

9.5) Acclimation procedures.

Juvenile summer steelhead are transported to Bonifer and Minthorn using 3,000 and 5,000 gallon fish transport trucks. Historically, the proposed acclimation period has been four weeks. Beginning in FY2000, however, one group of fish will be acclimated for four weeks while two groups will be acclimated for approximately three weeks. The fish are fed Biomoist Feed twice each day at rate of approximately 0.5 to 1.0% BWD. Mortalities are removed daily and ODFW pathology personnel are available to address specific disease concerns. Temperature and dissolved oxygen measurements are taken daily during acclimation, and on the day of release, ODFW personnel sample the fish for descaling, weight and fork length.

Beginning in 1997, summer steelhead have been allowed to release volitionally for the final week of holding before the remaining fish are forced out. At Minthorn, one of three effluent screens in each of the two ponds is removed and the fish are allowed to swim over a V-notched dam board and through an underground pipe directly into Minthorn Springs Creek. One to two days before the remaining fish are released, they are taken off feed to reduce stress. The ponds are lowered and the fish are slowly crowded out. The fish are released over a two day period (one pond /day) and late in the day.

At Bonifer, the effluent screens are pulled and the fish are allowed to swim over a V-notched dam board and down the outlet channel directly into Boston Canyon Creek. The fish are taken off feed one to two days prior to the remaining fish being released. The effluent dam boards are removed and the pond is slowly lowered. The fish are allowed to go out on their own volition.

9.6) Number of fish released.

Excluding 1971 through 1974 and 1976 through 1980, juvenile summer steelhead have been released into the Umatilla River basin since 1967 (Table 2). Release numbers from 1967 through 1992 were highly variable; however, numbers released from 1993 through 1999 have been between 122,000 and 158,000 (Table 19). The production goal for FY 2000 and subsequent years is 150,000 smolts.


9.7) Marks used to identify hatchery adults.

All hatchery steelhead released into the Umatilla River basin are adipose fin clipped. All coded-wire tagged fish are also given a left ventral fin clip. It is anticipated that all future releases will be marked the same.



SECTION 10. MONITORING AND EVALUATION OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
10.1) Marking
10.1.1 Fin Clips

All hatchery steelhead released into the Umatilla River basin are adipose fin clipped. All coded-wire tagged fish are also given a left ventral fin clip. It is anticipated that for the near future, releases will be marked the same.


10.1.2 Coded wire tags

Program goals are evaluated by annually tagging 40 percent of each release group with coded- wire tags (20,000 fish in each of three groups of 50,000). It is anticipated that for the near future, a similar percentage will be coded-wire tagged.

10.1.3 PIT tags

Beginning in 1997, hatchery smolts have been PIT tagged annually. PIT tags allow for the assessment of outmigration timing and survival. 1,200 hatchery fish are PIT tagged for routine monitoring of production groups. Multiple year studies involve the annual PIT tagging of 2,700 fish for reach survival tests, and 1,200 for release timing evaluations. In addition, hatchery and natural juvenile summer steelhead are PIT tagged at the trap at Three Mile Falls Dam to determine trap collection efficiencies. These efficiencies are used to estimate total migrant abundance. ISO tags will be used in FY 2000 and beyond. In 1999, approximately 1,500 hatchery and 1,500 natural steelhead were PIT tagged with 400 kHz tags at Three Mile Falls Dam (primarily in April and May). During 1999, 2,047 natural juvenile steelhead were PIT tagged in the headwaters of the Umatilla River to assess migration timing and survival of natural steelhead. Evaluation of hatchery and natural steelhead with PIT tags will continue in the near future.

10.2) Genetic data

Currens and Schreck (1993 and 1995) reported on the genetic characteristics of juvenile steelhead from 14 different locations and from hatchery reared steelhead of endemic stock. This data established a genetic baseline for the Umatilla River summer steelhead stock.

During April and May 1996, 86 natural summer steelhead were collected for genetics analysis at Three Mile Falls Dam by the NMFS lab in Seattle. These samples were used to augment the regional GSI database. Fish were thought to be primarily two-year old migrating smolts. The samples were screened for variability at approximately 70 gene loci. Nei’s genetic distance values were computed between all pairs of samples (polymorphic gene loci). Statistically significant differences were found among the allele frequencies (p<0.01; G-test) indicating variability among the temporal samples. Further analysis indicated the Umatilla samples cluster with the Snake River populations. This new genetic data may affect the configuration of boundaries for the inland steelhead Evolutionary Significant Units (letter from Robin Waples on 2/4/99, NMFS, Seattle).
10.3) Survival and fecundity
10.3.1) Average fecundity

Since 1990, summer steelhead fecundity has averaged 5,493 (Table 10).


10.3.2) Survival

  1. Survival from collection to spawning

In 1982-83, broodstock were held in temporary holding ponds at McNary Dam and prespawn mortality was 51.6% (Table 16). Since 1984, spawning has occurred at either Bonifer or Minthorn and total prespawn mortality has ranged from 7.7 to 34.4% and has averaged 18.6%. Mortality of unmarked fish only has ranged from 7.6 to 34.4% and has averaged 18.2%. Since 1988, all spawning has occurred at Minthorn and total prespawn mortality has ranged from 8.6 to 34.4% and has averaged 18.8%. Mortality of unmarked fish has ranged from 7.6 to 34.4% and has averaged 18.4%. In some years, however, a portion of the males were live spawned and held through the end of the spawning season. Had these fish been killed at the time of spawning, mortality numbers would have been lower.

b) Survival from green egg to eyed egg

Green to eyed egg survival has averaged 82.8% from 1990 through 1999.


c) Survival from green egg to release

Green egg to smolt survival at Umatilla Hatchery has averaged 70 % from 1995-97 (Table 11).


d) Survival from release to adult

Smolt-to-adult survival of hatchery steelhead is based on coded wire tag recoveries and mean smolt-to-adult survival for the 1991-95 broods has ranged from 0.08-0.91% (Table 18). The estimated number of hatchery reared steelhead harvested each year in the Umatilla River Basin has ranged from 26 to 146 (Table 3). The hatchery steelhead harvested outside of the Umatilla River Basin has ranged from 6 to 210 (Table 5). The number of hatchery reared adults annually taken for brood stock has ranged from 0 to 103, (Table 1). The number of hatchery steelhead released upstream to spawn naturally has ranged from 102 to 1,301 (Table 1).

Smolt survival from release in the headwaters to Three Mile Falls Dam was estimated in 1996, 1998, and 1999 at 93.7%, 49.9%, and 62.8%, respectively. Survival was overestimated in 1995 (154%) and not determined in 1997. Abundance of natural juvenile summer steelhead emigrating from the basin has ranged from approximately 54,000 in 1998 to 73,000 in 1996 (Knapp et al. 1996, 1998a 1998b, 2000 in preparation).
10.4) Monitoring of performance indicators in Section 1.8

10.4.1 Proportions of hatchery spawners in natural populations in target area (list all populations or spawning areas that are monitored).

The proportion and number of hatchery steelhead available for spawning in the Umatilla River above Three Mile Falls Dam has ranged from 6.9% (160) to 58.9% (1,301) from 1988 to 1999 (Table 6). Because of high turbid flows, it is not possible to reliably estimate the number of hatchery steelhead that successfully spawn. However, a number of hatchery steelhead have been observed throughout the years that created redds that appeared normal and successful (Contor et al. 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998).

10.4.2 Ecological interactions

Natural and hatchery juvenile salmonids have similar migration timing out of the Umatilla basin. Both peak in their migration in the lower river in early to mid-May, although natural steelhead begin to migrate in late winter and early spring. Hatchery steelhead releases in April coincide with increasing movement of natural steelhead; hatchery releases in May coincide with the peak period.


Large numbers of hatchery releases tend to attract bird predators that indirectly affect steelhead migrants. As river flow declines and water clarity improves, juvenile migrants are more vulnerable to avian predation. When large numbers of salmon are released into the Umatilla basin, gulls become extremely numerous in key locations along the river. An increase in bird marks on hatchery and natural summer steelhead migrating out of the basin has been observed in June. Large-sized summer steelhead have also been occasionally observed to prey on smaller-sized fish when they are in the trap livewell (Knapp et al. 1996, 1998a 1998b, 2000 in preparation).
10.4.3 Disease control in the hatchery, and potential effects on natural populations

Minimizing transfer of pathogens from hatchery fish to the natural environment is currently achieved by preventing and controlling disease in the hatchery. All raceways at Umatilla Hatchery are monitored monthly for specific fish pathogens and parasites. A pre-liberation examination is conducted within four weeks prior to transfer of fish from Umatilla Hatchery to the acclimation facilities. Epidemiological, statistical and diagnostic methods are applied when fish health problems occur, and are used to determine how rearing strategies or fish culture methods might be modified to improve fish health. In addition, broodstock are monitored for specific pathogens.

Mortalities of natural summer steelhead collected in the lower river are examined by ODFW pathology. Fish are examined for whirling disease (Myxobolus cerebralis), systemic bacteria, and presence of the Rs antigen (bacterial kidney disease). A number of fish have been positive for the Rs antigen through ELISA testing; some at clinical levels. However, these ELISA values may or may not indicate the presence of the Rs antigen for the true kidney disease bacterium (BKD). Apparently, natural summer steelhead commonly show positive ELISA values, but the implications are unknown. The presence of several mortalities of natural summer steelhead could be related to a number of factors in addition to hatchery related pathogens including: 1) Poor water quality; 2) Physical injuries obtained at hydropower and irrigation bypass facilities; 3) Lethal but unsuccessful attempts of predators, and 4) Catch and release by anglers.

10.4.4 Behavior of program fish.


  1. Juveniles

Hatchery juvenile steelhead are released as large-grade fish in April and small-grade fish in May at approximately 5 fish/pound. Monitoring in the lower river indicates that small-grade summer steelhead released in May do not move out of the basin as well as the earlier-released fish. It is believed that a portion of these small-grade fish remain in the river as residuals; to a lessor degree the same probably holds true for the large-grade releases. Recent radio-tracking studies in 1999 indicated that only 3 of 20 small-grade steelhead tagged were known to have migrated out of the basin. Snorkeling surveys at the release site a month after release revealed the continuing presence of hatchery steelhead. It is unknown whether this behavior is due to the genetic nature of small-grade fish, the release site location, or river flows at time of release. Reach-specific survival studies in 1998 and 1999 with PIT tagged juvenile summer steelhead (both large-grade and small-grade) suggested that there may have been a survival advantage for fish released lower in the basin (Knapp et al. 1996, 1998a 1998b, 2000 in preparation). Two PIT-tagged steelhead released at Bonifer in 1998 during reach survival tests were detected more than 1 year later at Three Mile Falls Dam.

Migration of the April-released, large-grade, steelhead takes three or more weeks before observed numbers peak at Three Mile Falls Dam. Peak catch of all hatchery steelhead smolts occurs in early to mid-May. Migration duration extends into July, but 95% capture occurs by late May. Diel movement in river is primarily at night (64%), although movement through passage facilities tends to be more toward day (between 11:00 and 14:00 hours) (Knapp et al. 1996, 1998a 1998b, 2000 in preparation).

River flow appears to influence steelhead movement. In general, when flows increase, steelhead movement also increases. Release of water from McKay reservoir in June for flow enhancement usually results in a small increase in catch of migrant steelhead at Three Mile Falls Dam (Knapp et al. 1996, 1998a 1998b, 2000 in preparation).


  1. Adults

Adult life history characteristics of hatchery reared steelhead appear similar to naturally produced fish. Assessments suggest similar run timing to Three Mile Falls Dam. Moreover, age- and size-at-return characteristics are comparable. Umatilla summer steelhead are in the mainstem Columbia River (Zone 6) from early August through late October. In general, summer steelhead do not stray. Adult returns of CWT fish have showed that less than 5% are recovered in other subbasins. Those that migrate above McNary Dam generally fall back and ascend the Umatilla River. Fall entry of summer steelhead in the Umatilla River is determined by flow and temperature. Tributary migration is slow with low temperatures (< 6°C), high flows (> 2,000 cfs), and early entry. Entry timing generally extends from September to May. Later entry fish generally move faster and more constant. Radio tagged fish have taken 3 to 120 days (25 mean) on average to travel the first 30 miles of river depending on conditions. Migrational delays have been documented at Feed Canal Dam (RM 29). Approximately half of the steelhead used the fish ladders above Three Mile Falls Dam, except Stanfield Dam (RM 32) where only 15% use the ladder. During extremely low flow conditions, summer steelhead are transported from Three Mile Falls Dam to mid-river sections. Steelhead that are transported migrate positively upstream after release and migration rates are similar to those exhibited by non-transported fish (6 miles/day) (Knapp 1996, Contor et al. 1997).

10.4.5 Homing or straying rates for program fish.

Coded-wire tag recoveries (1993-99) indicate an average of 96.6% of all Umatilla Hatchery adults have been recovered in the Umatilla River or from Columbia River fisheries. A small number of strays have been observed in the John Day, Walla Walla, and Snake Rivers (Table 20).




      1. Gene flow from program fish into natural populations.

Hatchery releases have increased the numbers of potential spawners. An average of seven hatchery adults have returned to the Umatilla River and escaped the in-river fishery for each fish spawned from brood years 1991-94 (eg. progeny:parent - escapement ratio = 7:1). The net effect of the hatchery program on escapement has been an average of 647 additional adults per year. Hatchery steelhead have been observed spawning: however, high turbid flows prevent a comprehensive evaluation of the success of hatchery spawners (see section 10.4.1).
10.5) Unknowns or uncertainties
Uncertainties regarding the short and long term viability and success of Umatilla steelhead include:

  1. Benefits of rearing juvenile steelhead in Oregon ponds instead of the Michigan ponds (higher densities and oxygen supplementation).

  2. Benefits of the small, late-released group of hatchery steelhead with poor survival rates. Poorer survival of this group relative to the early-released groups represents a potential genetic risk (residualization impacts on wild juvenile steelhead and resident fish). Adaptive management will be implemented with the objective of increasing survival of the late-released group.
  3. Benefits of “natures” rearing practices.


  4. Relative success of hatchery reared endemic steelhead reproducing naturally. It is currently assumed that hatchery reared endemic steelhead reproduce successfully and enhance natural production. The benefits of hatchery adults reproducing are assumed to outweigh the affect of mining natural adults for broodstock.

  5. Hatchery supplementation using endemic steelhead will not reduce or depreciate the genetic characteristics of the natural steelhead populations.

  6. Persistence of high mortalities of smolts as a direct and indirect result of mainstem Columbia River Dams and hydropower projects, and the continued decline of ocean and estuary health and related consequences of environmental degradation by humans.

Details of each uncertainty are listed in Appendix C.


10.6) Other relevant monitoring projects (list an overview of all M&E work here)
10.6.1 Introduce the M&E projects

An array of monitoring projects are currently underway or have been completed in the Umatilla Basin and include:

1) Umatilla Hatchery Monitoring and Evaluation Project. Goals of this project are to provide information and recommendations for culture and release of hatchery fish, harvest regulations, and natural escapement that will lead to the accomplishment of long-term natural and hatchery production goals in the Umatilla River basin in a manner consistent with provisions of the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program. Additional goals are to assess the success of achieving the management objectives in the Umatilla River basin that are presented in the Master Plan and the Comprehensive Rehabilitation Plan. A substantial proportion of the production at Umatilla Hatchery is produced in the "Michigan Type" oxygen supplementation system. Project objectives are directed at evaluating the effects of this new rearing system on smolt-to-adult survival for Chinook salmon and steelhead.

2) Fish Health Monitoring and Evaluation Project: Goals of this project are to monitor and evaluate the health status of spring and fall Chinook salmon and summer steelhead juveniles reared at Umatilla Hatchery, and adult broodstock held and spawned at satellite facilities. A systematic fish health monitoring program is used to assess the effects that different rearing environments and strategies may have on fish propagated for the Umatilla Hatchery evaluation project. The fish health monitoring program currently emphasizes specific diseases and conditions thought to be critical for the Umatilla Hatchery program.
3) Umatilla Hatchery Satellite Facilities Operation and Maintenance: Goals of this project are to operate and maintain the satellite facilities used to implement hatchery operations in the Umatilla Basin and include: 1) Increase adult salmon and steelhead survival and homing to the Umatilla River basin by acclimating juveniles prior to release, 2) Provide summer steelhead as well as chinook eggs to Umatilla and other hatcheries for incubation, rearing, and later releases back into the Umatilla River basin, and 3) Participate in planning and review process for new satellite facilities.

4) Evaluate Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Water Diversions on the Umatilla River: Passage evaluation studies from 1991 – 1995 followed construction of new bypass and screening facilities at irrigation canals and new adult fish ladders at dams on the Umatilla River. Mark-release-recapture studies with juvenile fish evaluated injury and travel time through the facilities, and leakage at canal screens. Measurements of velocity at canal screens assessed whether NMFS/ODFW screening entrainment criteria was met for safe juvenile passage. Studies with adult salmonids evaluated upstream migration and homing needs of these fish in the basin. Radio telemetry was later used to determine the ability of adult salmonids to successfully negotiate the major diversions on the river. This work was a cooperative effort between ODFW (juvenile passage) and CTUIR (adult passage).

5) Lower Umatilla River Outmigration and Survival Evaluation Project: The goals of this project are to evaluate outmigration, estimate survival, and investigate factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River basin. Project objectives developed out of the need to enlarge the scope of evaluating the success of juvenile salmonid passage at passage facilities to the basin as a whole. Information on migration success and performance of different rearing and release strategies for salmonid species within the Umatilla River supplements the evaluation of specific hatchery practices at Umatilla Hatchery. Effects of mid-summer transport of juvenile fish have also been evaluated. Lower River monitoring augments our understanding of life history patterns of natural fish and the impacts of river operations on fish migrations.
6) Umatilla River Basin Passage Operations: The current Umatilla Passage Operations program was implemented to assist fish passage during periods of low river flow. The program goal is to maximize survival of adult and juvenile salmonids through the lower 30 miles of the Umatilla River. To meet this goal, primary responsibilities of the program include monitoring basin flow and passage conditions, daily operation and refinement of operating criteria for passage and trapping facilities, and oversight and coordination of flow enhancement.

7) Natural Production M&E: This project evaluates the natural production of salmon and steelhead in the Umatilla River Basin (Contor et al. 1996, 1997, and 1998). Natural production monitoring began in the Umatilla Basin during the fall of 1992, ten years after the hatchery program started with the construction of two juvenile acclimation facilities in 1982 and releases of hatchery fall Chinook in 1983. CTUIR and ODFW developed the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan to restore salmon to the basin (CTUIR 1984 and ODFW 1986). The plan was completed in 1990 and included monitoring and evaluation including this project which evaluates the implementation of the Umatilla River Basin Fisheries Restoration Plans with respect to natural production and tribal harvest.
10.6.2 Objectives of M&E projects

See Appendix D





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